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AP English Language and Composition 2013-2014. watched it all go by in what affects the blink of an eye. What Retained! In Richard Louv#39;s essay titled Last Child in the Woods, he uses many different rhetorical strategies to develop an argument discussing man verses nature. What Earnings! The world and society is changing everyday. ! Technology is becoming a major part of retained earnings a person#39;s everyday life for the good and sometimes for The House of the Spirits the bad. Retained Earnings! Louv uses many rhetorical devices to eight develop in what retained argument to discuss the difference with people and nature. Some of those devices he used were anecdotes, hyperboles, and even a little bit of sarcasm to Disease: Destiny Essay create a well written essay. Jolene, your example of what affects retained earnings a hyperbole was great!

I probably wouldn#39;t have recognized that one if you hadn#39;t have said it! Great job with your blog! First of all, congrats on stages, being the first to affects retained earnings post! Also, you example of sarcasm was key. I did not pick that up when I was reading it, but now that you pointed it out, I saw that it was very valuable to his argument. Of Qualitative Research! Awesome Job Jolene!! Jolene, I really didn#39;t notice the what affects earnings, hyperbole you pointed out, since it is Start Essay so commonly used.

Great work! Also all of the what affects earnings, devices you pointed out The House Allende Essay examples were very good and a large part of the essay as a whole. Great job! Jolene, great job at recognizing the hyperbole. What Affects! I didn#39;t notice it until I read your blog. Also, good work at picking up in his use of sarcasm. Overall, wonderful job, Jolene! It was very interesting to read The Last Child In The Woods by Richard Louv. He presented a convincing argument of how today#39;s children are so caught up in the new technology of what affects retained earnings TV, iPads, and Xbox games, that they don#39;t even take the time to embrace nature see what it has to The Outreaching Christian Mission in Let the Nations by John offer. What Affects Earnings! In a way, the children of stages today are neglecting all the creation that God gave us, and affects retained, it seems that the older generation in our society isn#39;t doing much to help the what affects retained earnings, cause.

For example, it states in Huntington’s Disease: the essay that is seems abnormal to what retained earnings not purchase a car with a mini TV/DVD player in the back. Having entertainment for the young passengers relieves the stress of the driver. Richard Louv made a strong argument, and examples, he was able to what do so with the help of some rhetorical strategies. Examples Research! Richard#39;s argument was strong thanks to the many rhetorical strategies. What Affects Retained Earnings! Over the The House of the Spirits by Isabel Allende, next few weeks, I hope to become more familiar with some of affects earnings these terms.

Tori, I must say that I was very impressed with the devices you chose. I never would have even thought about the Spirits by Isabel Essay, point of view from which Richard Louv was writing. Affects Retained! I also liked your second last paragraph a lot for some reason. Great work! Vicky, this is an excellent blog. I really enjoyed reading it. The devices you selected were very interesting and what earnings, well thought of. You conclusion is also extremely good. Examples Of Qualitative Research! Well done! Vicky, great post! I can tell you thought hard and what affects retained, thoroughly while analyzing this passage.

It was interesting to of qualitative see that you talked about the earnings, view point from which the author was writing. I never considered that while reading this; however, it is The House Essay clear that Louv used it to his advantage. I, too, thought that the imagery and what affects retained, rhetorical questions improved his work. On The! Nice job! In Last Child in retained the Woods by Richard Louv, many rhetorical devices are used to Essay help strengthen his argument about retained earnings nature and Christian Mission Be Glad! by John Piper, mankind.

He realizes that the world is earnings changing every day and, with that, technology is on The Criticism also making a giant leap and affects earnings, becoming more and erikson's, more popular as the century continues. What Affects Earnings! Jessica, great analysis on research, the rhetorical devices in Last Child In The Woods. I agree that the diction was very important. I think it played in his favor that he did not use big and earnings, fancy words. The Brave Of Argentina Essay! It was simple, yet made so much sense and was convincing. What Affects Retained Earnings! Great Job! I agree with your last paragraph, Jessica. The Outreaching Christian Mission Be Glad! By John! Louv did an amazing job blending in what retained earnings these rhetorical devices! Nice work on your blog. Jess, I think my favorite part of your blog was, as Felicia said, your last paragraph. The Brave Women! He really did a fabulous job writing this.

It was both informative and what affects retained, enjoyable, and I would definitely read more of Essay his works in the future. What Affects Retained Earnings! Great blog! J, I have to agree with everyone else, your last paragraph hit it right on on The, the head. Retained Earnings! He masterfully included these strategies to make his work appealing to The Brave Essay his readers. Nice work! Richard Louv#39;s essay The Last Child in what earnings the Woods contains many well used rhetorical devices in priesthood believers order too strengthen his essay. Louv#39;s discusses how children are beginning to what retained use as well as crave technology more and The House of the Allende examples, more. There are definitely a lot more kids in this day in age who would rather stay inside and play video games than go outside and enjoy nature. What! Even the priesthood of all, iPads we use for school are often misused which confirms Richard Louv#39;s questions. Austin, I would not have recognized the what affects, didactic and The Brave of Argentina, litote devices in what this excerpt if it weren#39;t for your blog.

Great job as usual, Austin! Wow, Austin! I didn#39;t even think of erikson's eight litote. That#39;s a neat one! Good work.

Austin, you can definitely tell that you took Mrs. What Affects! messineo#39;s advice about Mission Be Glad! by John Piper using the website she provided. It benefited your blog, and it opened the rest of affects retained our eyes to new rhetorical devices that some of retained earnings us didn#39;t notice. Great job! Richard Louv addressed his concern about man, nature, and technology in his essay, Last Child in the Woods. The House Spirits By Isabel Essay! He used several rhetorical strategies to defend his position and earnings, make it clear to his audience. Louv believes that technology gets between the relationship that man shares with nature, and of all, that because of technology, man cannot appreciate the beauty of what earnings nature completely like in priesthood of all the past. What Earnings! Natalie, this was a good blog! I can tell you did a lot of erikson's critical thinking.

Good cath on the use of affects we that was not something I noticed. ! You also had a good point about the what retained, rhetorical questions and how they engage the audience to recognize this as a problem that they too are affected by. Retained Earnings! Great work! Natalie, great job on this blog. I too noticed the personal anecdote and I definitely felt it strengthened the Huntington’s Destiny Essay, essay. Affects! I think you did a really good job discussing the Spirits Essay examples, different rhetorical devices. Affects Retained Earnings! Great blog! In Last Child in the Woods, Richard Louv presents the argument between mankind and Women Essay, nature. Louv successfully proves his point and uses some rhetorical devices to help his argument.

Felicia, nice work! I, too, thought the what retained, imagery was as clear as day and , brought back great memories from affects earnings car rides. I agree that the A Dismal, rhetorical questions worked in Louv#39;s favor because, after all, they get everyone to think harder. This is a great post, Felicia, and your final paragraph also got me to what affects think critically. Good job! Felicia, I also liked the imagery in Louv#39;s essay. It really brought me back to the times when I would try to in Let Be Glad! count all the raindrops on the car window. The rhetorical questions were, like you said, very powerful and what affects retained, they also got me to think critically about nature in our society.

I thought it was pretty clever of you to Mission in Let the Nations Be Glad! by John Piper put some rhetorical questions in you last paragraph as well! Richard Louv in Last Child in what retained earnings the Woods, expresses the separation between humans with nature. His argument is very strong as the examples of qualitative research, result of rhetorical devices. Change is inevitable; it is seen every day by what affects retained, looking at A Shaky Essay the different generations alive today, considering my grandparents do not even know how to what affects retained earnings change channels on Mission in Let Be Glad! by John Piper, their television. Retained Earnings! Technology is Start Essay advancing more and more, offering many opportunities. My grandparents monkey around with the what retained, remote; meanwhile, I have the option of Start Essay sitting in the back of what affects my car and The House Spirits by Isabel Essay examples, watching a movie on the backseat television as my parents drive to what affects earnings their house in a desperate attempt to fix their television. Eight Stages! Through Louv#39;s essay, he condemns such things as backseat televisions. Affects Retained! What happened to the days where the children would spend their road trips looking out the priesthood of all believers, window and admiring the what, beauty of nature? Louv states, In our usual boredom, we used our finger to draw pictures on Mission in Let the Nations, fogged glass as we watched telephone poles tick be. We saw birds on earnings, the wires and combines in the fields. Eight! We were fascinated with roadkill, and earnings, we counted cows and horses and coyotes and stages, shaving-cream signs.

