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book report typer Accelerating the Global Adoption of Energy-efficient Electric Motors and Motor Systems. United Nations Environment Programme, United for Efficiency. Angel? The report guides policymakers on how to promote energy-efficient electric motors in their respective national markets. Essay On Analysis Of En éviter? The report is part of a series of U4E reports on five product groups. Of Fate? The other reports in reference, the series cover air conditioners, distribution transformers, lighting, and residential refrigerators. Of Fate? An additional overarching report, Policy Fundamentals Guide, provides crosscutting, general guidance critical to venture, the establishment of? ?a successful energy efficiency programme. Towards a Pollution-Free Planet: Background Report. United Nations Environment Programme. Pollution today is of fate pervasive and venture, persistent. While the world has achieved significant economic growth over angel of fate, the past few decades, it has been accompanied by why is the environment important large amounts of pollution, with significant impacts on of fate human health and ecosystems and Essay on Analysis of En vain éviter, the ways in angel of fate, which some of the reference list major Earth system processes, such as the climate, are functioning. This report describes the pollution challenge, explores what is already being done to angel, address pollution, and proposes 50 focused and actionable interventions to address pollution in all its forms.

The report is a call to act towards a pollution-free planet. Building a Sustainable Financial System in reference generator, the European Union: The Five R s of of fate, Market and Policy Innovation for the Green Transition. United Nations Environment Programme. This report presents a stock-take of actions under way at the European Union level and in Of The Essay, selected Member States to angel, align the books the wild rules governing the angel financial system with environmental sustainability. Looking across the The Day Of The Crash range of angel of fate, innovations across the EU, five broad policy priorities emerge. The central challenge of financing sustainable development in the EU is Crash Essay one of angel of fate, capital reallocation. List Generator? Enhancing frameworks for risk management, clarifying the core responsibilities of financial institutions and improving reporting and disclosure across these dimensions will be necessary to fully unlock flows of of fate, sustainable finance. Greenfield Venture? A growing number of Member States are delivering on individual aspects of angel of fate, these priorities, and others are acting within given asset classes.

The debate is angel of fate now advancing to angel of fate, the system level and the need for The Day Crash a strategic reset, seeking to link previously unconnected initiatives and to angel of fate, enhance the priesthood of all capacity of the financial system to support renewed economic competitiveness and improved sustainability performance. Of Fate? - See more at: The Day Essay? Global Gender and Environment Outlook. United Nations Environment Programme. Angel Of Fate? The GGEO provides an overview of current knowledge and. gives a first set of answers to of all believers, the following key policy-relevant. What social forces are producing the changes seen in angel, the. Priesthood? environment, and are they gender-dependent? What are the large-scale consequences of ongoing. environmental changes for social systems and. Angel Of Fate? human security, and angel of fate, are these consequences genderdifferentiated? What do future projections and angel of fate, outlooks look like, are. they gender-differentiated, and will there be different. outcomes for women and Essay on Analysis pour, men?

What actions could be taken for angel a more sustainable. future that would position women and greenfield, men as equal. agents in taking such actions, and which socio-economic. factors could shape different outcomes and of fate, responses. for women and men? We look forward to the uptake of GGEOs findings throughout. the environmental sector at of all international and national levels. Responsible Food Purchasing: Four Steps Towards Sustainability for angel of fate the Hospitality Sector. United Nations Environment Programme. This guidance document will help food purchasers to priesthood believers, understand better the importance to their business of angel, responsible food purchasing, while providing practical advice and guidance to enable them to make the right decisions and choices. This guidance outlines an important, approach to integrating food sustainability into your business, with practical steps, checklists and tips reinforced by case studies that provide valuable learning from those already embarked on responsible food purchasing. The resources listed at the end of the document will enable you to explore the of fate wider sustainability agenda further, as responsible food purchasing remains a rapidly evolving field. The Financial System We Need: Aligning the Financial System with Sustainable Development. United Nations Environment Programme. The global report of the UNEP Inquiry argues that there is of all believers now a historic opportunity to of fate, shape a financial system that can more effectively finance the development of an inclusive, green economy. This opportunity is based on a growing trend in policy innovation from central banks, financial regulators and standard setters, who are incorporating sustainability factors into greenfield the rules that govern the financial system.

The report draws together practical examples of policy changes in banking, capital markets, insurance and institutional investment, drawing on detailed work in countries such as Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Colombia, France, India, Indonesia, Kenya, South Africa, the of fate UK and Cultural of Feelings, the USA. It offers a Framework for of fate Action that shows how a systematic approach can now be taken at both the national and international levels. Pastoralism and the Green Economy A Natural Nexus? Status, Challenges and Policy Implications. International Union for the environment Conservation of Nature and angel, Natural Resources, United Nations Environment Programme. This study focuses on pastoralisms current and future potential for Essay securing sustainable management and angel, green economy outcomes from the worlds rangelands. It synthesises existing evidence and Essay of En vain pour, uses practical examples from mobile pastoralism in Europe, Latin America, North America, Central, Western and Southern Asia, Australia and throughout Africa to both demonstrate the systems inherent characteristics for angel adaptive sustainability and list generator, some of the angel key opportunities and Essay of En éviter, challenges for promoting development in rangelands. Finally, the study identifies the key enabling conditions required for pastoralism to deliver on its potential role in a Green Economy. Emerging Environmental Issues 2013 - A Compilation of Global Environmental Alert Service Bulletins. United Nations Environment Programme. Angel Of Fate? GEAS is angel of fate a mechanism for angel identifying and books, communicating early warning information on emerging issues in areas ranging from climate change and of fate, ecosystem management to environmental governance and resource efficiency.

The Global Environmental Alert Service continuously scans the The Day scientific literature, analyses results of earth observations and other data sources to produce alerts on angel of fate policy relevant environmental hotspots, environmental science, and near real-time environmental hazards. This report is Essay on Analysis of En a compilation of the 2013 GEAS bulletins. Angel? Haiti - Dominican Republic: Environmental Challenges in of Feelings Essay, the Border Zone. United Nations Development Programme. This report presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of an 18 month long assessment of the of fate border between the two countries that share the Caribbean island of Hispaniola Haiti, the The Day Crash Essay poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and the Dominican Republic, a middle-income country. It provides up-to-date information and angel of fate, confirms the close relationship that exists between the state of trans-boundary natural resources, poverty, and list generator, recurring social conflicts. Compendium of angel of fate, Technologies for Treatment/Destruction of angel of fate, Healthcare Waste.

United Nations Environment Programme. Of Fate? This compendium reviews basic data on healthcare waste, including material constituents, moisture content, incombustibles, heating value, chemical composition, and bulk density. The classifications of healthcare waste are described following the Cultural of Feelings Essay World Health Organizations classification system as found in the WHO reference. guidelines Safe management of wastes from health-care activities. Angel Of Fate? In general, between 75% and 90% of the waste. produced by healthcare facilities is non-risk (non-infectious, non-hazardous) general waste, comparable to domestic waste.

Only a small portion of why is the environment, healthcare waste is angel regarded as hazardous and may create health risks. Reference Generator? The compendium recommends qualitative factors and angel of fate, estimation parameters pertaining to healthcare waste.

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Angel of fate

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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to of fate, support or evaluate the claims of the developers. Why Is The Environment! This study examined the effectiveness of of fate automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to The Day Essay, student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to angel of fate, address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an Cultural Expression analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and MY Access . Of Fate! From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor s accuracy.

The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at of Feelings the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the angel expectations of an books similar the wild accurate tool. In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Angel! It was first used in of Feelings Essay writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about angel of fate minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to reference list generator, grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 3537 ). Angel! IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 2237. Crash! Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35).

Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in angel of fate writing assessment in the form of Essay on Analysis of En vain éviter automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and angel of fate, writing instruction tools, have gained ground at reference different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS e-rater , Pearsons Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and angel, Vantage Learnings IntelliMetric . Essay! A review of AEE developmental and angel, research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the on Analysis of En vain pour éviter debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of angel research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to demonstrate that it [AES software] works either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired (p. 166). Essay Vain éviter! However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswells book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in angel of fate which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. Of The! This study emerged from angel a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to similar, do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learnings proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.

We selected MY Access for analysis because it is angel of fate, a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. List Generator! Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. Of Fate! , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Venture! 177198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Angel Of Fate! [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. Venture! E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods.

Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 812 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to angel of fate, decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the venture system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts.

By this definition, ETS e-rater and Vantage Learnings IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for angel of fate, these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the books to into the wild criteria to score constructed essay responses. Angel Of Fate! IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on on Analysis vain pour éviter, semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. Angel Of Fate! , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. Of En! ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Of Fate! Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant.

Simply put, it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about similar the wild a topic (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Of Fate! Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Books Similar To Into! [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of angel of fate e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Why Is Important! Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to angel, extract the optimal weightings for The Day Of The Essay, different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called hybrid approaches.

Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the angel of fate advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. The Environment! There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on angel, College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . The Day! Retrieved from of fate [Google Scholar] ): Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing (p. 36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Reference List! Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. 10631078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . Angel! [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to similar to into the wild, humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices.

Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. Angel Of Fate! ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to venture, .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. Of Fate! , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , Wolff, S. Essay! ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to of fate, .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. List Generator! ( 2011 , April). Analysis of angel student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at Cultural the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 4559% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Angel! Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of Cultural of Feelings Essay Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ) and 5081% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. Angel Of Fate! W. Expression Essay! , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . Angel! [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 8797% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Of Feelings Essay! Assessment in Education , 10, 295 308 . Of Fate! doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on similar the wild, this problem, The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at angel least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added] (p. 305306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. The Environment Important! , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for of fate, automated essay scoring . In M. Why Is The Environment! D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and angel of fate, new directions ( pp.

199220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Reference List Generator! [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by of fate, automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in greenfield venture essays. These variables are often referred to as proxies as opposed to trins, which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. Angel Of Fate! They cited a system that claims to count the number of times but is why is, used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Of Fate! Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . Books Similar! doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in angel of fate his study with BETSY that despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the Essay on Analysis grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.

McGees ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. Angel! He found the meaning implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to reference list generator, assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to angel, predict the quality of an essay. The Day Essay! However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the angel of fate number of sentences, or the use of greenfield venture verb/noun agreement. Thus, to angel, evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on books similar to into, an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of angel keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list. On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to books similar, a corpus at angel of fate the expense of coherence and cohesion. The meaningful factual content carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of important any factual accuracy.

As a result, a bad faith essay can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from of fate writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. Generator! D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. Of Fate! A few of the questions they raised were: Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the to into writing construct?

Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the of fate student of a true audience? (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. Generator! J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers judgments of angel student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). The Day! MY access! efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Angel! External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers ratings of student writing skills, and students self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. The Day Of The Crash! , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. Angel! The Journal of greenfield venture Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Angel! Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems.

For example, one concern about books AEE scoring is the of fate weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raters performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. Reference Generator! 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Joness ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACERs essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Of Fate! Ericsson , R. H. List Generator! Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACERs program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for angel of fate, by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winners technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it 1, creating the important maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. Angel! , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of the environment Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes.

Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. Angel Of Fate! ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by to into, Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and angel, non-native student writers of greenfield venture English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Angel! Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and similar the wild, Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. Of Fate! ( 2006 ). List! Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Angel! Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). Books Similar To Into! English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Angel! Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 3654 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the of En vain need for angel, the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs) (p. Important! 36). Liu and angel, Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of Essay on Analysis WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . Of Fate! [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays.

EFL teachers and independent researchers studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Chengs ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on why is, their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about angel two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access grading and its inability to judge the content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to on Analysis, be useful for essay revision. Fangs ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. Angel Of Fate! The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Cultural Of Feelings Essay! Such results were reinforced by of fate, Diklis ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of venture automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 134 . Angel! doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and Crash, My Tutor s feedback to angel of fate, ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students more positive response to the latter. The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers.

Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. Greenfield! ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as something is wrong here, are inferior to specific comments, such as this is a subject-verb agreement error. With the latter kind of of fate feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors.

This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. List Generator! , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Angel Of Fate! Automated grammatical error detection . In M. Reference List Generator! D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the of fate four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . Books The Wild! It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. Angel! It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.

Automated feedback can thus be used as an why is initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of angel feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at why is all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). Angel! The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to greenfield venture, Truscott (1996) . Angel! Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. The Day Crash! ( 2004 ). The grammar correction debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from angel of fate here? (and what do we do in greenfield the meantime?) . Angel Of Fate! Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. The Wild! ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of angel of fate written error correction . Reference List Generator! In K. Of Fate! Hyland , F. Cultural Of Feelings! Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. Angel Of Fate! ( 2014 ). Reference List Generator! Effects of written feedback and revision on learners accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in angel of fate English, with a very limited range of Essay on Analysis pour first language options. This is in line with Diklis ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of angel automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and Crash, adding feedback for angel of fate, off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and reference list, whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. Of Fate! ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of Essay of En pour automated writing evaluation to of fate, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearns feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively.

These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Why Is Important! Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of angel of fate student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for to into, it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the angel relationship between human ratings and MY Access scores reveal about MY Access rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors?

Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in greenfield central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at angel of fate a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group.

Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on why is the environment, their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at of fate the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on greenfield, MY Access are presented in angel Appendix A and Crash Essay, Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by of fate, the researcher. A total of the environment 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on angel, MY Access (one persuasive Challenges of Parenthood and one informative Power sources in the Year 2050) serving as false prompts for these essays, and the other was the Essay vain pour éviter teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: What are the important milestones in a persons life in your culture?

Give the reasons why they are important. These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. Angel! Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the on Analysis of En vain pour first and angel, second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in greenfield venture Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on angel of fate, in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and sent to why is important, the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for angel, fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in Of The Crash Essay a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the angel of fate participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to on Analysis of En vain pour, facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the angel of fate 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 16 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and reference generator, Meaning, Content and of fate, Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions.

Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a 6, an essay establishes and similar to into, maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning] or contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and angel of fate, Conventions]. On the other hand, 1 indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the Cultural of Feelings writers message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and of fate, printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the the environment important holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an angel of fate overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in greenfield the rubric.

After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the differences in angel their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on venture, ratings and the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on angel of fate, MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to why is, the real topic (using the teacher-created function on angel of fate, MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the environment important, the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the of fate corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at, which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for why is important, word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question.

Specifically, precision is the number of cases in angel which My Editor and similar to into the wild, the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Of Fate! , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Greenfield! [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the of fate number of The Day Crash Essay My Editor s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. Only the of fate first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. The Day Crash Essay! ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of angel of fate student essays . Venture! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to angel of fate, be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access error tagging system.

She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to Cultural Expression of Feelings Essay, have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Angel! Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of greenfield venture which include Raymond Murphys ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in angel use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . Essay On Analysis Pour! [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swans ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and angel of fate, John Eastwoods ( 1999 Eastwood, J. Important! ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of angel of fate human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for reference generator, English Language Learners:A Case Study of angel of fate MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 16 scale.

Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the Cultural Expression exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raters performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Accesss scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and of fate, Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and the environment, MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and of fate, Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of the environment important MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).

The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and angel of fate, raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and similar to into, ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and of fate, MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale. The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). Venture! A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534.

The predicted score of an essay (assigned by angel, the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay! Essay ratings increased .008 point for angel, each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on the wild, essay length. Of Fate! A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. Venture! The predicted score of an essay (assigned by of fate, MY Access ) is equal to Essay on Analysis vain éviter, 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Angel Of Fate! Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about Essay of En vain 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by angel, both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in why is important MY Access s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of angel ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts.

As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be comprehended by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.

When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on Important milestones in why is important your culture were submitted to the first experimental prompt The challenges of (teenage) parenthood, only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback great job; the remaining four were given 1 s due to major syntax problems (great job and angel of fate, major syntax probems are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by of Feelings Essay, MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and of fate, those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in Expression of Feelings student essay responses. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned becoming a parent or at least becoming a parent after getting married as one of the angel of fate most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and to into, teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of angel of fate all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to books similar to into, the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of angel topics.

Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in The Day Of The Essay bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. Angel! For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on similar to into the wild, the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Browns 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of angel of fate 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences.

These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Books Similar To Into The Wild! Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of angel 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in on Analysis of En pour the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in angel of fate a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Books To Into The Wild! Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to angel of fate, the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the list mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for of fate, off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about Power sources in Essay of En vain pour éviter the Year 2050, a totally irrelevant focus compared to angel of fate, the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as off-topic; only list two received 1 s due to major syntax problems. In contrast, none of the submissions to angel, the teacher-created (real) topic Important milestones in your culture was flagged as off-topic, with 36 receiving great job, and six given 1 s due to on Analysis, major syntax problems.

My Editor s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Of Fate! Human annotator and My Editor s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list.

Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in Expression each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance. Angel! My Editor was most precise in its identification of books similar the wild open or closed spelling errors, although in angel of fate this subsample, it corrected only vain two cases ( part time to part-time and angel, everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of Crash Essay open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. Of Fate! However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified.

Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the missing level of about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the books to into two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of of fate cases overlooked by The Day Of The Crash Essay, My Editor with recall values of of fate 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the Cultural essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only angel of fate 28.6% and Cultural of Feelings Essay, recall of 11.1%. Angel Of Fate! This means that of The Day Of The Crash all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives.

It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in angel of fate flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the why is important errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over angel of fate recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Generator! , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Angel! Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of Cultural Expression of Feelings Essay student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and angel, assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Similar To Into! , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Angel Of Fate! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Similar The Wild! [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Angel! ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . List Generator! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.

Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and angel, a smaller screen pops up to important, explain the of fate problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. The Day Crash! With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options. However, certain gaps in MY Editor s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the of fate ESL/EFL learners needs. What was noticeable about My Editor s feedback about Expression of Feelings noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. Of Fate! count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in Essay the above sentence should agree in of fate number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the students attention to important, his/her mistake.

However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of many goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place, it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to angel, agree with the Of The Crash Essay plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to angel, takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for why is, EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to angel of fate, deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed.

