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ap euro homework AP European History Fall of 2017: The following homework assignments are due on refers that, the following dates: 1. Refers To The That! signed parent permission slips. 2. read page 6-9 in student hand book on Analyzing Primary Sources. 1. read and highlight the effect finding Perry Middle Ages article (no need to take notes in the margin for what euthanasia, this article) 2. The Bystander Effect To The Finding! (we did not get to this assignment) be ready to discuss your group's section on chapter 11. 3. This assignment was sent by Google Classroom: take a few minutes to effect to the, fill in the Bark Action Step and the bystander refers finding that, What changes do I need to make to cellini's perseus, my current habits or routines? Saturday, Sunday, Monday 8/19 - 8/21. The Bystander Finding! work ahead on assignments due during the week (a lot is due on Friday) 1 . This assignment was sent by Google Classroom: r ead paragraphs 1-3 and then read one of the following: Pope Innocent III (paragraphs 4-13), St. Of Consciousness! Bede (paragraphs 14-23), or Dante (paragraphs 24-48) 2. The Bystander Effect Refers To The That! read and what is passive, complete chapter 12 questions # 1 - 13. 1. The Bystander Finding That! Renaissance ART DAY! 2. read and complete chapter 12 questions # 14 - 25. 1. nothing is due.

1. read and complete chapter 12 questions 26-33 and turn in chapter 12. What! 2. Read and annotate Sherman Renaissance. The Bystander Refers! 3. read and answer worksheet questions on Machiavelli and history of folk, Erasmus from the textbook page 350. Effect Refers To The Finding That! 4. (this is optional but I would recommend that you watch this video to reinforce how art, wealth, and politics were intertwined during the the bystander effect refers to the that Renaissance) watch the 55 minute video on the Godfathers of the Renaissance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOAVRcI6mFU. Saturday or Sunday 8/26 - 8/27. work ahead on assignments due during the week. 1. Finding That! ch. 13 questions 1-17. Pentangle! 1. flipped lesson on the bystander effect to the finding, the Reformation Begins found on Edpuzzle.com (complete the is passive euthanasia quiz at the end) 1. flipped lesson on the Spread of the Reformation found on Edpuzzle.com (complete the the bystander effect refers to the finding that quiz at the end) 2. ch. 13 questions 18-29. 1. ch.

13 questions 30-48 (turn in ch. 13 for credit) 3. flipped lesson on cellini's, the Catholic Counter Reformation found on Edpuzzle.com (complete the quiz at the end) 1. Refers To The Finding That! nothing is due. Saturday or Sunday 9/2 - 9/3. work ahead on assignments due during the Costa examples week. The Bystander Effect To The That! Monday 9/4 no school Labor Day. 1. read and annotate Sherman Reformation. 1. Read Zinn paragraphs 1-43 (sent through google classroom, there is no need to take notes on the article) 1. read and of folk, complete chapter 14 questions 1 - 14. 2. Edpuzzle: complete the the bystander finding flipped lesson on effect refers, Exploration (complete the quiz at the bystander refers finding, the end) 1. nothing is perseus, due. Saturday or Sunday 9/9 - 9/10. work ahead on effect to the that, assignments due during the week since a lot is euthanasia, due on Monday. Monday 9/11/17 Remember 9/11. 1. read and complete chapter 14 questions 15 - 51 and (turn in chapter 14 for credit) 2. Refers! read and annotate Perry (Exploration/Mercantilism) 3. Edpuzzle: complete the flipped lesson on pentangle, Toward a World Economy (complete the quiz at the bystander finding that, the end) 1. Definition! read and annotate Sherman Exploration.

1. if you did not complete the effect refers that thesis and music, topic sentences for the Dutch essay in class on Tuesday, complete it by refers to the that, today. 2. chapter 15 questions 1-6. 1. chapter 15 questions # 7-15. 2. Edpuzzle: complete the flipped lesson on The Thirty Years War (complete the quiz at the end) 3. read and history of folk, highlight Sherman Thirty Years War paragraphs # 1 -30. The Bystander Refers To The Finding That! 2. Chapter 15 questions # 32-37. Saturday or Sunday 9/16 - 9/17. To The That! work ahead on assignments due during the week. 1. The Bystander Refers Finding! Edpuzzle: complete the flipped lesson on the English Revolution (complete the the bystander effect refers that quiz at the end) 1. The Bystander Effect To The Finding That! chapter 15 questions #16-31 (will be collected) 1. Pentangle! chapter 16 questions # 1-18. 1. The Bystander! chapter 16 reading questions #19-32 (will be collected) 2. Edpuzzle: Scientific Revolution (complete the quiz at the end) 1. An Altered State Of Consciousness! Sherman Scientific Revolution.

2. finish the finding that Women in Science DBQ if you did not finish in class on Wednesday. Saturday or Sunday 9/23 - 9/24. 1. What! Study for effect refers to the, the Period 1 exam on Tuesday. 2. An Altered! Use the following to study: key concepts (white sheets), chapter reading questions, and the bystander effect refers to the, power point notes (do not use the Sherman or Perry readings) You may also want to check out the video reviews from classism definition Richey, Sargent, or crash course that are found in the bystander refers the chapter folders on my website. They are all labeled Video Review: __________. 1. An Altered! After school review session from 2:40 - 3:20. Effect Finding! 2. Refers Finding That! study for effect to the finding that, the Period One Exam on Tuesday 9/27.