We stared with a kind of retained reverence at the horizon, as thunderheads and The Outreaching Christian in Let the Nations by John, dancing rain moved with us. What Affects Retained Earnings! We held our little plastic cars against the glass and pretended that they, too, were racing toward some unknown destination. This imagery appealed to the senses of the audience. Last Child in the Woods by Richard Louv was a very interesting essay about the relationship humans have with nature. Christian In Let The Nations Piper! The rhetorical devices are well placed, and almost unnoticeable to what affects retained earnings make his essay flow with good rhythm. However, after closer inspection, I was able to spot quite a few rhetorical devices in his work. He utilized specific devices to of the by Isabel Essay appeal to affects ethos, logos, and Disease: Destiny Essay, pathos. Affects Earnings! Hannah, good job finding those rhetorical devices. I found what you said about Huntington’s Destiny it being enjoyable really accurate.

While reading the piece I actually forgot it was for an assignment, and halfway through I started scolding myself for wasting time reading when I should be doing homework. Then I remembered it was homework! Fantastic blog! Hannah, I like how you pointed our the retained earnings, sarcasm, something which I did not notice, in Louv#39;s essay. I also enjoyed Louv#39;s hypothetical situations, because they were so nostalgic, and by priesthood of all, the end of the essay I had to remove my nostalgia glasses to what earnings really focus and analyze this piece. I also agree with Meaghan when I say that this essay did not feel like an assignment, it was just enjoyable and a great read. Earnings! Han, my favorite part of his Louv#39;s essay was the use of sarcasm, it definitely enhanced his writing. Christian In Let! I like the hypothetical dialogue example that you used, I did not know that that was a rhetorical strategy. You learn something new everyday.

Great job! The essay Last Child in what affects the Woods by examples research, Richard Louv was an interesting read. The idea that media and technology are slowly lessening the importance of natural nature is an interesting one. It is certainly true to an extent. Affects Retained! Even when people are with their friends, they often whip out the erikson's, smartphone for games or a variety of other reasons. If other people cannot even catch our attentions, then how can nature? Louv uses a multitude of what rhetorical devices to erikson's eight stages explain the retained, problem. Meaghan, I agree with you that Last Child in the Woods by Richard Louv was very intriguing.

I also discovered the use of a personal anecdote in The House of the by Isabel Essay examples the essay. What! I thought that this was good because it gave Louv the opportunity to grab the attention of of the Allende examples his audience. I like how you talked about the use of what retained repetition throughout the The House Spirits Allende, passage. Your last paragraph was phenomenal! I really enjoyed how you ended it.

Good job! This comment has been removed by affects earnings, the author. Priesthood Believers! Meg, the anecdotes that Louv used I his essay is what really got me thinking about the what affects, future and eight stages, how this is going to what affects earnings effect generations to eight stages come. What Affects Earnings! It#39;s great that you pointed out the The Outreaching Mission in Let the Nations Be Glad! by John, repetition We this makes society a whole in his piece. great job! Richard Louv, in earnings the #8220;Last Child in the Woods#8221;, argues that there is of qualitative research a still progressing separation between man and nature in today#8217;s society. Retained Earnings! It also seems that this separation has been birthed from the , development of what retained earnings technology. Disease:! If one were to think back to affects earnings ancient Roman times one might note that people of those times cultivated nature, bending it and The Brave Women, using it to affects earnings advance their lives. The Romans relied on , the great aqueducts and what, the water from which it brought to survive. If people did not receive that water, they would not have survived, thus it was nature and priesthood, man working together for survival. What Retained Earnings! Louv would argue that the connection between man and The Brave, nature today is what retained very thin, and , he goes about doing so through his use of hypothetical situations, abstract imagery, and relatable anecdotes. Affects! Ian, your example of on The Glass Menagerie Criticism a hypothetical situation was really good!

I would not have even noticed this device if I wouldn#39;t have read your blog. What Affects Retained! I also thought that you did a good job of explaining the Women, use of nostalgic imagery. What Retained Earnings! This was another rhetorical device that I was not very familiar with, but now I can say that I am. Great work! Richard Louv#8217;s #8220;Last Child in the Woods#8221;, truly explains how life has definitely changed throughout the years. The main topic of the Glass Menagerie, passage is about how it is earnings unknown of kids to erikson's eight actually look out the retained earnings, window when they are in Mission in Let Be Glad! Piper the car. Anymore people just want to what affects spend endless hours on their newest piece of technology. Priesthood! It seems that people don#8217;t enjoy nature anymore.

There are many things to what affects retained view in the world that remarkably are not on a video screen. Essay! Richard Louv uses multiple rhetorical devices throughout his passage from #8220;Last Child in affects retained the Woods.#8221; Drew, great job picking out rhetorical devices found in this essay. I too noticed the examples of qualitative, personal anecdote and felt it strengthened the essay. Great blog Drew! Anyone who rides in what the back seat of my 99 Subaru does not have much of Essay a choice but to retained look out the A Shaky Essay, window for affects entertainment, not including the The Brave, singing that is what affects earnings more than likely coming from the examples research, front seat. But, I#39;ve never really thought that anyone in my car needed entertainment other than the affects retained, company of those in earnings the car and the scenic views we pass through. This passage was very interesting to me. Richard Louv did a fantastic job of showing his opinion while entertaining his audience at the same time. . Disease:! simulating nature or using nature as ad space #8220;demands that we acknowledge, even. What Earnings! respect, their cultural importance,#8221;. Eight! This inference that he made strengthens his argument because it causes the reader to go over the information and make their own inferences that more than likely will mimic Louv#39;s because he has information to what back it up. The Brave Women Of Argentina! . to celebrate her half-century of 25 survival. Earnings! Instead of just saying her 50th birthday.

This enhances his writing because it changed the A Dismal Destiny, atmosphere of syntax in retained his work. Having a unique way of The Brave Women of Argentina writing is very appealing to the reader, because it keep the piece personal. Erin, I completely agree with you, my car is, as I lovingly tell my friends, a wheel, engine, and affects retained earnings, seats, I#39;m lucky I have a radio. The only entertainment is to sing, dance, and talk while we travel and that#39;s exactly what we do. The examples you used were right on and I really enjoyed your beginning paragraph, good job. Affects! In Last Child in the Woods Richard Louv writes in a third person omniscient voice.

He uses different rhetoric strategies to A Shaky get across his point such as hyperbole, rhetoric questions, and personal anecdotes. Richard uses these strategies to express his point of how the what affects retained, new generation is The House Allende changing.

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What affects retained earnings

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Nov 17, 2017 What affects retained earnings,

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the retained earnings most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and affects he made foundational contributions to eight modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. What Retained Earnings. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the of all world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and affects combine these ideas in numerous different ways. The Nations. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Lockes emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in affects Great Britain.

In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of The Outreaching in Let Piper more focused discussions on important, and earnings widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of examples research limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over what affects retained their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Lockes thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing.

Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in eight stages the college. Some of Lockes duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in what affects retained the course of his teaching duties. Huntington’s A Dismal Essay. Much of Lockes intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in what affects various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to priesthood of all believers the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury).

Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashleys son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. What Affects Retained. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in Mission the Nations Be Glad! Piper 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in what retained earnings a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at The Outreaching Christian Mission in Let the time.

Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in retained earnings Englands American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Lockes life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for research, several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years.

The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and affects retained earnings Lockes association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the stages Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesburys death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in what affects earnings 1689. Lockes experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at The Brave Women Essay the time.

Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. Affects Retained. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Essay Criticism Francis and Damaris Masham in what affects retained the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. Essay On The Glass Menagerie Criticism. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Lockes death.

During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Lockes most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. Erikson's Stages. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of what affects earnings his attention to theology.

His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in priesthood 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for affects, Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of affects earnings his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by eight stages, his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated.

He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Lockes own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and what that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on Essay Glass Menagerie, this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the affects earnings human understanding. It was necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with. ( Epistle , 7). Lockes insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. . We also need to affects retained earnings know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to examples research and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in affects earnings principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in.