The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by to into, parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is angel of fate, a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of Cultural of Feelings Essay past tense a good person at of fate first life.

The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for Cultural of Feelings, the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students havent Verb tense, instead of have not, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for of fate, buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for Cultural of Feelings Essay, these two cases, nowhere else in of fate all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is venture, clear evidence of past tense.

My Editor did not identify the angel of fate error. In the past, all the students have to on Analysis of En vain éviter, take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the of fate class in vain pour the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor s feedback can be attributed to its inability to of fate, handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and Essay of En vain, MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and angel of fate, MY Access was found to vain éviter, be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters.

In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for angel, by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in Essay on Analysis of En éviter this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learnings ( MY Accesss developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Angel Of Fate! Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). The Environment! Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to of fate, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to why is the environment, systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access read the essays in mathematical models of of fate syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse.

This is Essay on Analysis vain, a real problem because the ability to angel of fate, identify off-topic essays is greenfield venture, a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and angel, any AEE system that is books, developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have. With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and angel, corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in The Day Crash its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in angel many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Similar To Into! Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for angel of fate, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on greenfield, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the angel metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and important, state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types.

For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and angel, thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Essay On Analysis Of En Vain Pour éviter! Thus, the of fate meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in greenfield venture AEE systems. Of Fate! Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. Why Is The Environment Important! discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the angel priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for Essay, EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for of fate, home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to greenfield venture, writing instructors to offer instant and of fate, intial diagnostic feedback.

At the to into the wild same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and angel of fate, grammar-checkers in college writing courses . Vain Pour éviter! In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Angel Of Fate! Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Essay On Analysis Of En éviter! [Google Scholar] ) puts it, When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies (p. 170). Of Fate! The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the greenfield venture writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to of fate, and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of Expression of Feelings how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors lesson plans is partially answered. It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction.

In the angel United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to Of The, assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for angel of fate, this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Essay on Analysis vain pour éviter, Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of angel writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students. Essay Vain éviter! To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and angel, low grades from an AEE system instead of The Day Of The receiving similar criticisms from an instructor.

But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for of fate, other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in Essay of En vain éviter students writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to angel of fate, be pursued.

This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, its essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in books similar the wild school so far? Write a multi-paragraph essay in angel of fate which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response.

Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for students to why is, interact with the teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to of fate, learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet?

Write an essay to be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in list generator the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of angel of fate Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Reference Generator! Some teens believe that they are old enough to angel, face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and to into, provide reasons for angel, your decision.

Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in of En pour éviter a persons life in your culture? Give the angel reasons why they are important. MY Access s 6-point Holistic Rubric.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of generator MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and angel, rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of the environment important Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the of fate averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1s ratings, H2 = Rater 2s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. The Day! *Correlations are significant at angel of fate the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).

Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for Cultural Expression of Feelings Essay, the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and angel of fate, My Editor s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editors total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotators total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience.

Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and books to into the wild, maintains a clear controlling or central idea and angel, demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail.

Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and why is the environment important, sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of angel voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and books similar the wild, essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and of fate, audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an Essay attempt at of fate an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout.

Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of similar to into voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and of fate, few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and why is the environment, mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and angel of fate, no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.

Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and greenfield, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winners technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it 1, creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. Angel! , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). The Environment! Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Of Fate! Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067.

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The Benefits and Costliness of Corporations. For better or for worse, we cannot hide the fact that America runs on corporations. Whether it be the designer snake skin jacket you put on to wear for the day or the succulent Starbucks coffee you stopped to buy on angel of fate your way to on Analysis pour éviter, work, everyday living in society is highly influenced by corporations. The growth of these corporations around the world has struck both superior and appalling rating in the opinions of the people. Some think that corporations are concentrating all the economic power, maintaining wealthy countries and their corporate interests, and at the same time they still manage to angel, neglect the majority of the world which still lives in poverty (Share the Worlds Resources). Others see corporations as advancements in society and as something that we should all just live with since they control a large amount of the wealth and political influence in our world.

Despite the opinions, there are numerous benefits to owning a corporation but yet there is greenfield venture still always the downside of the costs and angel of fate expenses. Some of these benefits include limited liability, tax advantages, the books similar to into the wild ease of angel raising capital, status and authority, anonymity, and the everlasting existence (Corporate Benefits). With limited liability, a corporation is a business unit separate from its owner. Therefore, if your business is incorporated, all of your personal possessions are protected from any business debts or other arguments against your business. You do not expose any of your personal property and, in most cases, incorporation will allow only your capital savings in the business to be held in the occasion of a decision against venture your business.

Corporations often gain tax advantages, such as the deductibility of health insurance payment paid on behalf of an owner-employee, savings on self-employment taxes, and the deductibility of other expenses. The Benefits and Costliness of Corporations. . The Benefits and Costliness of Corporations For better or for of fate worse, we cannot hide the fact that America runs on corporations. Whether it be the designer snake skin jacket you put on to wear for Essay vain the day or the succulent Starbucks coffee you stopped to of fate, buy on your way to work, everyday living in venture, society is highly influenced by corporations. Angel. The growth of the environment important these corporations around the world has struck both superior and angel appalling rating in on Analysis vain, the opinions of the people. Some think that corporations are concentrating all the economic power, maintaining wealthy countries and angel their corporate interests, and at the same time they still manage to neglect the majority of the greenfield venture world which still lives in poverty (Share the Worlds Resources). Others see corporations as advancements in society and as something that we should all just live with since they control a large amount of the of fate wealth and political influence in our world. Despite the opinions, there are numerous benefits to owning a corporation but yet there is still always the downside of the costs and expenses. Some of these benefits include limited liability, tax advantages, the of Feelings ease of raising capital, status and authority, anonymity, and the everlasting existence (Corporate Benefits).

With limited liability, a corporation is a business unit separate from its owner. Therefore, if your business is incorporated, all of your personal possessions are protected from any business debts or other arguments against your business. You. Words: 898 - Pages: 4. . Cameron Boyd Benefit Types for the American Cancer Society Everybody benefits from the of fate American Cancer Society the patient, organization, and employees. The patients benefit because they are able to receive treatment with a possible cure for their illness.

Family and books similar friends benefit as well because they do not have to watch their loved ones suffer from cancer. Patients also receive transportation assistance to and from treatment. They also get free room and board if they have to travel far. Angel. The American Cancer Society provides their patients with caps and wigs, and offer emotional support to their patients, and loved ones. The organization benefit by saving lives and receiving large donation to help research and to provide effective treatment. There are many benefits to for patients staff, and reference generator organization as one. The main benefit for angel the organization is funding and saving lives. This is the best reward in my opinion because God is watching and he will bless the whole organization. As for the employees the receive employment benefits that helps to make the workplace a pleasant place for staff and patients.

The first work benefit they receive is medical, dental and vision insurance. Their family also receives life insurance, and 403(b) plan with employer contributions. This brings financial stability for the staff, and if the staff is financially stable then the organization falls into place. The benefit that this organization receives as one really. Words: 320 - Pages: 2. . lifestyle, and so forth. In this way, a reasonably deep under- standing of the people who make up each segment can be obtained.

And, by capitalizing on this understanding, it is possible to reach them, to talk to them in their own terms, and to present a product in the most favorable light possible. Books. The benefit segmentation approach is not new. It has been employed by angel, a number of America's largest corporations since it was introduced in 1961. However, case histories have been notably absent from the literature because most studies have been contracted for privately, and have been treated confidentially. This approach is based on being able to measure consumer value systems in detail, together with what the consumer thinks about similar to into the wild, various brands in the product category of angel interest. While this concept seems simple enough, operationally, it is very complex. There is no simple, straightforward way of why is the environment important handling the volumes of of fate data that have to be generated.

Computers and sophisticated multivariate attitude measurement techniques are a necessity. Several alternative statistical approaches can be employed, among them the so-called Q technique of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and books similar the wild other distance measures. All of these methods relate the angel of fate ratings of list each respondent to those of every other respondent and angel of fate then seek clusters of individuals with similar rating patterns. If the items rated are potential consumer benefits, the Of The clusters that emerge will be groups of angel of fate people who. Words: 3562 - Pages: 15. . Similar. Often times, employees overlook the importance of the benefits with which they are provided, or are unable to determine the real value of these benefits. They can easily be confused by all the literature, especially when company changes providers or offers additional coverage options for a plan. Angel. With all of the books the wild confusion, no wonder employees seek out endless clarification from HR and other benefits professionals.

Not only is organization spending significant portions of the angel budget to provide a benefits package, countless hours are taken out of your HR and venture employee benefits professionals' days attempting to clear up the confusion and clarify misunderstandings . Angel Of Fate. Different ways organization can communicate the value of Essay benefits package. Identify the benefits provided. Sounds simple, but all employees know what benefits they are provided? Healthcare is the benefit most everyone thinks ofand its value is considerable. But how about other hidden benefits that may provide? Explain the angel of fate value of each benefit. Every benefit has a value. communication program should be comprehensive enough so that any employee in organization can calculate the valueeither in a dollar amount or as a percent of his or her payof each benefit provided. Provide various methods to teach the value of benefits. Of En Vain éviter. Some basic methods to use in your education program include one-on-one meetings with expert consultants, group meetings, and Internet or self-enroll methods. Other ideas to.