1. Sir Gawain! Period One Exam: chapter 12 - 16. Use the following to effect to the that, study: key concepts (white sheets), chapter reading questions, and power point notes, video reviews on the website (do not use the Sherman or Perry readings) You may also want to check out the classism definition video reviews from Richey, Sargent, or crash course that are found in the chapter folders on my website. They are all labeled Video Review: __________. 1. 1. Chapter 15/18: read pages 452-466 and answer questions #1-9. 1. chapter 17 questions 1 -42. 2. chapter 17 questions 43-52. Finding That! Saturday or Sunday 9/30 - 10/1. work ahead on assignments due during the week. An Altered! 1. chapter 17 questions # 53-68 (turn in for credit) 2. annotate Sherman Enlightenment.

1. Enlightenment essay outline: thesis and the bystander that, 3 topic sentences. 2. Sir Gawain! Chapter 18 questions #10-20. 1. be ready to play your role in the Salon. Refers To The That! 1. nothing is sir gawain pentangle, due. To The Finding! go to the homecoming game. Saturday 10/7 - Sunday 10/8. Is Passive! work ahead on assignments due during the week. Monday 10/9 No school because of Columbus Day. The Bystander Effect Refers To The! 1. chapter 18 questions 21-39. 1. Sherman Enlightened Absolutism- high light and take notes. 1. chapter 19 questions # 1 - 14. Saturday 10/14 - Sunday 10/15. work ahead on assignments due during the the bystander effect refers finding that week.

1. chapter 19 question 15 - 29. 2. Edpuzzle pod cast of French Revolution part 1. Saturday 10/21 - Sunday 10/22. Refers! work ahead on an altered state of consciousness, assignments due during the week. Refers To The Finding That! Use the following to study for finding that, the test: key concepts (yellow sheets), chapter reading questions, and power point notes, video reviews on effect refers finding that, the website (do not use the luther king jr assassination newspaper Sherman or Perry readings) 1. The Bystander Effect To The! chapter 20 questions # 1-13. 2. nothing is what is passive, due. 1. read and annotate the Sherman Industrial Revolution paragraphs #1-25 (don't do the last article on The Family and refers to the that, Industrialization) 2. watch and answer the Edpuzzle pod cast on Industrial Revolution Begins (Key Concept 3.1) Saturday or Sunday 10/29 - 10/30. work ahead on cellini's, assignments due during the week. The Bystander To The! 1. chapter 20 questions 14-23 (turn in chapter 20 for credit) 2. watch and history music, answer the the bystander effect refers to the finding Edpuzzle pod cast on Industrial Revolution impact on is passive euthanasia, every day life (key concept 3.2) 3. Annotate and effect refers finding that, be ready to discuss Perry Industrialization. 1. Chapter 21 questions 1-3. 1. Chapter 21 questions 4-11. 1. Luther Jr Assassination Newspaper! chapter 21 questions 12-20. 2. To The! Ed Puzzle 1815-1848 Revolutions and Isms.

1. History Of Folk Music! nothing is due. 2. DBQ skills test will be done in class. Saturday or Sunday. work ahead on assignments due during the week. 1. annotate and be ready to discuss Sherman Congress of the bystander refers to the that, Vienna. 1. ART DAY : Romanticism. 2. chapter 21 questions 20-25 (turn in chapter 21 for credit) 1. in class timed (35 minutes) essay: Consider the cellini's perseus conservative aims of the to the 1815 Congress of Vienna.

To what extent had those aims been maintained by the bystander finding, the 1850s? 1. chapter 22 questions # 1-15. Refers To The That! 2. What Is Passive Euthanasia! Ed Puzzle on Nationalism. 1. chapter 22 questions # 16-18. Saturday or Sunday 11/12 - 11/13. work ahead on assignments due during the week. 1. Marxism quotes. 2. chapter 22 questions # 19- 29. 1. chapter 22 questions # 30-41 (turn in to the finding that chapter 22 for credit) 1. Perseus! nothing is due. 1. chapter 23 questions # 1 - 19. 1. Edpuzzle: Industrial Revolution Key Concept 3.3. Saturday or Sunday 11/19 - 11/20.

work ahead on the bystander to the finding, assignments due during the week. Martin Luther Jr Assassination Newspaper! 1. Annotate the the bystander refers finding Socialism DBQ and write on an altered state of consciousness, a piece of effect finding that, paper in pen an essay to answer the DBQ (limit yourself to 60 minutes) 1. chapter 24 questions # 1 - 15. Wednesday 11/23 - Sunday 11/27. 1. enjoy spending time with your family. 2. enjoy the food.

1. Chapter 23 Map and Chart. 2. chapter 23 questions # 20 - 33 (turn in chapter 23 for credit) 3. chapter 24 questions # 16 - 22. 4. The Bystander To The Finding That! Social Darwinism quotes from to the finding that Spencer. State! 1. chapter 24 questions # 22 - 33. The Bystander Effect Refers To The That! 2. Edpuzzle Imperialism I. 3. What! read European's Assault on Africa: Leopold's Ghost article (no need to take notes) 1. chapter 24 questions # 34 -44 (turn in chapter 24 for effect refers to the finding that, credit) 1. Edpuzzle Imperialism II. 2. after school review C116 from 2:40-3:20.

3. sorry but we will not have time to what is passive, go over the Sherman article on Imperialism. 1. Period 3 essay TEST: essay, multiple choice and short answer. Saturday and Sunday 12/3-4. work ahead on assignments due during the week. 1. Edpuzzle on start of WWI 4.1. 3. To The That! chapter 25 questions #1-15. 1. chapter 25 questions #16. Wednesday 12/7 Remember Pearl Harbor 1. chapter 25 questions #17 -23. 2. Edpuzzle on Russian Revolution. 1. chapter 25 questions #24-31 (turn in chapter 25 for credit) 2. Ed Puzzle on what is passive, Treaty of Versailles.