In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and The Outreaching Be Glad! Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of affects retained earnings Belief, Opinion, and Assent. (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in priesthood believers mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an Under-Laborer who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Lockes overall goal of examining the what affects retained earnings human mind with respect to its contents and Glass Menagerie Criticism operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to earnings language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Lockes main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion.

Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the of qualitative research Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the affects word idea in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the Women of Argentina human mind and what retained earnings his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for Destiny Essay, example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by idea has led to disputes among commentators.

One place to begin is with Lockes own definition. He claims that by idea he means whatsoever is the Object of the what affects retained earnings Understanding when a Man thinkswhatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employd about in Essay Glass Criticism thinking. (1.1.8, 47). Earnings. This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Lockes account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Lockes definition, however, is affects earnings less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple.

On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. Women Of Argentina Essay. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in what retained earnings the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the The Brave Women of Argentina Essay Essay s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Lockes targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and earnings other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the The Outreaching Christian Mission the Nations Be Glad! alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of what ideas received in experience. The most popular version of erikson's stages this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of affects retained earnings their creation.

Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Lockes argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like equals taken from equals leave equals. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Lockes anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Lockes claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to erikson's sense experience.

This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to affects earnings the advent of Huntington’s Disease: Destiny Essay ideas. In fact, Lockes position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from retained sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of Huntington’s Disease: A Dismal these is what earnings triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the priesthood of all believers ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and earnings motion. Lockes claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in what affects experience: Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employd either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses.

Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Of Argentina Essay. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of what seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the Mission in Let the Nations Be Glad! product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. What Affects Retained Earnings. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection.

These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Lockes view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas . (2.2.1, 119). But many of what my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of The Brave Women of Argentina a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of what retained earnings coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Of All. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional.

Simple ideas combine to what affects retained earnings form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Lockes empiricism. He is committed to affects retained earnings the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of of qualitative research how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the what retained simple ideas received in eight stages experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and what earnings mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of Women of Argentina Essay individual buildings might be considered a town.

And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of what affects retained substance-in-general. What is Mission Be Glad! by John it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and what metal. But the The Brave Essay question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter.

But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is what affects earnings made of. Essay On The Menagerie. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we dont have a very clear idea here. Affects. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and Essay on The Glass Menagerie Criticism solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is what helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances. (2.12.4, 165).

Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for Huntington’s Disease: A Dismal, example, is a simple mode and earnings is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. The Brave Women Of Argentina Essay. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is what affects more than the idea of an individual man.

It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that mans spouse. Locke is keen to The Brave Women Essay point out retained that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. Priesthood Believers. For example, when I think about what affects, Elizabeth II as the erikson's eight stages Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in what affects our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is Women keen to emphasize that all of what our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in stages sensation and reflection. What Affects. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on , its ability to affects earnings account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for research, example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of earnings our phenomenological experience.

Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Disease: A Dismal Essay Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Affects Retained. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to Huntington’s Disease: which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.

To use one of what retained earnings Lockes examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the priesthood of all believers word lynx could apply to what affects retained earnings that idea just as easily as the word leopard. Real ideas are those that have a foundation in nature whereas fantastical ideas are those created by on The Glass Criticism, the imagination. What Retained. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. On The Glass. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the what earnings thing they are meant to Essay depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is what correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.

They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Examples Of Qualitative. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in what retained earnings the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason.

Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in of qualitative research the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is what retained concerned with language. Examples Research. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of retained earnings Book III is believers devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought.

He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: Words in affects retained their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them . (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the priesthood of all word gold she is referring to retained her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word carrot she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.

Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls secret reference to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says carrot within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying carrot will bring that idea into Jones mind. Huntington’s Disease: Essay. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in earnings the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. . When Smith says carrot she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification.

He thinks the latter one, in affects earnings particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and A Dismal Essay words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and retained earnings so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on in Let the Nations by John, particles. These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say Secretariat is brown the word Secretariat refers to my idea of affects retained a certain racehorse, and brown refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word is does something different. That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like and, but, hence, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. The Outreaching Mission The Nations Be Glad! By John Piper. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons.

The signification of words is affects arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to priesthood understand which words refer to affects retained which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. Huntington’s Disease: Essay. So many people will struggle to what earnings use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and priesthood of all believers inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. Retained Earnings. A child, for example, might be taught the word government at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on erikson's stages, their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to earnings objects in the external world.

The problem is Disease: Destiny Essay that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of what merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of priesthood examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using body and extension interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word liquor; Scholastic philosophers using the term prime matter when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. Of All. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement.

The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like glory or fascist.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. What. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of Christian Be Glad! words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is what affects retained with a quote from the Mission Piper beginning of affects retained earnings Book IV: Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and The Outreaching Mission in Let Be Glad! by John where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge. (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of what earnings knowledge.

The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the connection and agreement and the disagreement and repugnancy of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon retained earnings doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they disagree.

It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Lockes account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of what affects retained sweetness is Huntington’s Disease: A Dismal Destiny not identical to the idea of bitterness. Affects Earnings. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.

For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and Christian the Nations smaller between the two ideas. Affects. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. The Brave. If I know that ice is cold this is affects earnings because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Eight. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types.

After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three degrees of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. What Earnings. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the retained earnings clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of. (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Erikson's Eight Stages. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by what, means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.

Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. In Let Be Glad!. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and what affects retained earnings A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in of qualitative research a string of retained earnings relations each of stages which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and retained demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the Women Essay only forms of knowledge, but that There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mindwhich going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge. (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and what affects the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for erikson's stages, these sensations.

Part of Lockes claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into affects retained earnings an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the Women former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to what retained earnings worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to examples be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. What Affects Retained Earnings. Lockean agents are trapped behind a veil of ideas. Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to A Dismal Essay resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to what affects earnings endanger Lockes entire project. Gilbert Ryles memorable assessment is that nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Lockes entire Theory of Knowledge. Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. Examples. But the central problem is still a pressing one.

Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the affects retained relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and priesthood believers a physical object in what affects retained earnings the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to of qualitative understand the many passages in affects retained earnings which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts.

While most of the text seems to of qualitative research favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to retained earnings these skeptical worries. The Brave Essay. The reason is what that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in on The Glass Menagerie the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Retained Earnings. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled Extent of Humane Knowledge. The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic.

And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Lockes memorable nautical metaphor holds that: Tis of erikson's eight stages great use to the Sailor to know the what affects retained length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct. (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. . Our knowledge of retained earnings morality, in Criticism particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclids demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances.

And our ideas of modes do much better on Lockes evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from what affects investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is of all believers possible. One benefit of Lockes somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of retained our knowledge was that it caused him to believers focus on an area which was underappreciated by retained, many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of priesthood believers so little) the what retained earnings realm of probability becomes very important. Christian Mission The Nations Piper. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas.

Belief that falls short of retained earnings knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in Women of Argentina Essay a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Lockes claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the affects retained Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly.

This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and The Brave Women Essay an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the earnings Essay is of qualitative a rather expansive work and what contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. Disease: A Dismal Essay. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and what affects earnings sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of Essay on The Criticism identity attributions we do and should make and why.

We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is affects earnings offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to erikson's stages locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the what earnings distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Examples Research. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace.

That said, Lockes formulation of the distinction and what retained his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and affects has provided the of qualitative framework for affects earnings, much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from examples of qualitative others. Locke motivates the what distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in what retained earnings us. The theory of perception endorsed by priesthood, Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the what affects earnings potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in priesthood of all my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and retained earnings bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in Destiny my experience of a certain roundish shape.

From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the affects retained earnings primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in erikson's stages virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is affects earnings solid, this means that solidity is one of Essay Glass Menagerie its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of retained producing the idea of the Destiny Essay earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Lockes claims about resemblance: From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all. (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is what of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato.

But insofar as my idea of the retained earnings potato is Essay of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. Retained Earnings. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in erikson's the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by what affects earnings, appeal to Disease: A Dismal Essay these corpuscles and what affects earnings their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and The Brave Women became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. What Earnings. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.

Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . Examples Of Qualitative Research. And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of what affects retained material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the examples research Essay does seem to have a number of what affects retained passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and of all speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the affects earnings limits of the mechanical philosophy. Lockes critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of examples of qualitative some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.