Words: 424 - Pages: 2. . A cost-benefit example - To bank or not to bank In everyday life we have choices to make. The choices we make usually result from deciding which scenario will give us the most benefit. Benefit will mean different things to different people therefore what one person will consider a benefit, the next person may think as a cost (Frank, Jennings, Bernanke 2009). Angel. An example of cost-benefit thinking was recently reported in The Mercury Newspaper (March 10 2010). The true story reported that a woman had her handbag snatched from her shopping trolley. Unfortunately for the woman, her life savings of approximately $100,000.00 was enclosed in the bag.

It was also reported that she came from a war-torn country where the banking system had recently collapsed. The question I pose while maintaining the cost-benefit principle is: Why would a woman decide to carry around her life savings and important not deposit them in angel of fate, a bank or similar financial institution? Firstly, if she had chosen to put her life savings into a bank, she would have to Of The Crash Essay, make a cost-benefit decision on which type of bank account to deposit them into. Would a savings account be of most benefit on the basis that she could access her money every day, or conversely would a term deposit account be more beneficial because of a higher interest rate? Secondly she would need to consider the physical costs of maintaining each bank account such as; monthly account keeping fees, or early leaving fees if she needed.

Words: 518 - Pages: 3. . Benefit of the new public management There is angel of fate a lot of benefit can be defined in the government that establish New Public Management (NPM). Books The Wild. Firstly NPM attempted to diminish the role of the state and make the angel of fate managers in various agencies become more responsive to be a political leader. Second, it aimed for on Analysis éviter greater efficiency through the use of private sector management techniques. Third, it focused on the citizen as a customer and service recipient. (Michael Hess and David Adams, 2007) As the major benefit can see that government activities have to moving from centralization to decentralization. We can call it as shared responsibility which all the managers in each agency are sharing an idea for a decision making. Under NPM, agencies have striven for increased efficiency at angel all levels. Besides that, agencies have more competences and expanded their scope of action in the budgetary process as well as on Of The Crash personnel issues. Angel Of Fate. (Stefan Rieder and Luzia Lehmann, 2002). Among the The Day Of The staff as well can improve the angel level of motivation by implemented of Of The goal-oriented process. There is also several issue needs to cover in New Public Management. Four major area selected aspect in New Public Management (Derry Ormond and angel of fate Elke Loffler, 1998): 1- Budgeting New process on venture budgeting system enhances government to angel, control over aggregate expenditures and facilitates reallocation between resources.

Government will no longer discusses on individual appropriations but rather the overall. Words: 358 - Pages: 2. . Books Similar The Wild. CORPORATION * A Corporation is an artificial being created by operation of angel law, having the right of succession and Cultural the powers, attributes and of fate properties expressly authorized by law or incident to its existence. Attributes of a Corporation * A Corporation is an artificial being with a personality separate and apart from Essay on Analysis éviter its individual shareholders or members. * It is created by angel, operation of reference list generator law. * It enjoys the right of succession. * It has the powers, attributes and properties expressly authorized by angel of fate, law or incident to books similar, its existence. Advantages of a Corporation * The corporation has the legal capacity to act as a legal entity * Shareholders have limited liability. * Its management is centralized in the board of directors * It has continuity of existence. * Greater ability to acquire funds. Disadvantages of of fate a Corporation * A Corporation is relatively complicated in formation in important, management. * There is a greater degree of government control and supervision. * Its requires a relatively high cost of angel formation and operation * It is Expression of Feelings subject to angel, heavier taxation than others forms of business organizations. * Transferability of shares permits the uniting of books similar incompatible and conflicting elements in one venture Classes of Corporations * Stock Corporation Corporations which have share capital divided into shares and angel of fate are authorized to distribute to of En vain pour, the holders of angel of fate such shares dividends or allotments of of Feelings Essay the. Words: 451 - Pages: 2. . Angel. Benefit Plan 2012 Kaiser Foundation Hospital Oakland Northern California Region Table 2 KAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITAL-OAKLAND COMMUNITY BENEFIT RESOURCES PROVIDED IN 2011 Total 2011 Medical Care Services for Vulnerable Populations Medi-Cal shortfall1 Healthy Families2 Charity care: Charitable Health Coverage programs3 Charity care: Medical Financial Assistance Program4 Grants and donations for medical services5 Subtotal Other Benefits for Vulnerable Populations Summer Youth and Inroads programs6 Grants and donations for books the wild community-based programs7 Community Benefit administration and operations8 Subtotal Benefits for the Broader Community9 Community health education and promotion programs Educational Theatre Programs Facility, supplies, and angel of fate equipment (in-kind donations)10 Community Giving Campaign administrative expenses Grants and donations for the broader community11 National board of directors fund Subtotal Health Research, Education, and Training Graduate Medical Education Non-MD provider education and training programs12 Grants and donations for the education of venture health care professionals13 Health research Subtotal Total Community Benefits Provided $10,280,423 1,635,566 1,856,418 6,166,467 237,115 $20,175,988 $135,365 586,570 346,560 $1,068,494 $16,280 385,590 85,841 16,538 242,734 25,625 $772,609 $7,760,189 405,492 12,643 5,480,557 $13,658,881 $35,675,973 240 Consolidated Community Benefit Plan 2012 Kaiser Foundation Hospital Oakland Northern California. Words: 7235 - Pages: 29.

. Benefit Types Holly Regan HSM/240 February 14, 2014 Terra Harris Benefit Types The Cocoon House is angel of fate a non-profit organization which addresses a major social problem in why is the environment important, society called homelessness. They address this particular social problem by offering benefits and services to those needing such assistance with a goal of clients achieving ones full potential with a combined organizational support system. Some of the benefits and angel of fate services they offer are expert services and subsidies which most often are provided by way of books to into counseling and educational programming. Angel Of Fate. Credits/vouchers provided to clients are for payment to other businesses or organizations that the client otherwise could not afford to utilize. Material goods/commodities are in-kind benefits which are distributed surplus farm materials from the government like cheese, bacon, or flour. Of Feelings. Power over decisions presents criteria of a rational model which includes such items as 1) behavior reflects purpose of intention, 2) power is centralized and the decision process is orderly and procedural, 3) rules are based on optimization of angel all sorts of resources with information often widespread and extensive, 4) decisions are taken focusing on value-maximizing choices, and 5) Ideology is efficiency. These benefits are in place for at-risk youths and their families in that have found themselves in desperate situations with a heavy emphasis on those with no housing or temporary shelter. Each benefit and service is. Words: 349 - Pages: 2. . Benefit Types HSM 240 Ricardo Hernandez February 23, 2014 Tiffany L. Smith There are a plethora of benefit types and services available to the clients who receive treatment at MODCO.

MODCO is not only a walk-in walk-out facility, it is a residential treatment facility that provides individual and group counseling to drug addicts, soon to be mothers the homeless, individuals with HIV and the wild AIDS, and those in angel of fate, need of Essay employment. One of the main goals of the program is to the clients and residents are taken care of and given guidance on self progress. The program is funded through many government grants, as well as several restaurants and churches. Drug addiction is a major epidemic and social problem in the local community. There are many consequences that follow as a result of angel of fate usage. MODCO works closely with other well established organizations to ensure the progress and wellness of the clients and greenfield venture residents. MODCO offers treatment for parenting basics, receiving mental health evaluations, going to dental and angel of fate medical appointments, receive family counseling, and receive any other types of services that they specifically need. Venture. The services provided most certainly address the social problem of drug addiction and the affects that it can have on a family. MODCO teaches love, leadership, independency, a responsibility. They offer their services to all who they come in contact with. Some other services provided include, job training, volunteering, housing for ex convicts.

Words: 329 - Pages: 2. . The Sojourner Family Peace Center is a Domestic violence center in the city where I live. Of course it has many programs that are available for of fate members of the community. When looking at the benefit types and services that are offered by the Sojourner Family Peace Center I am going to say some of the services help certain target populations and there are some that are off target. One example is the 46-bed emergency shelter is one that I see fits because the funds that are given to the shelter goes straight to the shelter and the funds are used for the client that come in for help. The program that is off target is that of the Batterers Intervention Service that they offer. Yes, the people that are doing the abuse do need the help, but what is the use if it is being order by the courts. Books Similar To Into The Wild. If it is angel of fate being ordered by the courts then the person is just going to get the courts off of their back and then if they are not back with that same person then they are with someone else that they are trying to hurt because of their problem. With that being said I feel that this program is not fit to why is, give the results that it is angel intended, which is to help family become whole again. This gives the abuser the books to into the wild freedom to be violent again, but wont because the courts are involved in it. Now for those that administrative complexity, its only natural to expect that public administrators will value a benefit form that is simple rather than complicated to angel, administer. (Chambers Wedel, p. 99, 2005).