1. read the AP Euro DBQ practice handout. Saturday and Sunday 12/10-11. work ahead on effect finding that, assignments due during the week. Perseus! 1. work ahead on the questions and refers to the that, Edpuzzles. Cellini's! 1. 1. chapter 26 questions # 1- 12. 2. DBQ skills test. 1. To The Finding! Ed Puzzle Italy and music, Mussolini. 2. ch 26 questions # 11 - 20. 1. ch 26 questions # 21 - 25. The Bystander Effect Refers To The That! 1. Edpuzzle on the Soviet Union.

2. ch 26 questions 26 - 36 (turn in chapter 26 for credit) 3. chapter 27 questions 1-9. * wear your class t-shirt. 1. Euthanasia! review session after school. 2. chapter 27 questions 10-14 (turn in for credit) 2. return textbook. 1. Effect Refers That! Merry Christmas. 1. Effect That! Happy New Year. The Bystander To The Finding That! Wednesday April 5th. 1. practice AP test during the SAT testing. Is Passive! January 16- March 6th. 1. sign up for finding that, the May 12th AP test. Luther King Jr Assassination! Monday 1/2 - Thursday 5/11.

1. buy a AP review book. 1. 2 nd edition of the effect finding that AP Achiever Exam Prep Guide for European History by AP Chris Freiler. Cellini's Perseus! You can order the book at the McGraw-Hill Education site in a variety of formats. Please follow this link and effect refers finding that, then hit the Costa Newcomers Guide examples Shop Now button to reveal the purchase options: http://www.mheducation.com/prek-12/program/MKTSP-GEX06M0.html . 2. The Bystander Refers To The Finding That! Barrons AP European History 8 th edition. 3. Is Passive! Princeton Review: Cracking the the bystander AP European History Exam, 2017 Edition. Is Passive! 2. spend time each week reviewing a portion of the review book. 3. review chapter questions and effect refers that, Edpuzzle notes. To The That! 4. watch review videos from effect refers to the finding Richey, Sargent, Crash Course, and Franz. 5. History Of Folk Music! attend review sessions offered by Franz and Bayer (details will be sent to you later) **Go to the bystander effect refers to the that, this site to sign up for the Spring test.

Link to the review times. Friday May 12: Crush the cellini's perseus AP Euro TEST. 1. eat lunch in the cafeteria at finding, 10:40. 2. Definition! All of your hard work will pay off today. In order to eat lunch and be prepared for the exam to begin promptly at 12:00, you will need to follow a special schedule. Please discuss this with your 2nd block teacher ahead of time so they are aware.

Please DO NOT bring any items to the exam with you except pencils, pens and your BHS ID. Please plan on effect finding that, leaving your backpack and all electronic devices in your LOCKER. We will NOT hold bags or phones for students. Effect To The Finding That! Your locker information is available in PowerSchool if you do not use it frequently. Plan on finding the the bystander effect locations below before the day of the an altered state test. Day of Exam Schedule. 10:40 am- Bring a SACK lunch to eat in the cafeteria. Lunch service will not be available. Report to effect that, the cafeteria at martin jr assassination newspaper, 10:40.

11:00 am- Take your belongings to your locker. The Bystander To The That! 11:10 am- Report to check-in location. You will need your BHS ID to sir gawain, check in. You will complete some day of test information here. A-G: Black Box Theater in the Fine Arts Center. H-M Fine Arts Center Atrium. N-Z: Main Stage- Fine Arts Center. Once the AP Human Geography students have been dismissed, you will be led to the Gym to find your seats. The Bystander Effect Finding That! College Board requires a seating chart for every exam.

Your seat location will be posted at check-in. An Altered State Of Consciousness! 4:00 pm- approximate end time. Please plan for a ride home at this time. The Bystander Effect Refers Finding! The exam may finish at any point between 3:45 and definition, 4:15. Students will NOT have access to cell phones to the bystander effect refers to the finding, alert parents of of folk, end time. All students must bring their BHS Student ID to testing. The Bystander Finding! Students without an classism definition, ID will be sent to student services to purchase one. Pens and pencils (not mechanical) are required for all exams. No electronic devices are allowed in the bystander effect refers that or around the testing room and refers to the, staff cannot hold them for effect to the finding, you. Of Consciousness! You must leave them in your locker. Students will not be allowed to the bystander refers that, retrieve items from music off-campus cars during the the bystander effect finding that school day.

Backpacks, bags and purses are not allowed in or around the testing area, please leave them in classism your locker. Students will not be allowed to retrieve items from off-campus cars during the school day. You will report to the bystander refers to the that, your exam earlier than the exam starting time as there is necessary paperwork to complete. The reporting time is shown on the document above. The Bystander To The Finding! Most afternoon exams will end after the the bystander refers finding school day. Please be sure transportation will be ready for cellini's perseus, you after the effect refers to the exam. Eat and perseus, drink before and after the exam. Effect To The Finding! Water will be allowed at the front of the testing room.

Wear a watch (plain, not a smart watch) to help you keep track of time. No alarms set please!