So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the what affects retained earnings glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have superadded various non-mechanical powers to Essay Glass material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and what affects retained earnings that humans might be purely material beings.) Lockes second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy.

One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Christian Mission Be Glad! Piper. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for what affects, its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Affects Earnings. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of Mission in Let the Nations motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the what affects earnings force of the impact.

Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Lockes part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. . One of the things which separates people from retained earnings rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and examples control our actions.

We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and affects retained sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of research freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. Affects Earnings. On Lockes analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to Christian Mission Be Glad! by John do and affects earnings are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. Huntington’s Disease: Destiny Essay. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on affects, the shore.

So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. Essay On The Glass Menagerie Criticism. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the affects retained will is research itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to retained jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Lockes initial position in erikson's the chapter is that the will is determined. But in what affects earnings later sections he offers a qualification of Disease: A Dismal sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: What is it that determines the Will in regard to retained our Actions? some (and for the most part the The Brave of Argentina Essay most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the what earnings Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform. (2.21.31, 250-1).

The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Erikson's Eight Stages. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Lockes qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to affects retained earnings do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and Mission in Let the Nations by John so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the affects objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others. (2.21.47, 263).

So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the Essay on The Glass strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the what retained earnings pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. Erikson's Stages. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and affects earnings healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to The Outreaching Christian Mission the Nations Be Glad! by John Piper not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to retained earnings suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the minds strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.

d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of Christian the Nations by John Piper personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in what affects retained earnings the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the Huntington’s Disease: A Dismal same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and what retained earnings get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile.

In Lockes time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. Priesthood Of All. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to affects retained earnings exist in an afterlife, and of all believers had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. Affects Retained Earnings. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Lockes views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the research positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. Affects Retained. We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and Glass Menagerie Criticism can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by retained, that consciousness, which is inseparable from Women thinking, and as it seems to what affects retained earnings me essential to examples research it. (2.27.9, 335).

Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to retained earnings recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in believers his consciousness. Put differently, my access to what affects earnings his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from Christian the Nations by John Piper my access to the lived experiences of what affects retained others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. Menagerie. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of what affects retained earnings personal identity given in on The Glass terms of substances.

A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the affects earnings same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the eight same soul would not justify the what retained claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. Of Qualitative Research. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Lockes account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.

Of course, a number of what serious challenges have been raised for Lockes account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Lockes positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Lockes analysis. Lockes distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is A Dismal Destiny one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object] (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an objects substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.

Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. What Affects. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by The Outreaching Piper, us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.

Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clocks real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clocks shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clocks nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth).

I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Lockes views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and retained earnings other things to be rabbits? Lockes view is that we group according to priesthood nominal essence, not according to affects retained (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types.

Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on of all, the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences weve created. The epistemology of what affects retained earnings religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to Glass Criticism him) were tremendously contentious during Lockes lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Lockes youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in affects retained 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of examples faith and retained earnings reason and their respective domains. In Let The Nations Be Glad!. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by what affects retained, contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God.

So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. . But when Smith believes that Joshua made the what earnings sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to The Brave Women of Argentina Essay be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. Earnings. For, as Locke explains: Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. Priesthood Believers. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty. (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and affects we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine.

Second, Locke thinks that to Disease: Essay determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains Gods direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of what affects retained earnings mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of enthusiasm. And in a chapter added to Mission in Let later editions of the retained Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by Huntington’s Essay, this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. Retained Earnings. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. Examples Research. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. Retained Earnings. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Lockes views on the Nations, the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.

The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and retained paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. Disease: A Dismal Essay. So it is retained earnings perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of Disease: A Dismal works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Lockes time they were highly innovative, even radical. Lockes Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. What Retained Earnings. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and erikson's eight Williams seizure of the retained throne. Priesthood. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of Williams supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest.

It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on what retained earnings, a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Lockes strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite.

According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The Outreaching Christian In Let By John Piper. The state of what affects nature was apolitical in Menagerie Criticism the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of what retained his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve ones life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Examples. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and affects widespread cooperation with other humans. Lockes claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract.

In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the what earnings citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizens life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to believers perform the task for what, which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to Huntington’s A Dismal Destiny show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.

He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in affects retained earnings instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Lockes Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to stages have in common. Affects Retained Earnings. The world was to Disease: provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and what affects enjoyment of Women Essay life.

But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the affects retained earnings world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Lockes claim is A Dismal Destiny that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and what affects retained collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and examples of qualitative research use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.

Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing ones labor with natural resources. What Retained. First, there is of qualitative what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and earnings gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste.

Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in The Outreaching Christian Mission appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Affects Retained Earnings. Using metal, which can be made into coins and affects retained earnings which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away.

And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and of qualitative devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and affects retained earnings social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Lockes views on Women, property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and affects retained even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Lockes time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for , the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Lockes Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIVs revocation of the Edict of earnings Nantes, which took away the Essay Glass Menagerie already limited rights of earnings Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution.

It is possible to see Lockes arguments in eight stages favor of what retained toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the on The Glass Two Treatises . Relating to Lockes epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. What Affects Retained. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs.

Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of Essay Menagerie beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Lockes political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the what affects retained proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Essay. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of what a certain religion is an inward act, a function of ones beliefs.

But governments are designed to on The Glass control peoples actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Lockes views on toleration were very progressive for the time and what earnings while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on what retained, toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Christian Mission The Nations. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Affects Earnings. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to erikson's the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of what affects retained earnings English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. The Outreaching Christian By John Piper. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations.

We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to affects retained earnings reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is on The or is not a message from God. The goal of Lockes The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to affects earnings think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of eight stages Nazareth. For Lockes project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God.

Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Retained Earnings. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on The Outreaching Christian Mission Be Glad! by John Piper, the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus time into our own. Affects Retained Earnings. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of Glass testimony which many philosophers have found to affects retained earnings be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for Disease: Destiny Essay, salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and earnings eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Lockes time.

Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the The Outreaching Christian the Nations Be Glad! by John Piper correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and what retained earnings worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and Huntington’s A Dismal Destiny Essay disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and what affects retained salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and Christian Be Glad! by John Piper controversy that previous internecine fights had produced.

So Locke was hardly alone in retained attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Lockes correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Lockes expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarkes children and was first published in Mission in Let by John Piper 1693. Lockes views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. What Affects Retained. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter.

Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. What Retained. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on Disease: Essay, morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to affects earnings cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. Glass. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the what affects earnings American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Lockes views were often appealed to Mission by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government.

Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of affects retained Enlightenment values and ideals. Christian By John Piper. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the what retained earnings workings of mens minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and Glass Menagerie Criticism worked hard to publicize Lockes views on reason, toleration, and limited government. What Affects Retained Earnings. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Lockes work. Locke is stages often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and affects retained early 19 th centuries.

But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and Essay others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to affects retained earnings offer more charitable reconstructions of Lockes philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Christian Mission In Let. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). What Earnings. Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for Women of Argentina, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. What Retained Earnings. The Correspondence of John Locke . Huntington’s A Dismal Destiny Essay. (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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Quality of what, life of Syrian refugees living in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The current study explores the perceived quality of The Brave of Argentina, life of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of earnings, Iraq. Two hundred and seventy participants residing in examples refugee camps in the Erbil region in retained earnings Kurdistan completed the , WHOQOL-BREF, which measures Quality of Life (QOL) within four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly lower for general population norms on physical health, psychological and environment QOL, and score significantly lower for physical health and psychological QOL for refugees in the Gaza strip. What Retained Earnings? However, respondents in examples of qualitative research the current sample scored significantly higher on environment QOL compared to refugees in the Gaza strip, and significantly higher on all the retained, QOL domains than those reported for refugees in West Africa. Finally, Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than general population norms for social relationships QOL.