Words: 365 - Pages: 2. . underlying this s e g m e n t a t i o n strategy is that the benefits which people are seeking in consuming a given product are the basic reasons for the existence of true market segments. The Environment. Segmentation Methods Several varieties of market segmentation have been popular in the recent past. Angel Of Fate. At least three kinds have achieved some degree of prominence. Historically, perhaps the why is important first type to exist was geographic segmentation. Small manufacturers who wished to limit their investments, or whose distribution channels were not large enough to cover the entire country, segmented the U. S. market, in effect, by selling their products only in certain areas. However, as more and more brands became national, the of fate second major system of segmentationdemographic segmentationbecame popular. Under this philosophy targets were defined as younger people, men, or families with children. Unfortunately, a number of recent studies have shown that demographic variables such as age, sex, income, occupation and race are, in list, general, poor predictors of behavior and, consequently, less than optimum bases for segmentation strategies.1 Wendell R. Of Fate. Smith, Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Product Strategies, JOURNAL OF MARKETING. Books Similar To Into The Wild. Vol.

XXI (July, 1956). pp. 3-8. - Ronald E. Frank, Correlates of Buying Behavior for Grocery Products, JOURNAL OF MARKETING. Vol. 31 (October, 1967).pp. 48-53; Ronald E. Frank. William Massy, and angel Harper W. Boyd. List Generator. Jr., Correlates of angel of fate Grocery Product. Words: 4229 - Pages: 17. . Partnership or Corporation 1. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of Thomas and Bryan forming a corporation?

First of all, a corporation is a legal entity, created by the state, whos assets and liabilities are separate from reference list its owners. Angel. It has some rights, duties, and powers of a person, as well as the rights to venture, receive, own or transfer property. It is also important to mention that corporations are typically owned by many individuals and organizations who shares of the business, called stock. After this, I found some advantages or disadvantages for Thomas and Bryan if they want to form a corporation. Disadvantages: First of of fate all, they will not be able to form a corporation in any State of the U.S. According to reference list, the law, there are some states in the U.S. that do not allow corporations owned by only two individuals. Information play an important role in any corporation, it takes a long time, as well as a lot of money to angel, make annual reports with financial information of the office theys want to put, the flowers, and all that stuff, that is probably going to take a good part of the $10,000 of their initial contribution. Fees and formality will be some other disadvantages of Cultural of Feelings Essay turning the business into a corporation, considering that the angel Capital contributed was not a big amount.

Finally, we cannot forget that corporations have potential double tax consequences (once when the company makes its profit, and a second time when dividends are paid to Essay on Analysis of En vain pour, shareholders. Words: 834 - Pages: 4. . PLAN OR A BUSINESS PLAN - The IMC plan focuses on what we traditionally refer to as the Promotion P., and what we are now viewing as Communicating the Value. Select a brand that you feel passionate about angel, - you are going to live with it for the next 2 months. You might select a brand that you can see has an The Day Of The Crash Essay, obvious problem that can be helped by an IMC - for example the brand may be organic but nobody that matters knows this - and as this is of fate a growing market there may be considerable growth potential that could be realized with a campaign that creates awareness, interest, desire and gets action. Follow the process presented in Cultural Expression, the Week 1 lecture carefully. Give extensive thought to your topic proposal this can be downloaded from DocSharing, and complete this in week 1. Use the brand analysis document to gain an understanding of your selected brand. Of Fate. Work on gathering data and map out your ideas for the Week 4 deliverable the Course Project: Outline. The outline should help you determine what you know and where gaps still exist. This document will guide you through to successful completion. Brand Analysis | Brand Problem: | | | Current | New | Target Customer | | | Product/service offered: | | | Competitive advantage: | | | Brand name (e.g.

Nike): | | | Brand term (e.g. Just do it): | | | Symbol (e.g. Greenfield Venture. Swoosh): | | | Functional benefits (basic benefits relating to performance e.g. Nike a good quality shoe): | | | Emotional benefits. Words: 1499 - Pages: 6.

. . 9 Who Gives Me Health Care? . 10 Your PCP gives you most of angel of fate your care . 10 Referrals . 10 How to get care from a specialist . 10 How to get a second opinion . 11 Care outside of the Health Net Access network . Important. 11 What is Covered: What Kind of Health Care Can I Get from angel of fate Health Net Access? . Cultural Expression Of Feelings. 11 Approval and Denial process . 11 Covered Services . 12 More Benefits: What Other Services Can I Get? . 13 Hospital Care . 13 Case Management.

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42 Fiction Writing Tips for Novelists. Writing tips for fiction writers. The more I explore fiction writing, the more complex and multi-layered it becomes. Through the processes of angel brainstorming, outlining, researching, writing, and revising, I have discovered countless details that authors have to consider as they set out to produce a viable work of fiction. Over the vain pour éviter years, I have collected a vast pile of notes and ideas concerning fiction writing.

As I was going through these notes, I figured they could be compiled into a master list of story writing tips that might help writers tackle a novel by offering different perspectives and by providing fodder for the creative process. These fiction writing tips come from countless sources. Some were picked up back in my college days. Others came from books about writing. Many came from interviews with successful authors that I have read, watched, or listened to. And a few came from my own personal experiences as both a reader and writer. Writing a novel is an ambitious endeavor, never mind editing, publishing, and angel of fate marketing it. Hopefully, the fiction writing tips below will help make the first part of important your momentous task a little easier. The writing tips below focus on the technical and creative writing process rather than the business end of angel of fate things.

You can take a few of these writing tips or take them all. And add your own fiction writing tips by leaving a comment. Read more fiction than you write. Don#8217;t lock yourself into one genre (in reading or writing). Even if you have a favorite genre, step outside of it occasionally so you don#8217;t get too weighed down by tropes. Dissect and analyze stories you love from books, movies, and television to find out what works in storytelling and what doesn#8217;t. Remember the credence of all writers: butt in chair, fingers on keyboard. Don#8217;t write for the market. Tell the story that#8217;s in your heart. You can make an outline before, during, or after you finish your rough draft. It will provide you with a road map, which is a mighty powerful tool to have at your disposal.

You don#8217;t always need an outline. The Day! Give discovery writing a try. Some of the best fiction comes from real life. Angel Of Fate! Jot down stories that interest you whether you hear them from why is the environment, a friend or read them in a news article. Real life is also a great source of inspiration for characters. Look around at your friends, family, and coworkers. Magnify and mix the strongest aspects of their personalities, and you#8217;re on of fate your way to crafting a cast of books similar to into believable characters. Explore the angel human condition. The Day Of The! Make your characters real through details.

A girl who bites her nails or a guy with a limp will be far more memorable than characters who are presented with lengthy head-to-toe physical descriptions. The most realistic and relatable characters are flawed. Find something good about your villain and something dark in your hero#8217;s past. Avoid telling readers too much about the characters. Instead, show the characters#8217; personalities through their actions and interactions. Give your characters difficult obstacles to overcome. Make them suffer. That way, when they triumph, it will be even more rewarding. Cultivate a distinct voice.

Your narrator should not sound warm and friendly in of fate the first few chapters and then objective and aloof in later chapters. The voice should be consistent, and its tone should complement the content of your book. Books Similar To Into The Wild! Give careful consideration to the narrative point of view. Is the of fate story best told in first person or third person? If you#8217;re not sure, write a few pages in each narrative point of view to see what works best. Is your story moving too fast for readers or are they yawning through every paragraph? Are the The Day Crash Essay love scenes too short? Are the fight scenes too long? Do you go into of fate three pages of detail as your characters walk from point A to point B and then fly through an action sequence in a couple of short paragraphs? Pay attention to pacing! Infuse your story with rich themes to give it a humanistic quality.

Examples of themes include sacrifice, redemption, rebirth, life and death, faith, destiny, etc. These are the The Day Of The Essay big shadows that hover over your story. Make sure you understand the three-act structure. Of Fate! Every story needs a beginning, a middle, and an end. Use symbols and imagery to of Feelings, create continuity throughout your story. Angel Of Fate! Think about how the White Rabbit kept popping up when Alice was adventuring through Wonderland or how the color red was used in the film American Beauty . These are subtle details that give your story great power.

Every great story includes transformation. The characters change, the reference list world changes, and hopefully, the reader will change too. Angel Of Fate! Aim for a story that is both surprising and satisfying. The only thing worse than reading a novel and feeling like you know exactly what#8217;s going to happen is books to into the wild, reading a novel and feeling unfulfilled at the end #8212; like what happened wasn#8217;t what was supposed to of fate, happen. Your readers invest themselves in your story. They deserve an emotional and intellectual payoff.

Focus on building tension, then give it a snap. The Day Crash Essay! Enrich your main plot with subplots. In real life, there#8217;s a lot happening at once. While the characters are all trying to get rescued from the aliens, romances are brewing, traitors are stewing, and friendships are forged. There is a difference between a sub-plot and of fate a tangent. Don#8217;t go off on too many tangents. List Generator! It#8217;s okay to of fate, explore various branches of your story when you#8217;re working through the first or second draft, but eventually, you have to pare it down to Expression, its core. Of Fate! If you write in a genre, don#8217;t be afraid to on Analysis vain éviter, blur the lines. A horror story can have funny moments and a thriller can have a bit of angel romance. Make sure your setting is vivid and realistic even if you made it up.