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Blaise Pascal was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, inventor, and theologian. The Bystander Effect Refers To The Finding That? In mathematics, he was an early pioneer in the fields of game theory and definition, probability theory. Refers Finding? In philosophy he was an early pioneer in existentialism. As a writer on theology and classism, religion he was a defender of Christianity. Despite chronic ill health, Pascal made historic contributions to mathematics and to physical science, including both experimental and theoretical work on hydraulics, atmospheric pressure, and the bystander refers finding, the existence and nature of the vacuum. As a scientist and philosopher of science, Pascal championed strict empirical observation and the use of controlled experiments; he opposed the rationalism and logico-deductive method of the Cartesians; and he opposed the pentangle metaphysical speculations and reverence for authority of the effect refers to the theologians of the Middle Ages. Although he never fully abandoned his scientific and history music, mathematical interests, after his uncanny Night of Fire (the intense mystical illumination and midnight conversion that he experienced on the evening of November 23, 1654), Pascal turned his talents almost exclusively to religious writing. Effect Refers To The That? It was during the period from 1656 until his death in 1662 that he wrote the Lettres Provinciales and Costa Guide Essay examples, the Pensees . The Lettres Provinciales is a satirical attack on Jesuit casuistry and a polemical defense of Jansenism.

The Pensees is a posthumously published collection of unfinished notes for what was intended to be a systematic apologia for the Christian religion. Along with his scientific writings, these two great literary works have attracted the admiration and critical interest of philosophers and serious readers of every generation. Pascals life is inseparable from his work.A. J. Krailsheimer. Pascals life has stirred the same fascination and generated as much lively discussion and refers to the finding that, learned commentary as his writings. This is largely attributable to his intriguing, enigmatic personality. To read him is to come into what euthanasia, direct contact with both his strangeness and his charm. It is also to refers finding, encounter a tangle of incongruities and classism, seeming contradictions. For Pascal himself humble yet forceful; fanatical as well as skeptical; mild and empathetic, yet also capable of withering scorn personified the very chimera he famously declared man to be ( Pensees , 131/164). [Note: Throughout this article, fragments of the Pensees are identified first (that is, before the slash) by the numeration system of Lafuma and second (after the the bystander effect refers to the slash) by that of Sellier L/S.] Interest in his life is also due to our natural desire to learn more about this scary genius , or effrayant g enie Chateaubriands memorable phrase, whose unique combination of talents enabled him to make revolutionary contributions not only to mathematics and physical science but also to the theology and literature of what is passive his age. Merely to list his achievements is once again to encounter Pascal the chimera, the human riddle who was both an avant-garde crusader for empirical science as well as an refers finding avid supporter of ancient prophecy, mysticism, miracles, and Biblical hermeneutics.

Modern readers are usually shocked to classism definition, discover that the father of gambling odds and the mechanical computer wore a spiked girdle to chastise himself and further mortify a body already tormented by recurrent illness and the bystander to the that, chronic pain. He has been the subject of dozens of biographies, beginning with La Vie de M. Of Folk? Pascal , the brief hagiographic sketch composed by his sister Gilberte Perier shortly after his death in effect refers to the 1662 and first published in 1684. New treatments of the authors life have appeared in both French and English with remarkable regularity ever since. Periers memoir established a precedent by applying an Mesa Guide Essay underlying pattern and symmetry to her brothers life. To The Finding? The implied form is that of a well-made play with classic five-act structure. In Periers treatment this life-drama is a divine comedy showing the spiritual rise and refers to the, eventual salvation of a distressed soul who, after a series of trials and setbacks, reunites with God.

Meanwhile Pascals secular biographers and commentators, beginning with Voltaire, offer an opposite view. They portray Pascals career as essentially a tragedy, a descending arc tracing the decline into timidity and superstition of the bystander refers to the that a once bold and independent thinker. Nietzsches characterization of Pascal as the most instructive victim of Christianity, murdered slowly, first physically, then psychologically is a typical summation ( Ecce Homo , II, 3, p. Mesa Essay Examples? 243). Both views are oversimplified. First of all, at the bystander to the no point during his lifetime was Pascal ever a libertine or libre-penseur . So portraying his life as though it consisted of two sudden and powerful conversions, with an intervening slide into worldliness and sins of the flesh, seems a bit too pat and melodramatic. Of Folk? Similarly, since Pascal was a lifelong supporter of the the bystander to the finding that Catholic faith, and sir gawain pentangle, since he also maintained an interest in scientific and mathematical problems well after his commitment to the bystander effect that, Jansenism and Port-Royal, it seems unfair to portray his final years as a betrayal of history music his scientific principles rather than as an intensification or culmination of his religious views. Despite these and other distortions, the traditional division of Pascals biography into five stages or periods remains a convenient way of reviewing his career.

Blaise Pascal was born on June 19, 1623, in Clermont (now Clermont-Ferrand) in the Auvergne region of central France. His parents were Etienne Pascal (1588 1651), a magistrate, civil servant, and member of the aristocratic and professional class known as the the bystander effect to the noblesse de robe , and Antoinette Begon Pascal (1596-1626), the daughter of a Clermont merchant. Pascal was named for his paternal uncle as well as for St. Blaise, the 3rd-century Armenian saint martyred by having his flesh flayed by iron carding combs as his namesake would later punish his own flesh by wearing a belt studded with sharp nails. The Pascal family, including Pascals older sister Gilberte (b. 1620) and younger sister Jacqueline (b. 1625), enjoyed a comfortable, upper-bourgeois lifestyle. Etienne, in addition to being a lawyer, public official, and tax administrator, was proficient in Latin and Greek, a dabbler in natural philosophy, and music, an expert mathematician.

He was also a demanding but loving father who took great pride in the bystander that his childrens accomplishments. Gilberte would go on to become Pascals first biographer and serve as a fierce guardian of his reputation. Jacqueline displayed an early literary genius and earned acclaim as a poet and dramatist before becoming a nun at cellini's perseus Port-Royal. The Bystander Finding? Pascals mother, who was known for pentangle, her piety and charitable work, died when Pascal was only three years old and Jacqueline was but an infant. Pascal was a sickly child who suffered various pains and diseases throughout his life. According to a family anecdote related by his niece, at age one he supposedly fell victim to the bystander effect to the that, a strange illness. His abdomen became distended and swollen, and the slightest annoyance triggered fits of crying and history music, screaming. This affliction supposedly continued for more than a year, and the bystander effect that, the child often seemed on the verge of death.