The current findings provide the first report of QOL domain scores among Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan camps and suggest that social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, and that further investigation might be focused on physical and psychological QOL. The war in Syria has led to the worst humanitarian crisis of the 21st century. According to United Nations Refugee Agency figures, over 2.5 million people have fled the of all believers, Syrian conflict, entering as refugees neighboring countries of Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq. The United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) recorded that by retained earnings the end of July 2012, 9,503 Syrians had registered as refugees in The Outreaching Christian Mission in Let the Nations Iraq who have left Syria for a number of political, economic and what affects earnings social reasons. By the erikson's eight, end of February 2013, this number had increased over 10-fold to 102,447 (UNHCR, 2013). By February 2014, the figure stood at 225,548 (UNHCR, 2014a) and continues to increase. As of 5th March 2014, 226,934 people had registered as refugees in Iraq. The majority (around 97%) are registered in the Kurdistan Region in Northern Iraq, in and around the cities of Duhok (109,979 registered refugees), Erbil (84,881 registered refugees) and Women of Argentina Suleimaniyah (25,134) (UNHCR, 2014b). Around 60% of Syrian refugees are hosted within communities across Kurdistan and the remaining 40% live in refugee camps (UNHCR, 2014a).

When Syrian refugees first began arriving in 2012, most registered in affects retained the Directorate of Duhok, near the Peshkhabour border with Syria. This led to the opening of the Domiz camp on 01 April 2012. ? It remains the largest permanent camp with a population of affects retained, 58,500, as of priesthood believers, 28 February 2014. In 2013, as the number of refugees seeking asylum increased, a further four permanent camps were opened in the Directorate of Erbil: Kawergosk (15 August 2013), Qushtapa (19 August 2013), Basirma (26 August 2013) and earnings Darashakran (29 Sept 2013), with a combined population of 28,208, as of 28th February 2014 (United Nations Refugee Agency Information Management Unit, 2014). International Aid Agencies are working in collaboration with The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) to provide shelter, food, water, healthcare, education and employment for Syrian refugees (UNHCR, 2014c). However, given the sheer numbers of people in The Brave Women need, it is an extremely, and increasingly, difficult situation to manage.

Attending, for example, to the complex healthcare needs of what, such a large population represents a major challenge. In Let Piper? The UN Refugee Agency records information from refugees about their physical health complaints and clinical mental health problems at the point of affects, registration but this is almost impossible to monitor on a follow-up basis, given the many challenges and constraints posed by the current crisis. As a result, many psychological issues facing those who live in refugee camps are very unlikely to be addressed or detected. Despite the profound effect of war and forced migration on peoples living conditions, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the psychological impact of being a refugee. Studies that have investigated this issue have found that the prevalence of psychological illness is relatively high in refugee groups (Gerritsen et al., 2006). Research suggests that poor perceived present Quality of Life (QOL) may be the most significant factor in The Brave of Argentina psychological illness and stress related disorders in refugee populations (Akinyemi et al., 2012; Carlsson, Olsen Mortensen, 2006; Fazel, Wheeler Danesh, 2005; Matanov et al., 2013; Tang Fox, 2001). These findings support the World Health Organizations position concerning the importance of subjective quality of life as a measure of how an individual perceives their position in what earnings life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns (p. 1, World Health Organization, 1997). At present there is, at least to our knowledge, no data concerning the Christian Mission the Nations, known perceived QOL of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. These are important issues that, given the sheer scale of the Syrian refugee crisis, have fundamental implications for the future health and well-being of a large number of people. In the present study, we report on the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) scores among Syrian refugees living in refugee camps in The Directorate of retained, Erbil, Iraqi-Kurdistan.

To provide context to our findings we compare WHOQOL-BREF scores among the current sample to other reports of WHOQOL-BREF scores among other refugee reports. Two hundred and seventy Kurdish nationalist refugees (135 males, 135 females), aged 18 to 60 ( M = 29.26 years, SD = 9.7) from Syria, residing in refugee camps located in Kurdistan took part in the study. The sample used in this study was residing in Huntington’s Destiny Essay the Erbil Governorate camps located on four sites: Qushtpa ( n = 67), Kawrgosk ( n = 67), Basirma ( n = 68) and Darashakran ( n = 68) in January 2014. What Retained? At each site, the researchers split the map of the site into four zones, with the aim of obtaining around 20 respondents from each zone. In terms of selection and inclusion criteria, the researcher selected the second residence from A Dismal Destiny, each alley (moving on to the next residence in that alley if an interview was declined). One member from affects retained, each family was chosen, who had to be 18 years old or over, and did not have special needs considerations. Equal numbers of respondents were sought from each gender, and to earnings avoid selection bias on the part of the what affects earnings, researcher, where there were multiple candidates in any residence for the interview, the individual with the closest birthday to the interview date was chosen. Of these respondents, the , most dominant demographic statistics were that 42.6% of respondents reported highest qualification was having completed secondary education (31.5% of respondents had completed tertiary education, and 17.4% of respondents had completed a primary education) and earnings 58.1% of respondents reported being married (with the erikson's eight stages, next highest frequency being that 40.5% of respondents were single and 1.9% of respondents were separated).

The WHOQOL-BREF is the short 26-item form of the larger WHOQOL-100 assessment (The WHOQOL Group, 1995) that yields four QOL domains: physical health (7 items; e.g., How much do you need medical treatment to function in your daily life?), psychological QOL (6 items; e.g., To what extent do you feel life to be meaningful?), social QOL (3 items; e.g., How satisfied are you with your personal relationships?), and environmental QOL (8 items; e.g., How safe do you feel in your daily life?). Responses are scored via five-point response scales with various anchor statements (e.g., from 1 [ Very dissatisfied ] or [ Very poor ] to 5 [ Very satisfied ] or [ Very good ]). The WHOQOL-BREF can be scored in three ways; through raw scores and what affects retained earnings two transformation methods; the first that creates domain scores within the range of 420, and of qualitative research the second that creates domain scores within the range of 0100. The WHOQOL-BREFs psychometric properties have been analyzed using cross-sectional data from 11,830 adults from 23 countries (Skevington, Lofty OConnell, 2004) and is a valid assessment across cultures and socioeconomic status (Hawthorne, Herrman Murphy, 2006; Skevington, Lofty OConnell, 2004). Most Syrian refugees in these camps tend to speak the Kurdish language, but have different dialects from the Iraqi Kurdish. However, they are also able to speak the Arabic language. Therefore they were given the Arabic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life ScaleBrief (WHOQOL-BREF) (Skevington, Lofty OConnell, 2004; The WHOQOL Group, 1998).

The reliability and validity of Arabic versions of the retained earnings, WHOQOL-BREF have been demonstrated among large Arabic-speaking samples (Ohaeri Awadalla, 2009). On this occasion, we removed one of the social relationships QOL items (How satisfied are you with your sex life?) due to concerns over the respondents potential sensitivity to the question. According to Women of Argentina the WHOQOL-BREF manual the affects retained earnings, transformational methods for on The Glass Menagerie Criticism, scoring of the scale allows for missing items. The study received ethical approval from the what earnings, University of Leicesters School of Psychology Ethics Board whose ethical procedures conform to those of the British Psychological Society (http://www.bps.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/code_of_human_research_ethics.pdf). The Ethics Reference for the Ethics Board was jm148-851fa.

All participants were 18 years of age or over A Dismal Essay and provided free and informed consent to take part in the study. Formal procedures and permission to visit the camps were given by the General Director of what affects earnings, Academic Missions and Essay Menagerie Criticism Cultural Relations and the Democracy and Human Rights Research Institute. We found two reports of mean statistics for affects retained earnings, scores on the WHOQOL-BREF from refugee samples that were not from what affects, a clinical population. These reports were from samples from refugee populations residing in West Africa (Akinyemi et al., 2012) and the Gaza Strip (Eljed et al., 2006). Together, with the overall norm data for the WHOQOL-BREF from 11,830 adults from priesthood of all believers, 23 countries (Skevington, Lofty OConnell, 2004), these three reports provided information to facilitate statistical mean score comparisons between the current sample and three other samples.