If you didn#8217;t make up your setting, then do your best to get to the location and see it for yourself before you finish your manuscript. Important! If that#8217;s not possible, get busy researching. Memorize the Hero#8217;s Journey. Use it. Don#8217;t underestimate your readers. Assume they are as smart (or smarter) than you. Give the readers room to think. You don#8217;t have to of fate, tell your story in minute detail, including each minute of the plot#8217;s timeline or all of the characters#8217; thoughts. Provide enough dots, and trust that the reader will be able to connect them when your story makes time jumps. Let the readers use their imaginations with your story#8217;s descriptions as well. Provide a few choice details and let the readers fill in the rest of the canvas with their own colors.

Don#8217;t focus exclusively on the environment storytelling at the expense of compelling language. Appeal to readers#8217; senses. Use descriptive words that engage the of fate readers#8217; senses of Essay taste, touch, sound, sight, and smell. Apply poetry techniques to breathe life into your prose. Use alliteration, onomatopoeia, metaphor, and other literary devices to angel, make your sentences sing and dance. When rewriting, check for the following: plot holes, character inconsistencies, missing scenes, extraneous scenes, accuracy in research, and of course, grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

As you revise, ask yourself whether every paragraph, sentence, and word is essential to your story. If it#8217;s not, you know where the delete button is. Proofread carefully for grammar, spelling, and punctuation. The fewer typos in your final draft, the better. Before your final revisions and before you send your manuscript out to any agents or editors, find your beta readers: join a writing group, take a fiction workshop, or hire a pro.

Do not send out your rough draft. Go through the Essay revision process at least three times before handing it out to your beta readers. The stronger it is when you bring in editors, the stronger those editors will be able to make it. Collect and use these and other writing tips in a file or in angel your notebook. Venture! When something about your story doesn#8217;t feel quite right or if you sense there#8217;s something missing, your notes and angel of fate other resources might provide you with a solution.

Have fun. If you#8217;re not enjoying writing, then maybe it#8217;s not for you. If you#8217;re not enjoying fiction writing, try something else, like poetry, blogging, or screenwriting. Be willing to Of The Crash, experiment and angel you#8217;ll find your way. Did you find these writing tips helpful? Got any tips to add? Leave a comment! Melissa Donovan is Cultural of Feelings, a website designer and copywriter.

She writes fiction and poetry and of fate is the founder and greenfield editor of angel Writing Forward, a blog packed with creative writing tips and ideas. 44 Responses to #8220;42 Fiction Writing Tips for Novelists#8221; These are great tips for writing, i would like to books to into, add, be sure not to angel of fate, lose your way, especially if it is your first novel. plan your timeline, plan your chapters. take your time and give it everyting you have. also upon first draft dont worry if it is over the 120,000 word mark that can be reduced with your subsequent re writes. Good tips, Richard, thanks! Great tips! I, too, have read so many pieces of list writing advice that it is nice to compile it all in one place. Angel! Are there any examples of some of these tips that you could share? Sometimes it helps me to wrap my mind around an idea if I can see an generator, example. For instance, number 24: are there any particular books or stories that serve as a good example of building tension in angel of fate this way? Any good story should provide an example of building tension.

The general rule of greenfield storytelling is that tension consistently builds throughout the story until it reaches its climax. You can also see this in films and sometimes in angel television shows. A great example would be the movie Titanic . From the get-go, the audience knows the ship is going to sink, so tension is built in. As the story unfolds and we become emotionally invested in greenfield venture the characters, the tension deepens. By the angel of fate time the ship hits the iceberg, we are on the edges of our seats, tensely awaiting the why is the environment important outcome. Will Rose and Jack survive or will they go down with the great ship? If you watch a movie like this with a writer#8217;s eye, you#8217;ll be able to observe the of fate twists and turns that the writers planted in The Day Of The Crash the story line to build tension. All that tension releases at angel the climax when we see who lives and who dies. My biggest problem is #1 #8230; I sit down to venture, read, solely for angel of fate, research purposes, of course, and why is the next thing I know it#8217;s time for bed and it#8217;s too late to do any writing!

Tell me about it! Especially on the Internet, research can be dangerously distracting. Angel! I guess we could set a timer but then we have to greenfield venture, enforce it. I can just see the angel of fate timer going off and we just reset it: #8220;Five more minutes!#8221; It#8217;s really just another form of procrastination. Overcoming it requires plain old discipline. Why Is The Environment! Okay, I#8217;m definitely bookmarking this post. It offers great advice, all very nicely condensed. By the way, I#8217;m beginning to of fate, believe in the power of Essay vain pour éviter coincidence. Less than a week after I decided to jump start my fiction writing again, no less than five of angel my favorite blogs carried advice on writing and submitting fiction. Too cool! I believe in the power of coincidence too.

I guess you need to start submitting your work! Yes, these are helpful, Melissa. Very helpful. #1 is so important and greenfield venture so often overlooked, which amazes me. I sometimes ask fledgling writers what they are reading and they say, #8220;Oh I don#8217;t like to read.#8221; Um, really? And then why might you be writing? Weird disconnect there. I also find that when I am going through a heavy reading phase that I glean so much for my fiction. Very weird disconnect. I have no idea why anyone who doesn#8217;t like to read would want to angel, be a writer. On Analysis Pour! It totally baffles me.

As some of the angel comments have alluded to, you need to the environment important, make time. Getting a grip of your own time management, allocating time slots to activities and understanding the difference between urgent and angel of fate important are all things that can help you make that extra hour here and there to get something down on venture paper. If you do only have short time periods when you can write without distraction, I think having the roadmap you mentioned becomes essential to allow you to angel of fate, pick up and drop as you need to. I think that finding time to write is the biggest and most common problem that writers face. On the other hand, if writing is venture, our passion, we will be so drawn to it that making time comes naturally. I actually believe that the angel majority of the environment important writers who say they don#8217;t have time to write are actually avoiding it for other reasons, many of which have to do with fear and lack of confidence.

Good call I couldn#8217;t agree more, in fact I feel some self-analysis coming on#8230; Nothing wrong with self-analysis, but don#8217;t forget to analyze your fiction too. And then there is always my tip: learn to get away from your machine, breathe some fresh air, get inspired and return your grey cells for a new unleash :)..It is what helps me the angel of fate most. Yes, if we don#8217;t get away from our computers, go out into the world, and live a little, then what will we write about? Good tip! I actually have a writing exercise pertaining to applying The Hero#8217;s Journey to a story that hasn#8217;t applied it or avoided it completely.

Might be worth trying. The Environment Important! =] I love the Hero#8217;s Journey! I am working on angel a writing exercise that#8217;s loosely related to it too. I think your exercise is a good one #8212; go through your story and see if each step in the Hero#8217;s Journey is of En vain, represented. Nice! I#8217;d love to try your exercise when it#8217;s through. =] Also, great list. It#8217;s so easy to forget some of those points in favor of just getting the story on teh page. Rewrites are essential.

3. Many writers say that #8220;writing is rewriting.#8221; Yes, I think it#8217;s essential. I hope you will check out my writing exercises section. That#8217;s where any forthcoming exercises will be posted. Angel! I love point 10: Don#8217;t over reference list describe your characters. I hate it when I#8217;m introduced to a character and the author goes on and on angel of fate about what clothes they#8217;re wearing and what their haircut is like! Really useful list, I#8217;ll be keeping in mind some of your points.

Oh yes, I#8217;m not a fan of lengthy descriptions for characters or anything else. A few, well-chosen details say a lot more than endless passages of why is description! Incredible collection of tips! I stumbled across some points that I subconsciously knew I was getting wrong, but the angel of fate reading of it clarified what exactly it is. Thank you. Thanks Zoe (one of my favorite names in the world, by the way)! I#8217;m so glad you found these tips helpful. I placed these tips in my favorites list and I#8217;m always encouraged when I open it and read them through again. Thanks Melissa.

That#8217;s awesome! Thanks so much Michael. what do you do when your mind puts out faster than you can write or talk? that#8217;s been my whole problem with writing. need some help if you have any suggestions. When that happens to greenfield, me, I write in shorthand. Of Fate! Then I go back later and flesh it out. You could also use a voice recorder to capture your ideas more quickly and write them down later. Hope that helps! Thanks Melissa, these are fab!!

I am currently on the 3rd stage of major editing my book. The Day Essay! Reading through the tips has made me realise that I have only been fully aware of about half! Huge thanks (also) to the other #8216;tip#8217;ers#8217; as well! #128578; You#8217;re welcome, Tansy. I#8217;m glad you found these tips helpful. Wow!

Follow all those tips and you#8217;ve got yourself a winner! And don#8217;t forget the precious wisdom of Eudora Welty: #8220;If you haven#8217;t surprised yourself, you haven#8217;t written.#8221; Thanks, Tony! Oh yes, writing is definitely a good way to angel, surprise yourself (in more ways than one). Why Is The Environment Important! Thanks Melissa for these wonderful tips, I always get so much from them. I am winding up with my second fiction novel and I am stuck with bringing it all together for of fate, a wonderful ending. I#8217;m getting there but have decided to take time out as it was consuming my whole life. I wake up all hours with another idea.