Hearing of the boys condition, neighbors attributed it to the bystander effect refers finding, witchcraft and blamed a poor elderly woman who occasionally performed household chores for the Pascal family. Etienne, as an educated gentleman, at first scoffed at the accusation, but when his patience eventually wore thin he confronted the woman and threatened her with hanging if she didnt come forward with the truth. The woman reportedly fell to the floor and effect refers finding, promised to divulge everything if her life would be spared. She confessed that in a moment of anger and resentment she had cast a spell on the child a fatal spell that could be undone only by having it transferred to some other living creature. Mesa Newcomers? Supposedly the family cat was given to her and made a scapegoat for the otherwise doomed child. The old woman then prescribed that a poultice of special herbs be applied to Pascals stomach. Effect To The That? After an intense crisis, during which he appeared to be comatose and close to death, Pascal awoke from his spell and what is passive euthanasia, eventually recovered his health.

This strange and improbable witch tale is scarcely credible today. The Bystander Refers To The? But that Pascal endured a serious and what, potentially fatal childhood illness during which his parents desperately tried all kinds of fanciful cures and treatments seems very likely. Effect Finding That? In fact, the anecdote is perfectly consistent with the wild and paradoxical world of 17 th_ century culture and especially the is passive euthanasia medical practice of the time a time when empirical science and natural magic, enlightened new techniques and antique superstitions, were routinely intermingled and effect refers finding, practiced side by side. The exact cause and basis of Pascals lifelong health problems have never been fully settled or accounted for. Is Passive? According to Gilberte, after his 18 th birthday Pascal never lived a day of his life free from pain or from some sort of illness or medical affliction. The most common medical opinion is that he contracted gastrointestinal tuberculosis in early childhood and that manifestations of the disease, along with signs of possible concurrent nephritis or rheumatoid arthritis, recurred periodically throughout his lifetime. Effect Finding? The accounts of Costa Newcomers Guide Essay examples his pathology are also consistent with migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia a complex of illnesses often found together and which also frequently occur in combination with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and emotional distress. Scholarly interest in this matter involves more than just idle curiosity and medical detective-work. The question of Pascals physical and the bystander effect to the finding, mental health goes to the heart of Costa Essay examples desires to learn more about the conditions and circumstances that produce extraordinary genius.

Affliction and disease, physical or emotional trauma, a natural disadvantage or disability have often served as an added motive or accelerator for high-level creative achievement. Examples abound from the ancient legend of the refers that blind and vagabond Homer to the documented histories of modern creative figures like Isaac Newton, Van Gogh, Stephen Hawking, and Christy Brown. We can only speculate whether and to what extent Pascals physical ailments and disabilities, instead of cellini's retarding his career, may have actually spurred and given rise to his intellectual triumphs. In 1631, a few years after the finding death of his wife, Etienne sold his government post (a common practice of the day) along with most of his property and moved with his children to Paris. Over the next nine years he devoted himself to his amateur scientific and mathematical pursuits and took personal charge of his childrens education. Recognizing early on his sons exceptional intellectual gifts, Etienne designed and supervised a special program and curriculum for the boy based on his own anti-scholastic and progressive educational principles. Young Pascal was taught Latin and Greek as well as history, geography, and philosophy all on an impromptu schedule, including during meals and at various hours throughout the day.

Science, or natural philosophy as the discipline was then known, ignited Pascals imagination, and he demonstrated an early inquisitiveness about natural phenomena and a fondness for devising experiments. Civil and canon law were also part of a varied curriculum that included study of the Bible and the Church Fathers. The latter studies were in accordance with Etiennes personal religious views, which were plain and that, respectful and as progressive as his views on refers finding, education. Pentangle? He taught his son his own cardinal principle that whatever is a matter of faith should not also be treated as a matter of reason; and vice-versa. It is a tenet that Pascal took to heart and followed throughout his career.

In the belief that, once exposed to mathematics, his son would be so captivated by it that he would forsake or ignore his other studies, Etienne determined to withhold instruction in math and geometry until Pascal had completed the rest of his training. However, upon discovering that the boy had already achieved an intuitive understanding of the discipline including his own independently worked out the bystander effect to the that, demonstration of a proof in Euclid, Etienne acquiesced. The pages of Euclid were finally opened to history of folk music, the youth, and thus began Pascals belated introduction to mathematics the subject with which he would conduct, at times guiltily, a lifelong love affair. Pascals education was unique for his own time and would be unusual in any era. A passionate student who delved earnestly into each new subject, he absorbed new material, including, at a later period, the most arcane and technical components of theology quickly and the bystander effect refers finding, effortlessly. However, his learning, while deep in a few areas, was never broad and was in some ways less remarkable for what it included than for what it left out.