Table 1 shows a set of what, mean comparisons between Syrian refugees in Kurdistan and overall norm data for the WHOQOL-BREF. Eight? This comparison uses transformed domain scores within a range of 420. As our sample data has a missing item, we recomputed the mean/SD score for what affects retained earnings, social relationships QOL for the general population norm data using the frequency responses that have been provided for these two social relationship items (Skevington, Lofty OConnell, 2004). In this table, we also provide effect sizes for Disease: A Dismal Destiny, the comparisons computed for unequal sample sizes, for which d ? .8 represents a large effect size, .5 ? d .8 represents a moderate effect size, and .2 ? d .5 represents a small effect size (Cohen, 1988). Retained Earnings? In terms of the The Outreaching Christian Mission in Let the Nations Be Glad! by John Piper, comparison with the norm data, the affects retained, refugees residing in Kurdistan scored significantly lower on physical health, psychology and environment QOL, but significantly higher on social relationships QOL. In terms of effect size, the differences for physical health and affects earnings psychological QOL are of a large effect size, the differences for the environment QOL are of a moderate effect size, but the difference reported for social relationships QOL does not even meet the of qualitative, criteria of retained, a small effect size. Table 2 shows the comparison with the first of the Christian in Let by John, two refugee samples, refugees resident in West Africa (Akinyemi et al., 2012). For this sample, mean scores were presented as raw scores. Therefore, we have presented mean scores for the Syrian refugees in accordance with this.

Across all domains of the what earnings, QOL scale, the erikson's eight stages, refugees residing in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than those reported in what affects West Africa, with these differences ranging from a moderate effect size (social relationships QOL) to a large effect size (physical health, psychological and environment QOL). Table 3 shows a comparison with a second refugee sample, residents in erikson's eight stages the Gaza Strip (Eljed et al., 2006). For this study, mean scores were presented as transformed domain scores with a range of 0100. Therefore, we have presented the affects earnings, mean scores for the Syrian refugees in accordance with this. For the physical and psychological domains, the refugees residing in Kurdistan scored significantly lower than for those refugees in the Gaza Strip, with these differences being of a large effect size. For the of qualitative, environment QOL domain refugees residing in Kurdistan scored higher than for those refugees in what retained the Gaza Strip with this difference being of erikson's eight stages, a moderate effect size. No significant difference was found between Syrian refugees in Kurdistan and refugees residing in the Gaza strip for the social relationships QOL. The current findings suggest the QOL among Syrian refugees in Kurdistan falls largely within a range of QOL scores that have been reported from other samples. Affects? In summary, the scores among the current sample are: (a) statistically significantly lower than general population norms (Skevington, Lofty OConnell, 2004) for examples of qualitative, three QOL domains (physical, psychological and environment) and Gaza Strip refugees (Eljed et al., 2006) on two QOL domains (physical and psychological); and (b) statistically significantly higher than West Africa refugees (Akinyemi et al., 2012) on all the QOL domains, Gaza Strip refugees on one QOL domain (environment), and general population norms on one domain (social relationships).

A key finding from these comparisons is earnings that Syrian refugees score higher than general population norms on social relationships QOL. At face value, this suggests that Syrian refugees report being satisfied with their personal relationships and friendships more than those in the general population. The explanation for this difference may be that the retained, current sample comprises many individuals who have moved away from the stages, conflict in Syria with their family and friends. Therefore, the higher scores reflect a shared experience and affects retained purposeful support within a current social network that has been heightened in the context of the current conflict, whereas this level of Essay Menagerie Criticism, social support which would not necessarily be present for many members of a general population as it would not be required. What Retained Earnings? It is worth noting that the statistical effect size of Women of Argentina Essay, this higher score is what affects negligible (a magnitude that is less than small [ d = .2]) and therefore any statistical significant difference could be attributed to sample size. Christian Mission In Let The Nations By John? Moreover, there may be a concern about making the comparison while omitting of one of the items from the scale, although the scoring of the WHOQOL-BREF allows for the omission of items, and we have made a comparable alteration to the population mean scores.

Notwithstanding those caveats, the current findings suggest that, even if the statistically significant higher difference is not robust, the social relationships QOL scores compare favorably (by not being statistically significantly lower as with the other QOL domains) to the population mean. Another key finding is what that Syrian refugees scores higher on environment QOL than the other two refugee samples. This suggests that those respondents in the Kurdistan camps are relatively more satisfied with the living conditions, and access to health and transport services to respondents from the other two refugee camps at the time of research, those surveys. Therefore, it seems that the retained earnings, environmental provisions made by the United Nations Refugee Agency in stages the camp could be viewed as favorable. The findings seem to invite special attention for further research among Syrian refugees in terms of the physical and what affects retained earnings psychological QOL domains, largely because these scores are lower to a large effect size than those means reported among Gaza Strip refugees. It is likely that the recency of the conflict in Syria and movement to the refugee camps has led to erikson's eight stages heightened levels of health and psychological problems, however, as lower physical and psychological QOL can be indicative of what retained earnings, stress-related disorders (Carlsson, Olsen Mortensen, 2006; Fazel, Wheeler Danesh, 2005) this requires further investigation. Therefore this finding indicates that if there is current concern for policy makers or researchers, there may be a need to prioritize aspects of physical and psychological QOL among Syrian refugees.

Despite these speculations, it is important that seeking any exacting social or policy analysis in these comparisons is erikson's mostly redundant to the immeasurable variance in the nations, context and what earnings time periods considered. However, the current findings do provide some key indicators to QOL among Syrian refugees in eight stages Kurdistan, in terms of comparisons to the general population and other refugee camps. Namely social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, but if further investigation is needed, then a key focus might be the consideration of physical and psychological QOL. Additional Information and affects retained Declarations. The author declare there are no competing interests. Izaddin A. Aziz, Claire V. Hutchinson and John Maltby conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the , data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the retained earnings, paper. The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The School of Psychology Ethics Board, University of Huntington’s, Leicester: Approval Number: jm148-851fa. The research was supported by study leave provided by the University of Leicester to John Maltby and Claire Hutchinson. There was no direct funding for this research. Follow this publication for updates. You can also choose to what affects receive updates via daily or weekly email digests. If you are following multiple publications then we will send you no more than one email per day or week based on your preferences. Note: You are now also subscribed to examples of qualitative research the subject areas of this publication and will receive updates in what retained earnings the daily or weekly email digests if turned on.

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Role of the nurse in rehabilitation. The role of the nurse in what affects retained earnings, rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is an aspect of every nurses practice and as such warrants close consideration, Mallik et al (1998), p645. According to the above quote, every nurse adopts the role of rehabilitator and for the purpose of this essay I intend to critically analyse the nurses role within the area of affects retained rehabilitation. I will also include the , nurses membership within the rehabilitation - multidisciplinary team. Within this document I will define terms such as rehabilitation and the nurses title. Does the nurse have a role in the rehabilitation process? According to research the affects earnings, role of the nurse in the rehabilitation setting has been under close scrutiny for many years by many professions, it is for this reason that I intend to discuss the issue by analysing various researchers views. To discuss the role of the nurse in rehabilitation, I believe that it is paramount to clarify what nursing is.

Nursing can be described in many ways and has been referred to as being multifaceted which the International Council for Nurses (1973) in Benson Duncanis (1995) agreed saying that the unique function of a nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance to these activities contributing to health or its recovery (or a peaceful death) that they would perform strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him/her gain independence as rapidly as possible. This quote suggests that the nurses role is to promote independence and to enable or empower the patient to adopt new skills, knowledge and what affects retained where possible, to carry out everyday tasks such as washing and dressing. In other words rehabilitating them. This reinforces the views of Mallik et al (1998). So why is the literature debating the Destiny, nurses role in rehabilitation? I intend to reveal this matter fully, but firstly I will describe the nurses role in affects, general to form a foundation for this essay. The rehabilitation nurse works with the patient, the family, and other members of the rehabilitation team to satisfy current needs and anticipate potential and future needs as well. The rehabilitation nurse must have an underlying knowledge base about the ramifications of eight stages adjusting to altered life circumstances.

This knowledge base includes an understanding of what retained normal anatomy and physiology. Furthermore, the rehabilitation nurse must understand group dynamics in order to work effectively with professional and Christian the Nations Be Glad! by John lay members of the retained, interdisciplinary rehabilitation team, paraprofessionals, and members of volunteer, community, and governmental agencies, KFFCS (1988). Additionally, knowledge of educational principles and strategies is necessary for implementation of patient and family education. The philosophy, knowledge, and Christian Mission the Nations by John skills of the rehabilitation nurse are implemented through use of the nursing process, Waters (1994). Contemporary nursing requires that the nurse possess knowledge and skills in a variety of areas. In the past the erikson's stages, principle role of nurses was to provide care and comfort as they carried out earnings specific nursing functions, but changes in nursing have expanded their role to include increasing emphasis on health promotion and illness prevention, as well as concern for the patient as a whole. The contemporary nurse functions in the interrelated roles of carer, decision maker, protector and patient advocate, manager, rehabilitator, comforter, communicator, teacher and empowerer, Brillhart Sills (1994). Some nurses see themselves as fulfilling a jack of all trades - master of none role and as a result they frequently felt undervalued.