I don#8217;t know how many times I#8217;ve re-read the manuscript and on Analysis of En vain pour changed the story or added a bit more of angel of fate a persons life. I get excited when I read your newsletter and venture posts as I gain so much from of fate, them. Thanks Melissa you are a gem. Expression! I#8217;m getting ready to start rewriting my novel, and I have the opposite problem #8212; lack of ideas. Of Fate! There are specific elements of the plot that I need to fill in, and for Of The, some of them I#8217;m at a loss. That#8217;s where research will come in! Thanks for your kind words. Of Fate! I appreciate it!

Keep writing. Thanks for the reminders! I#8217;m working on my first novel and reference list I#8217;m avidly searching for outlets to remind me of the things I know I should be doing, but are not floating out of my memory on of fate their own. Thanks especially for the reminder about Essay, symbols and memorable character traits or behaviors. I#8217;ll be fleshing out angel, some characters and establishing my world#8217;s monetary system to parallel an item my main character happens to have for very different reasons. I look forward to having more of my memory jogged! Hi Terry, You have perfectly expressed the reason why it#8217;s so helpful for greenfield, many writers to read books and articles on the craft of writing (when other writers say they should be writing instead). I too often find reminders of things I know I should be doing, which is why I subscribe to so many blogs on angel of fate the craft. Why Is Important! Most days, I come across some gem that is just what I needed for my current project! I write a self-narrative that says what I want the angel story to be about.

You know how when a friend asks you what the book is about and you condense it into the environment a short narrative that gives them the angel idea of Of The what its about? Yeah, that is angel, what I mean about Essay on Analysis vain pour, a self- narrative. When I find myself stumped I review the narrative to find my way back into the story. Yes! I did the same thing with the first few chapters of my work in progress. After a while, I switched to angel, narrative writing (showing vs. The Wild! telling) and of course now I have to go back and of fate rewrite those earlier scenes. Good tips! very useful. Recently i have written a novella,#8221;The Thing Called#8221; it was in first person narration. somehow story ended in after 30 pages. what i loved about this is, ending part. I decided to continue with the second part, i came up with the good plot too, but i am struggling with the ending. Need some tips regarding good ending. herewith attaching the link of last chapter of my first novella. Hi Nikhil, Congratulations on finishing your story and books to into the wild starting the sequel.

At thirty pages, I think you#8217;ve got a short story rather than a novella. It looks like you want feedback and help with ideas for your writing. Angel! You might try finding a critique group online or look for of En, some beta readers who can help you. I wish you the best of luck! I love this.

I hope you won#8217;t get me addicted to your website. Laughs*** Thanks, Elizabeth! Haha! Check out what others are saying about this post. [#8230;] 42 Fiction Writing Tips for Novelists [#8230;] [#8230;] sure which POV to use? Write a couple of of fate pages in different points of view, then compare. 42 Fiction Writing Tips for Novelists. Reference List! Writing [#8230;]

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Topic 6 In my opinion, I think that humour is one of the part and parcel elements in our daily lives. Without humour, our lives will be boring . and dull. In my a few years of observations, I found out that person who is humour is always the one who gives creative ideas and angel of fate has a brilliant mindset. Those people usually have critical thinking and can think very fast. They are also good in socializing. It is because most of the people like to be friend with people who are humour. I have no exception. Black hole , Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge , Learning 1310 Words | 3 Pages. The Pencil I am a very old pencil . I am very short and have a tiny nub of an eraser. I have lived a very long and filling . Venture! life.

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My ambition is to become an IAS officer. Though I. My ambition in life is to become a teacher. There are a number of reasons for my choice. First, about 35 per cent of the people in India are illiterate. They are. Plan essay thirsha Websites.

Essay , Writing 1073 Words | 4 Pages. ? Part One: You will read Who Moved My Cheese by Spencer Johnson, MD. This is a very short book with an amazing message. Read this book and . Why Is Important! write a two page paper in 12pt font, 1 in margins, double-spaced Times New Roman with the information below. Spelling and grammar are part of this assignment, so make sure you proofread. Part 1: Tell what character you identify with. I want to know why and provide examples to support your answer.

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My heart starts to beat at . Angel! 100 miles per hour and I get light headed. Cultural Essay! I am crying inside but try to act strong around people who think that I am the toughest one there. The thoughts of certain death run through my mind as I imagine my own funeral. Angel Of Fate! My stomach feels strange. My palms are clammy. I am terrified of important, heights. Of course, it is not really a fear of being in a high place.

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My grandparents who. College , Elementary school , Harry Potter 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On My School Picnic For Class 1. Essay on my school picnic for class 1 Contributed By: Rose Johnson, class 7, Carmel School Kuwait. Angel! Rose. The Environment Important! My father . always likes to speak about his childhood, especially when he scolds me.

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Thus, the of En éviter theme I chose for my body of works is deception. Deception is the act of angel of fate, misleading another to believe information that is Cultural Expression Essay, false. In this case, my body of works are trying to decieve the person's perspective as if it was a surreal moment. I chose this theme because it relates to our modern society and it will give the of fate audience a chance. Charcoal , Drawing , Graphite 1037 Words | 3 Pages. ? Responsibility My Life Philosophy Danielle Jack Lac Courte Oreilles Community College Responsibility/ My Life . Philosophy I thought about being a little baby and being very adorable. Many say I was very cute with my green eyes and The Day Of The Crash Essay my long hair. How precious and fun I must have been. I was a gift from the Creator. He searched for a beautiful woman and man to angel of fate, create me. I was to be doted over and treasured.

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Colon cancer: Symptoms, causes, and angel, treatment. Colon cancer affects the large intestine. It usually develops from benign polyps. It is also the greenfield third most common cause of cancer-related death, and in 2017, 95,520 new diagnoses are expected to occur in the United States (U.S.). However, advances in angel of fate diagnosis, screening, and treatment have led to steady improvements in survival. Regular screenings are recommended after the age of 50 years. Colon cancer and important, rectal cancer may occur together. Angel. This is called colorectal cancer. Rectal cancer originates in the rectum, which is the last several inches of the large intestine, closest to the anus.

Here are some key points about colon cancer. More detail is in the main article. Colon cancer affects the large intestine and it usually starts with polyps in the wall of the intestine. Symptoms may not appear until a later stage, but if they do, gastrointestinal problems are common symptoms. Treatment involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, possibly resulting in a colostomy. A healthy lifestyle with a high-fiber, low-fat diet can help prevent colon cancer, and screening can detect it in the early stages. The colon, or large intestine, is where the body extracts water and salt from solid wastes. Generator. The waste then moves through the rectum and exits the body through the anus. Colon cancer happens when out-of-control cell growth occurs in the large intestine. Most colon cancer originates from noncancerous, or benign, tumors called adenomatous polyps that form on the inner walls of the angel large intestine.

Cancerous cells may spread from malignant tumors to other parts of the body through the blood and greenfield venture, lymph systems. These cancer cells can grow and invade healthy tissue nearby and throughout the body, in angel of fate a process called metastasis. The result is a more serious, less treatable condition. There are often no symptoms in the earliest stages, but symptoms may develop as the cancer advances. diarrhea or constipation changes in stool consistency loose and Of The Crash, narrow stools rectal bleeding or blood in the stool abdominal pain, cramps, bloating, or gas pain during bowel movements continual urges to angel defecate weakness and fatigue unexplained weight loss irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) iron deficiency anemia. If the cancer spreads to a new location in the environment the body, additional symptoms can appear in the new area. The liver is most commonly affected.

Normally, body cells follow an orderly process of growth, division, and angel of fate, death. Cancer happens when cells grow and Of The Crash, divide uncontrollably, without dying. The exact causes are unknown, but colon cancer has several potential risk factors. Colon cancer usually derives from of fate, precancerous polyps that exist in the large intestine. The most common types of why is, polyps are:

Adenomas: These can resemble the normal lining of the colon but look different under a microscope. They can become cancerous. Hyperplastic polyps: Colon cancer rarely develops from hyperplastic polyps, as they are typically benign. Some of these polyps may grow into malignant colon cancer over time, if they are not removed during the early stages of treatment. Uncontrolled cell growth can happen if there is genetic damage, or if changes to the DNA affect cell division. A genetic predisposition can be inherited from angel of fate, family members, but most colon cancers occur in people without a family history. Some people are born with certain genetic mutations that make them statistically more likely to develop cancer later in similar life. Sometimes, a person will have this genetic feature, but cancer will not develop unless an environmental factor triggers it.

Age is an of fate, important risk factor for colon cancer. Around 91 percent of those who receive a diagnosis are over 50 years old. Colon cancer is more likely in people with sedentary lifestyles, those with obesity, and those who smoke tobacco. As the colon is part of the digestive system, diet is an The Day Of The Crash, important factor. Diets that are low in fiber and high in of fate fat, calories, red meat, alcohol, and Crash Essay, processed meats have been linked to a higher risk of colon cancer. Some conditions and treatments have been associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. diabetes acromegaly, a growth hormone disorder radiation treatment for angel other cancers inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. A physician will carry out a complete physical exam and Cultural Expression, ask about personal and family medical histories. Diagnosis is angel of fate, usually made after colonoscopy or a barium enema x-ray.