For example, due to his assorted maladies, Pascals regimen included no physical training or any form of exercise. In addition, because of the sequestered, hermetic, entirely private form of that his schooling, he never experienced any of the personal contacts or opportunities for social development that most young people, including even novice monks in monastic schools, commonly do. To what extent this may have deformed or limited his social and interpersonal skills it is hard to the bystander refers finding, say. He was known to be temperamentally impatient with and demanding of of folk music others while sometimes seeming arrogant and self-absorbed. At a later point in his career, he fully acknowledged his deficiencies and indeed chastised himself for his social ambition and intellectual vanity. Pascal was not widely read in the classics or in contemporary literature. Though he was well acquainted with Aristotelian and Scholastic thought, philosophy for the bystander effect to the finding that, him consisted mainly of Epictetus, Montaigne, and the traditional debate between Stoicism and Epicureanism. Costa Mesa Newcomers Guide Essay Examples? Profane literature was foreign to him, and given his tastes and habits its impossible to imagine him reading, say, Ovid or Catullus, much less Rabelais. In fact its uncertain whether he had even read Homer or Virgil or for that matter any verses other than the Psalms and his sister Jacquelines religious poems. As for drama, Corneille was a family friend who at one time personally championed Jacquelines poetry and dramaturgy, and the bystander refers to the that, the young Racine studied classical literature and rhetoric at the school at Port-Royal while Jacqueline and Pascal were also there.

Yet Pascal never mentions the work of either great writer and indeed other than to refer to classism definition, the stage as a dangerous diversion ( Pensees , 764/630) seems to have taken little interest at all in contemporary French theatre, which was then at finding its artistic zenith. But whatever he may have lacked in physical education, humanistic studies, and art appreciation, Pascal more than made up for in his favored pursuits. Cellini's? In fact, so rapidly did he advance in physics and the bystander effect, mathematics that Etienne boldly introduced the boy at the age of only thirteen into euthanasia, his small Parisian academic circle known as the Acad emie libre. The Bystander Refers? The central figure of this group was the polymathic philosopher, mathematician, theologian, and the bystander effect finding, music theorist Pere Marin Mersenne, one of the the bystander to the finding leading intellectuals of the age. Mersenne corresponded with Descartes, Huygens, Hobbes, and other luminaries of the period and actively promoted the work of pentangle controversial thinkers like Galileo and Gassendi. The Mersenne circle also included such notable mathematicians as Girard Desargues and Gilles de Roberval. These inspirational figures served the young Pascal as mentors, examiners, intellectual models, and academic guides.

It was during his involvement with the Mersenne circle that Pascal published, at age sixteen, his Essai pour les Coniques , an important contribution to the relatively new field of projective geometry. The essay includes an original proof concerning the refers that special properties of hexagons inscribed within conic sections that is still known today as Pascals Theorem. Around the same time that Pascal was working on his Theorem, Etienne, who had at one time served as an adviser to Cardinal Richelieu, incurred the wrath of the First Minister by leading a protest over a government bond default. Threatened with prison, he sought refuge in Auvergne. He was eventually restored to history, the Cardinals good graces by the intervention of his daughter Jacqueline. (The Cardinal, a patron of the theatre, was charmed not only by Jacquelines poetic and dramatic skills but also by her beauty and courtly manners.) Its also likely that Richelieu had an additional motive for welcoming Etienne back. For no sooner was Etienne returned to royal favor than Richelieu appointed him the chief tax administrator for Rouen. At the Cardinals behest, the Pascal family moved from Paris to Rouen in early January of 1640. Rouen was a city in crisis, beset by street violence, crop failures, a tax revolt, and an outbreak of the bystander refers that plague. Essay Examples? It was Etiennes job to handle the taxpayer revolt, which he eventually managed to do by working with the local citizens and the bystander refers to the, earning their confidence and sir gawain, respect. Pascal meanwhile seems to have been little affected by the change of scene and continued with his mathematical studies.

He also undertook a new project. Impressed by the bystander refers finding that, the massive number of calculations required in his fathers work of accounting and tax assessment, he wondered if the drudgery of such labor might not be relieved by perseus, some type of mechanical device. Effect To The Finding? Setting to work on the idea in sir gawain 1642, he eventually conceived, designed, and oversaw the construction of what was presented to the public in 1645 as la machine arithmetique , later known as the Pascaline. His simple design consisted of a sequence of interconnected wheels, arranged in such a fashion that a full revolution of one wheel nudged its neighbor to the left ahead one tenth of a revolution. The Pascaline thus became the worlds first fully functional mechanical calculator, and in 1649 Pascal received a royal patent on the device.

Over the next five years he continued tinkering with his design, experimenting with various materials and trying out different linkage arrangements and gear mechanisms. Nine working models survive today and serve as a reminder that Pascal was not just a mathematical Platonist absorbed in a higher world of to the finding pure number but also a practical minded, down-to-earth engineering type interested in applying the definition insights of science and mathematics to finding, the solution of real-world problems. On an icy day in definition January of 1646, Etienne Pascal, in his capacity as a public official, was summoned to prevent a duel that was to take place in the bystander effect a field outside Rouen. While en route, he slipped on the ice, fracturing a leg and injuring his hip. The family called in classism two local bonesetters, the the bystander effect to the that brothers Deschamps, who moved into the Pascal household for a period of three months to care for Etienne and oversee his recovery. The brothers turned out to be members of the small, saintly community of Augustinian worshippers established at Port-Royal by the Jansenist priest Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, more simply known as the abbe Saint-Cyran.

The Jansenists (named for the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen) accepted the strict Augustinian creed that salvation is effect to the finding achieved not by human virtue or merit but solely by the grace of the bystander effect to the finding God. At Port-Royal they practiced an ascetic lifestyle emphasizing penance, austerity, devotional exercises, and good works. While treating Etienne, the Deschamps brothers shared their stringent, exacting, and somewhat cheerless religious views with the Newcomers Pascal family. Pascal himself, along with his father and sisters, had never displayed much in the way of the bystander effect refers genuine religious fervor. They were good upper-middle-class Catholics, mild and respectful in their beliefs rather than zealous, neither God-fearing nor, to any extraordinary degree, God-seeking. Yet the ardor of the Deschamps brothers proved contagious. Pascal caught the fire and read with avidity the Jansenist texts that were given to perseus, him sermons by Saint-Cyran along with doctrinal works by Augustine, Antoine Arnauld (Saint-Cyrans successor), and Jansen himself. The Bystander Effect? Gradually, with growing assurance, and eventually with complete sincerity and conviction, Pascal embraced the the bystander effect refers to the finding Jansenist creed. According to Gilbertes account, he was the first in the family to convert to the new faith, and effect finding that, no sooner had he done so than he set about to convert the rest of family, first Jacqueline, then Etienne, and finally Gilberte and her husband Florin Perier. It should be added, however, that from Pascals own point of view he wasnt so much converting to Jansenism, or any particular group or sect, as he was declaring or reaffirming his commitment to what is passive euthanasia, the true faith.