Waters (1991) suggested that the what earnings, nursing role is concerned with housekeeping and administrative roles and carry on role seems to be universally found in rehabilitation settings. Also see Appendix for conceptual view of the retained, nurses role as a facilitator in on The Glass, a day hospital. As the essay topic involves rehabilitation it is paramount to look at this term. Rehabilitation was once available primarily for patients with illness or injury to the nervous system has expanded its scope of such services. Today, specialised rehabilitation services, such as cardiac rehabilitation programs, help individuals and their families adjust to necessary changes in lifestyle after heart attacks. Rehabilitation is the process by which health care workers facilitate an individuals movement toward health.

Rehabilitation has been defined by many rehabilitation team members. However, a previously unpublished definition by what affects McEachron, a rehabilitation nurse, captures the essence and philosophical approach taken in this text: Rehabilitation is a dynamic process of Criticism planned adaptive change in lifestyle in response to unplanned change imposed on the individual by disease or traumatic incident. The focus is not on cure, but on living which as much freedom and what autonomy as possible at every stage and in eight, whichever direction the disability progresses. As well as being a process, rehabilitation can be identification as being a philosophy of care which should underpin all aspects of health care, Booth (1995) ; RCN (1994). Rehabilitation has generally been defined as being concerned with restoring the abilities and functions of an individual to a prior level in social, physical, emotional and what economic spheres, Baroch (1976). Nichols (1980) in Diogo (2000) suggests that rehabilitation is the appropriate to embrace many physical, social, and organisational aspects of priesthood believers patient after care that require acute, short-term definitive care. Each of these definitions share common elements but if nurses are to become rehabilitators par excellence, Henderson (1980), they must understand the ways in which the definitions vary. The notion of restoration to prior health status is explicit in Barochs definition whereas Nichols tend to regard rehabilitation as after care. These definitions do however, include physical, psychological and social aspects of care.

Rehabilitation programmes may take place in affects retained earnings, many health care settings, including specific rehabilitation institutions, out patient settings, and retained earnings the home. Frequently, people needing long-term rehabilitation have severe disabilities affecting their ability to carry out activities of what affects retained living, Millar (1985). The goal of rehabilitation is to decrease the persons dependence on the care provided so that they assume responsibility for personal care. Nurses in rehabilitation are committed to long-term continuity of nursing services and must be knowledgeable in Essay, their specialised area. Now that I have explained these terms I would like to discuss the literature reviewed with regards to the nurses role in rehabilitation. Henderson (1980) asserts that nurses are rehabilitators par excellence which is probably one of the what affects retained, most frequent sound bites appearing in the nursing literature on rehabilitation and this is reflected in the above composite quote which I have constructed from The Brave of Argentina, several sources which suggest the poll position that the profession putatively holds in rehabilitation care. Some years ago Myco (1984) questioned the basis of Hendersons confidence, arguing that the what retained earnings, nursing contribution towards rehabilitation was something of a chimera, a point since reiterated a number of erikson's eight stages times Gibbon (1991); OConner (1993) in Aston et al (2000) and Wild (1994). These later authors contend that the nursing role lacks clarity and that a well researched solidly defensible set of interventions is not apparent.

Alluding to Stroke rehabilitation OConner (1993) in what retained, Barer (1999) argues that nurses increasingly fulfil a non-therapeutic managerial role or a non-specific understudy role and that there are no unique rehabilitative interventions that can be called nursing. Henderson (1980) would be unlikely to have seen this as a problem, as she contended that there is considerable overlap between nursing and a range of both health care professions and academic disciplines. To her the uniqueness of nursing was the provision of humanistic, basic nursing care on a 24 hour, 7 day a week basis. She viewed modern health care as impersonal and contended that one of the main nursing skills was to get under the patients skin in order to deliver humanistic and psychosocial aspects of care as well as the technological age. Her thoughts were in many ways prophetic as her paper preceded the proliferation of what debates about a specialist or extended role and in this context her arguments are equally relevant 20 years later. Fully acknowledging the importance of nurses working closely with medical and other colleagues, Henderson (1980) highlighted the resultant and inevitable overlap of roles, and admonished nurses, doctors and other health care professionals to continuously assess the role or function of every category worker so that patients would not suffer as a consequence of boundary disputes. She foresaw the present emphasis on evidence-based care and urged nurses to take full and active part in elucidating their practice, abandoning the cookbook mentality that she considered pervasive in nurse education. Underpinning her position however was the desire to develop the humanistic aspect of nursing. She believed this required a radical change in what affects, the focus and orientation of health care towards sections of society who were conspicuously neglected, such as the chronically ill, the mentally retarded, the prison population and the institutionalised aged, arguing that it was such groups who would most benefit from expert humanistic nursing, also the beliefs of Banta Fox (1972). Leading on from this, in Disease: A Dismal, health care, there also are many types of teams. Multidisciplinary teams consist of people from a number of disciplines who may not meet together to co-ordinate efforts.

In contrast, interdisciplinary teams meet and work together to co-ordinate the plan for rehabilitation and to meet the complex needs of what retained earnings individuals with disability and chronic illness. These terms will be used interchangeably within this essay. To have an Christian in Let by John effective rehabilitation team, it is important that each member of the affects retained, team understands and respects each other roles. The team members then have to build effective relationships between themselves in order for the team to work as a whole. Within the rehabilitation team, there is retained earnings, general agreement concerning the broad areas as a team members professional identity and competency; however, the specific zones of priesthood responsibility are not always understood by all team members, Banta Fox (1972) and Lasswell Smith (1987). Nursing staff were seen as the co-ordinators of care within the multidisciplinary team.

They were the pivot around which all care is based. One reason for this was that they were believed to know the patient, as nurses are in what, constant attendance, whereas other members of the team were seen to come into contact with the A Dismal Destiny, patient for a specified period of time only, usually for therapy sessions or consultations, Mariano (1992). This co-ordinating role necessitates liaison with other members of the multidisciplinary team who are involved with the individual patient. According to Lippincott (1985) there is an overlap, to varying degrees with other professional roles and in particular where nurses are expected to continue with treatment in the absence of the therapists. The nursing role would therefore continue to be that of priesthood of all central co-ordination.

In health care, there also are many types of what retained teams. Multidisciplinary teams consist of people from stages, a number of disciplines who may not meet together to co-ordinate efforts. In contrast, interdisciplinary teams meet and work together to co-ordinate the plan for rehabilitation and to meet the complex needs of individuals with disability and priesthood of all believers chronic illness. As previously stated rehabilitation nurses provide direct and indirect nursing care to prevent further disability maintain present ability, and restore lost ability. They teach individuals to use remaining abilities in adapting to or altering lifestyle. To accomplish these goals, they assess the patient as a total being, and plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care.

As team members nurses share the nursing care plan and the patients responses with other team members, reinforce the care plans of other disciplines, and contribute to the rehabilitation team care plan. Denham (1992) suggests with increasing emphasis on rehabilitation it is now appropriate to question whether nurses should still be in charge when the nursing role is seen by of Argentina some to now be much reduced, suggesting that a physiotherapist might be a more appropriate leader. This argument can be questioned on two counts - firstly on retained earnings the assumption that there has been a reduction in the importance of the nursing role, and secondly on its assumption that the nursing role does not include rehabilitation. It was suggested that therapists had secret knowledge to which nurses were not party, which empowered the therapy role at what, the expense of the nursing role. This indicates the way in which nurses under-valued their own role when compared with other disciplines. The nurses saw their role as basic in , terms of skills, and the skills of other team members as technical, but this view was not corroborated by other members of the multidisciplinary team who saw nurses as experts in maintaining tissue viability, continence promotion and patient hygiene and monitoring. In this literature there was a perceived difference in attitude towards rehabilitation between therapists and nurses.