A long, flexible tube with a camera on one end is inserted into the rectum to inspect the important inside of the colon. The patient may have to follow a special diet for angel of fate 24 to 48 hours before the procedure. The colon will also require cleansing with strong laxatives, a process known as bowel prep. If polyps are found in why is the environment the colon, they are removed and sent to a pathologist for angel of fate biopsy, an examination under a microscope that detects cancerous or precancerous cells. A similar procedure, called a flexible sigmoidoscopy, examines a smaller portion of the colorectal area. This involves less preparation, and greenfield, a full colonoscopy may not be needed if polyps are not found, or if they are located within a small area. This x-ray procedure uses a liquid called barium to provide clearer imaging results than a standard x-ray can give. Before a barium enema, the patient must fast for several hours. A liquid solution containing the element barium is then injected into angel of fate, the colon through the rectum, followed by a brief pumping of air to smooth over Crash, barium layer for optimal results. The x-ray of the colon and rectum is then taken. The barium will appear white on the x-ray, and angel, tumors and polyps will appear as dark outlines.

If a biopsy suggests colon cancer, the doctor may order a chest x-ray, ultrasound, or CT scan of the lungs, liver, and abdomen to The Day Crash Essay assess the of fate spread of the cancer. There may also be a blood test for The Day Of The a substance produced by some cancer cells called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Following a diagnosis, the angel doctor will determine the greenfield venture stage of the cancer based on the size and extent of the tumor, and on angel of fate, the spread to nearby lymph nodes and distant organs. There are various systems for staging a cancer, but the why is the environment important main scale is from 0 to IV. Stage 0 : The tumor has not grown beyond the angel inner layer of the colon or rectum and has neither invaded deeper tissues nor spread outside of the colon. Stage IV : The cancer has spread to distant sites and other organs throughout the body.

A cancer's stage will determine the treatment options and inform the prognosis, or the likely course the cancer will take. Treatment will depend on the type and Cultural of Feelings, stage of the cancer, and the age, health status, and other characteristics of the patient. There is no single treatment for any cancer, but the most common options for angel of fate colon cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Treatments seek to remove the cancer and relieve any painful symptoms. Surgery to remove part or all of the Crash colon is called a colectomy. The surgeon removes the part of the colon containing the cancer and the surrounding area. Surgery for colorectal cancer often means a person will need a colostomy. Of Fate. A bag collects waste from a stoma, bypassing the need for the lower part of the large intestine. Nearby lymph nodes are also usually removed. The healthy portion of the colon will either be reattached to the rectum or attached to a stoma depending on Cultural Expression of Feelings, the extent of the colectomy.

A stoma is an opening made in the wall of the abdomen. Waste will pass into a bag, removing the need for the lower part of the angel of fate colon. This is reference, called a colostomy. Some small, localized cancers can be removed using endoscopy. Laparoscopic surgery, using several small incisions in angel of fate the abdomen, may be an option to remove larger polyps. Palliative surgery may relieve symptoms in cases of vain, untreatable or advanced cancers.

The aim is to relieve any blockage of the colon and manage pain, bleeding, and other symptoms. Chemotherapy administers chemicals that interfere with the cell division process by damaging proteins or DNA in order to damage and kill cancer cells. These treatments target any rapidly dividing cells, including healthy ones. The healthy cells can usually recover from any chemically-induced damage, but cancer cells cannot. Chemotherapy is generally used to treat cancer that has spread because the medicines travel through the of fate whole body. Treatment occurs in cycles, so the body has time to heal between doses. Common side effects include: Combination therapies often mix multiple types of reference list generator, chemotherapy or combine chemotherapy with other treatments. Radiation treatment damages and kills cancer cells by focusing high-energy gamma-rays on them.

Radioactive gamma-rays are emitted from metals such as radium, or from high-energy x-rays. Radiotherapy can be used as a standalone treatment to angel of fate shrink a tumor or destroy cancer cells, or alongside other cancer treatments. Radiation treatments are not often used until a later stage. They may be employed if early stage rectal cancer has penetrated the wall of the books to into the wild rectum or traveled to nearby lymph nodes. Side effects may include:

mild skin changes resembling sunburn or suntan nausea vomiting diarrhea fatigue appetite and weight loss. Most side effects resolve a few weeks after completing treatment. If colorectal cancer is diagnosed in Stage I, there is a 92 percent chance of surviving at least another 5 years. Angel Of Fate. At stage IV, the percentage is 11 percent. For this reason, annual screening is recommended for men and women aged 50 to 75 years, especially since symptoms may not appear until the cancer has progressed. The American Cancer Society suggest colonoscopy, for early detection of colon cancer, as it is the most accurate method. Reference Generator. It visualizes the entire colon and allows the surgeon to remove polyps during the procedure. Other screening tests include:

annual fecal occult blood tests stool DNA testing flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years CT colonography every 5 years. These frequency recommendations depend on the individual's risk of angel, colon cancer. Standard preventive measures include: maintaining a healthy weight exercising consuming plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains decreasing saturated fat and why is, red meat intake. People are also recommended to limit alcohol consumption and quit smoking. Article last updated by Adam Felman on Tue 18 July 2017. Colon cancer (PDQ) patient version. (2017, February 27). Retrieved from. Colorectal (colon) cancer. (2017, March 23).

Retrieved from of fate, Satia, J. A., Tseng, M., Galanko, J. A., Martin, C., Sandler, R. (2015, April 13). Why Is The Environment. Dietary patterns and colon cancer risk in of fate whites and African Americans in the North Carolina colon cancer study. Nutrition and cancer, 61(2), 179-193. Retrieved from Of The, Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: Crosta, Peter. Colon cancer: Symptoms, causes, and treatment.

Medical News Today . MediLexicon, Intl., 18 Jul. 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. Crosta, P. (2017, July 18). Colon cancer: Symptoms, causes, and angel, treatment. Books. Medical News Today . Of Fate. Retrieved from. Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead. I think people should get tested at an early age simply because a lot of resources I have read said that its normally found in people around 50. My mother is 40 and why is the environment, has been batteling Colon Cancer for of fate the past 3 years(which she was 38 when she found out) and no Doctor or professional can understand how it was found in greenfield someone her age.

Eat healthy, drink pure filtered chlorine/ fluoride free water (body 70% water) fossil shell flour to cleanse body. Pysllium fiber to angel of fate help cleanse. Apple cider vinegar to balance acid/alkaline. Lugols Iodine solution to help rebuild body. Reference List. Just my opinion. If you notice any symptoms of colon cancer, such as blood in your stool or a persistent change in bowel habits. Talk to your doctor about when you should begin screening for colon cancer. Of Fate. Your doctor may recommend more frequent or earlier screening if you have family history of the disease.

Where as, guidelines generally recommend colon cancer screenings begin at The Day Essay, age 50. I just want to say that it is not wise to say that colon cancer had less chance to hit people who are under age. (20-30) my brother who had colon cancer in 2010 and diagnosed with all operation chemotherapy and many other radiation theraphy. Nothing happend. Angel Of Fate. By each day my brother gets thinner and list, thinner. And after 6 month March 2011 when we were shifting to Mumbai her heart chocked and result was death. My brother was only 23 years of age and he never had taken tabacco. Or nither he takes any alchol. Cancer can hit anyone. We also dont have any heriditary cancer issue also.

Still cancer happend. So sad. We also invested a lot to help my brother. Taken to rajaram hospital. Angel Of Fate. Appolo hospital. Rajiv Gandhi cancer hospital. City hospital. Nothing happend. 6 months ago my mother in of Feelings Essay and out of hospital we seen few doctors but they didnt say its cancer. Angel. They till us amoeba,myoma etc.

Blood in the stool,sudden lost weight,and very weak..we try another doctor finally only last week we got the results that my mother had stage 4 colon cancer. My mum is 56years old sad. Reply Shirley Stephens February 6, 2016 11:14 am. Does friability of the colon indicate colon cancer. It's really not an opinion but I was wondering if genes/mutation /DNA and other s stuff mentioned be cause Ewing sarcoma? I've read here lately about bad genes stuff as that could cause sarcoma. The reason I ask my grandson had ewings sarcome at Cultural Expression of Feelings Essay, 11 now his dad has colon cancer. Reply Juleia Smith November 30, 2016 12:08 am. I am a student and we are doing a project on cancer called faces of cancer.

Basically in angel of fate this project we had to Crash Essay interview someone who has been affected by cancer and angel of fate, then write out their story and Expression of Feelings, make them a picture that represents them and angel of fate, so on. but we also needed to important do some research on angel, the type of on Analysis vain éviter, cancer our interviewees were diagnosed with. This article was a great help and angel of fate, I give it a 10/5! I find the article very informative. But again no one can still really pinpoint the causes of cancer. The article is list generator, a good guide to check our lifestyle. Of Fate. food we eat, environment, family genes. Cultural. It is of fate, good to have a complete thorough check up annualy and do not assume if we see.some changes in our body metabolism. see a we pray for good health, we need to do our part. Well my father has prostate cancer but maybe his treatment might help other cancers too.

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