In her memoir, Gilberte refers to the events of this period as Pascals intellectual conversion, distinguishing it from his later, more emotional, and traumatic second conversion of 1654. She also asserts that at this time Pascal formally renounced all his scientific and mathematical researches and ever afterward devoted himself entirely and exclusively to the love and service of the bystander effect refers to the finding that God. This claim is inaccurate and is passive euthanasia, indeed hard to fathom given that only a year later Florin Perier, Gilbertes own husband, assisted in the bystander effect to the finding that what is cellini's probably Pascals most famous scientific investigation, the celebrated Puy-de-Dome experiment measuring air pressure and proving the existence of the vacuum. In fact, despite Gilbertes claim, it would probably be closer to the truth to say that, shortly after his conversion to Jansenism, Pascal resumed his scientific endeavors with even more zest and effect finding that, energy than before. The Bystander Finding? In the spring of 1647, partly on the bystander finding, the advice of his physicians, he returned to Paris where he linked up once again with former colleagues and began organizing several new essays and treatises for publication. His supposed renunciation of natural philosophy and the bright world of Parisian intellectual life had lasted all of six months. Contrary to Gilbertes account, most biographers have accepted the years 1649 -1654 as a periode mondaine in Pascals career that is, as a time when he retreated from his pledge to serve only God and resumed to a significant degree the life of a gentleman-scientist. It was not a period of debauchery and libertinism or anything of the kind. Mesa Newcomers Guide Essay Examples? Although he showed an occasional weakness for refers that, silk and brocade and enjoyed the amenities of both a valet and a coach-and-six, Pascal did not become a salon habitue or even much of a bon vivant. He was simply a young man who sought the company of fellow experts, savored the spotlight of recognition for personal achievement, and delighted in the social world of Costa Guide learned conversation and sparkling intellectual debate. His lapse or personal failing, if it can be called that, was what the Port-Royalists referred to as libido excellendi a concupiscence of the mind rather than of the flesh and refers finding, an example of the natural human desire for fame that his contemporary, John Milton, called that last infirmity of noble mind.

Pascals companions during this period included such stars of the Paris social scene as Artus Gouffier, the Duc de Roannez, a former military officer, noted courtier, and amateur dabbler in classism science and mathematics; Antoine Gombaud, the Chevalier de Mere, a soldier, gambler, author, and paragon of honnetete (more than mere honesty, this term connotes an entire code of conduct and the gallant, cheerful lifestyle of an effect refers to the that independent-minded man of the pentangle world); and Damien Mitton, another champion of the bystander effect finding that honnetete whose name became a byword for classism definition, debonair charm and colorful raconteurship. Several commentators on the Pens ees argue that the work is directly aimed at the culture of honnetete and that it specifically targets figures like Mere and Mitton, that is, persons who seek a life of the bystander to the that virtue and of folk music, happiness apart from the bystander effect refers to the that God. Shortly after his return to Paris in 1647 and during a turn for music, the worse in his health, Pascal reunited with his old circle of the bystander effect that friends and fellow intellectuals and was also introduced into classism, polite society. Descartes himself paid a visit (and according to reports wisely suggested that Pascal follow a regimen of bed-rest and bouillon rather than the steady diet of enemas, purgings, and blood-lettings favored by his doctors). The historic meeting between the the bystander refers to the that two scientific and philosophical rivals reportedly did not go well. Pascals new life in Paris was interrupted in 1648 by the outbreak of the Fronde , the violent civil clash that began as a power struggle between Chief Minister Mazurin and leaders of Parliament and which continued as a conflict between the crown and various aristocratic factions over the next five years. To escape the mob havoc and history of folk music, pervasive military presence in Paris, Pascal returned to Clermont along with his sisters, brother-in-law, and father. There he effectively inserted himself into the Auvergne equivalent of Parisian high society and resumed his temporary infatuation with la vie honnetete . He returned to effect to the finding, Paris in 1650, reconnected with his old friends, and began revising and polishing several scientific papers, including portions of a never completed or partially lost version of the bystander effect to the finding his Treatise on the Vacuum . On September 24, 1651, Etienne died; he was 63.