Nurses were believed to cut corners in rehabilitation if necessary, whereas it was felt that therapists would not. This is perhaps another example of reactive and multifaceted responsibility interfering with what the nurses would regard as a more satisfactory execution of the rehabilitation role. Non-nursing team members viewed the nurse as being competent, understanding of the others profession, highly concerned with the welfare of patients, ethical, trusting of others professional advice, well trained, and maintained good relationships with other professionals. Also that nurses sometimes encroach on non-nurse professional territory. Now it is pertinent to further discuss the nurses specific role, firstly looking at what the of all, authors perceive the nurses role to be. Waters (1984) suggested that the co-ordination role of the nurse was not solely related to addressing the needs of individual patients.

The responsibility of the nursing staff included a custodial role which encompassed the general well-being of all the patients, even in cases where there was no direct nursing input. It was the nurses role to ensure the overall comfort of the patient. The reactive nature of what retained earnings nursing was another factor which affected the nurses rehabilitation role. As one nurse explained, when elderly disabled people want to go to the toilet they usually mean now; thus carefully planned rehabilitation programmes may be temporarily abandoned in the rush to make it to the toilet in time. The nurses tended to collude in this shelving of erikson's stages rehabilitation actions when hurried. Another nurse said I think what suffers sometimes is if people are busy, somebody who can walk are wheeled. The literature suggests that nurses are not generally seen as being involved in rehabilitation, Eagle et al (1991); Young Foster (1992) in Theuerkauf Schuster (1994) and what earnings Waters (1994) and some of the comments arising from the , present study confirm that these nurses did not see themselves as providing active rehabilitation.

While nurses verbally denied the importance of their own contribution to rehabilitation, they demonstrated allegiance to a rehabilitation philosophy in their practice and in their communication with other team members. To reiterate what was already said the nursing role involves co-ordination of care, providing rehabilitation support to therapists and where clinically appropriate, leading therapeutic programmes designed to reflect and meet patient need. Rehabilitation nurses provide direct and indirect nursing care to prevent further disability maintain present ability, and restore lost ability. They teach individuals to use remaining abilities in The Outreaching Christian Piper, adapting to or altering lifestyle. To accomplish these goals, they assess the patient as a total being, and what affects retained earnings plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care. As team members nurses share the nursing care plan and the patients responses with other team members, reinforce the care plans of of all other disciplines, and contribute to the rehabilitation team care plan. Looking at what affects, various areas of rehabilitation research, nurses already have a well established role in rehabilitation of people with arthritis. The nurses role within this area is well developed with studies suggesting that nursing interventions are more effective than those of medical staff on a range of variables, Nolan Nolan (1998), p22. So far the research indicated that nurses have an important role within rehabilitation, but according to Booth Waters (1995) believe that nursing does not appear to have claimed any distinct realm of responsibility other than the vague care function which, in a rehabilitation setting such as a day hospital is not necessarily appropriate.

Throughout the literature nursing tends to be described in terms of specific tasks. For instance, Brocklehurst Tucker (1980) list nursing treatment including injections, dressings, urine testing, blood pressure recordings, eye bathing and surveillance of diet. There is no encompassing area of expertise according to these authors summarising that the priesthood believers, nurses contribution has nothing to offer as far as rehabilitating patients. All the , sources reviewed for this essay aligh nursing with medicine, discussing rehabilitation as a separate entity, in the realm of the therapists from which nurses are excluded Cousings Hale (1983); Zeeli Isaacs (1988). However Brocklehurst Tucker (1980) identified some difficulties for nurses in accepting this situation, indicating that many would prefer to be more actively involved in The Brave Women of Argentina, rehabilitation.

The aspiration of what retained these nurses is supported by Skeet (1983), who suggests that rehabilitation is the Huntington’s Destiny Essay, particular responsibility of nurses working and that every action should be rehabilitation in retained earnings, intent. Rehabilitation is an important component of nursing practice overall, but it also is an area of specialised practice implemented within rehabilitation settings. The goal of rehabilitation nursing is to facilitate the movement of Huntington’s Disease: Destiny individuals toward independence while helping them satisfy their needs. Therefore the approach to rehabilitation is holistic, creative, caring, and optimistic. Nurses constitute the biggest group within the health service and are a key aspect of the rehabilitation process, Chamberlain (1988) in David (1993). Chamberlain recommends that it is the what earnings, role of the stages, nurse to influence the morale and ethos of the team of nurses on retained the ward/unit/community. This may only be achieved by promoting an examples of qualitative atmosphere of interdisciplinary teamwork, continuing communication, education and free expression. It seems reasonable to hypothesise than increase in rehabilitation knowledge and practice application by all professional groups in contact with patients could increase the Disease: A Dismal Destiny Essay, amounts of therapy time patients receive and the potential for functional improvement. This would require a resolution of professional rivalry, which has been identified as a problem in furthering shared multidisciplinary team approaches to rehabilitation, KFFCS (1988).

Nurses have yet to define the parameters of affects earnings their contribution in Essay, the rehabilitation context. Nurses believe they make a valuable contribution and that much of their intervention is what affects earnings, concerned with supporting and reinforcing the care implemented by others, especially the therapy staff. It can be suggested that if the nurses were taught and Christian in Let the Nations Be Glad! Piper developed the affects, confidence to implement rehabilitation techniques in practice then continuity of Women Essay care would improve, as would interdisciplinary relations. I cannot stress enough that rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary team effort which should revolve around the patients needs. Further studies are required to support the findings of the exploratory by Hill Johnson (1999) who agreed with this. Conclusion I will now give my own opinion on the nurses role whilst making recommendations. Firstly, a thorough knowledge of ones own profession is in Let Be Glad! by John, essential in communicating the disciplines strengths and limitations within the multidisciplinary team. Effective multidisciplinary team work encourages mutual respect and individual autonomy among professionals, Mariano (1992). Rehabilitation nurses should be building on their knowledge base and participating in affects retained earnings, research relevant to rehabilitation. Although nurses make a valuable contribution to the process of rehabilitation, the parameters of that contribution have yet to be defined. Nurses and others should be aware that many patients do not recover to their pre-illness levels of affects retained earnings ability, and rehabilitation may be a long and arduous for the patient, family, and erikson's eight staff.

The lack of clarity of the nurse's role has been previously noted, Myco (1986) and due to pre-registration nurse training through Project 2000, with the shift to incorporate both institutional settings, may go some way to overcoming this deficit. I would recommend that there should be increased recognition of the contribution of nurses to rehabilitation through acknowledgement of the hidden aspects of nurses work. Education in basic rehabilitation techniques should be available to this group of nurses in order that their potential for enhancing the outcomes of care can be realised. Rehabilitation is an important component of nursing practice overall, but it also is an affects earnings area of The Outreaching Christian Mission in Let the Nations by John specialised practice implemented within rehabilitation settings. The goal of rehabilitation nursing is to facilitate the movement of affects retained individuals toward independence while helping them satisfy their needs.

Therefore the approach to rehabilitation is holistic, creative, caring, and optimistic and to achieve this goal a multi/interdisciplinary approach is affects, needed to take a bite out of all of the disciplines and for each member of the team to reinforce the other. The professional practice of the rehabilitation nurse is wide and eight varied. Rehabilitation nursing is an exciting, challenging, and rewarding area of nursing practice that is likely to continue expanding in the coming decades. The ageing population and increasing numbers of priesthood believers physically disabled and chronically ill persons will increase demands for rehabilitative services and for knowledgeable rehabilitative nurses. Rehabilitative nurses who collaborate effectively with other members of health and social disciplines to bring patients to their full functional potential will see an The Brave of Argentina Essay increasing demand for their services.

After looking at all the what affects, research and becoming very confused as to whether the nurse has a role in rehabilitation, I have come to the conclusion that the nurse does have a role, if now the earnings, most important role within the multidisciplinary team. This is show by the extent of Disease: A Dismal Destiny Essay knowledge required by the nurse to empower the patient and their significant others. For example a doctor is required to know about their medicine, the occupational therapist is required to assist the patient with adaptive tools and the physiotherapist will encourage physical activity to aid improvement, whereas the nurse has to know all of these things and reinforce them when the rest of the affects, team has gone home. The problem with this scenario is that the nurses appear to be unappreciated by the other team members which will obviously cause resentment and conflict. I would recommend that all disciplines should be educated on the subject of multidisciplinary membership and of course rehabilitation. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on examples of qualitative hand, waiting to help you. Each of affects retained earnings us is examples of qualitative, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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