Pascal and Jacqueline were at his bedside. Gilberte was in Clermont awaiting the the bystander birth of a child who would be named Etienne Perier in honor of his grandfather. Pascals letter of consolation to Gilberte, preserved among his complete works, has disappointed some of his admirers due to its austere tone and cold Jansenist view of death (we should not grieve but rejoice at Gods will; the deceased is now in a better world; and so forth.). Refers To The? However, the letter includes a note of affection for the man who had taken personal charge of his education and who was the first to introduce him to the world of science and mathematics. Pascal ends the letter with a pledge that he, Gilberte, and Jacqueline should redouble on one another the love that they shared for effect to the that, their late father. A few months later, Jacqueline finally made good on what euthanasia, her determination (long postponed in obedience to the bystander effect that, her fathers and brothers wishes) to dedicate her life to Newcomers, holy service and enter Port-Royal as a nun. In the summer of 1654 Pascal exchanged a series of letters with Fermat on the problem of calculating gambling odds and probabilities. It was also at this time (although many have doubted his authorship) that he completed his Discourse on Love . And according to effect refers to the, at least two of his biographers (Faugere and pentangle, Bishop) it was during this same period (1653-54) that Pascal himself fell victim to amorous passion and even contemplated marriage (supposedly to the comely Charlotte de Rouannez, his frequent correspondent and the sister of his good friend the Duke). On the other hand, Gilberte in her account of her brothers life makes no mention whatsoever of a love affair, and the evidence that Pascal ever succumbed to romance or became a suitor remains sketchy at best. One other oft-cited, but dubious and unverified, event in Pascals life also dates from this period. According to various sources, none wholly reliable, in October of 1654, Pascal was supposedly involved in a nearly fatal accident while crossing the Pont de Neuilly in his coach.

His affrighted horses reportedly reared, bolted, and plunged over the side of the bridge into to the finding that, the Seine, nearly dragging the coach and Pascal after them. Fortunately, the main coupling broke and the coach, with Pascal inside, miraculously hung on to the edge and stabilized. The commentators who credit this tale attribute Pascals second conversion to it and view his return to Jansenism as an Costa Newcomers Essay examples immediate and direct consequence of his near-death experience. Sigmund Freud accepted the finding story and even used it as an pentangle example of the bystander effect refers how severe trauma can trigger an obsessive or phobic reaction. However, there is no conclusive evidence that the event ever happened.

The crucial event of Pascals life and career occurred on November 23, 1654, between the hours of 10:30 pm and 12:30 am. Pascal lay in sir gawain bed at his home in the Marais district in Paris when he experienced the religious ecstasy or revelation that his biographers refer to as his second conversion or night of the bystander effect to the that fire. He produced a written record of this momentous experience on a sheet of definition paper, which he then inserted into a piece of folded parchment inscribed with a duplicate account of the same vision. This dual record, known as the Memorial, he kept sewed into the lining of his jacket as a kind of secret token or private testament of refers to the that his new life and total commitment to Jesus Christ. No one, not even Gilberte or Jacqueline, was aware of the existence of this document, which was not discovered until after his death. The text of the the bystander effect to the finding that Memorial is cryptic, ejaculatory, portentous. At the top of the sheet stands a cross followed by a few lines establishing the the bystander effect refers to the finding time and date, then the word FEU (fire) in all upper case and sir gawain, centered near the top of the page. Then:

Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu d'Isaac, Dieu de Jacob, non des philosophes et des savants. Certitude. Certitude. Sentiment. Joie. Paix. Dieu de Jesus-Christ. Deum meum et Deum vestrum. Ton Dieu sera mon Dieu. (God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob, not of the philosophers and scholars.

Certitude, certitude, feeling, joy, peace. God of Jesus Christ. My God and your God. Thy God will be my God.) And so on, in a similarly ecstatic vein for effect refers, about eighteen more lines. The parchment copy ends with the solemn pledge: Total submission to Jesus Christ and to classism definition, my director. Eternally in joy for a days trial on earth. I shall not forget thy word. As the the bystander refers finding that name Memorial implies, Pascals words were written down to refers to the, preserve them indelibly in his memory and to bear tangible witness to effect finding, what was for him a soul-piercing and truly life-altering event. Costa Newcomers Guide Examples? His account, despite its brevity and gnomic style, accords closely with the reports of conversion and the bystander refers to the finding, mysticism classically described and analyzed by classism, William James. In the weeks leading up to the bystander effect finding, November 23, 1654, Pascal had on several occasions visited Jacqueline at Port-Royal and had complained, despite his active social life and ongoing scientific work, of Mesa Newcomers Essay feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, lack of purpose, and ennui.

As in the story of his carriage accident by the Seine, he seemed to be a man teetering on refers to the that, the edge in this case between anxiety and hope. His Night of perseus Fire dramatically changed his outlook and brought him back from the brink of despair. After his conversion Pascal formally renounced, but did not totally abandon, his scientific and mathematical studies. He instead vowed to dedicate his time and talents to refers, the glorification of God, the edification of cellini's his fellow believers, and the salvation of the larger human community. It wasnt long before he got an early test of effect refers to the that his new resolve. In fact, hardly had Pascal committed himself to Port-Royal than the Jansenist enclave, never secure and cellini's perseus, always under the watchful suspicion of the greater Catholic community, found itself under theological siege.

Antoine Arnauld, the spiritual leader of Port-Royal and the uncompromising voice and authority for its strict Augustinian beliefs and values, was embroiled in a bitter controversy pitting Jansenism against the Pope, the Jesuit order, and a majority of the bishops of refers to the finding that France. In effect, opponents charged that the entire Jansenist system was based on a foundation of error. The Bystander Refers To The Finding? At issue were matters of Catholic doctrine involving grace, election, human righteousness, divine power, and free will. Arnauld denied the charges and published a series of vehement counter-attacks. Unfortunately, these only served to make the hostility towards himself and the Port-Royal community more intense. He ended up being censored by the Faculty of Theology at the bystander the Sorbonne and stood threatened with official accusations of heresy. He sought sanctuary at Port-Royal-des-Champs and awaited the judgment of Paris and Rome. With the official voice of Port-Royal effectively muted, the cause of Jansenism needed a new champion.

Pascal stood ready to effect refers finding that, fill the role. During the period 1656-57, under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, he produced a series of 18 public letters attacking the Jesuits and defending Arnauld and Jansenist doctrine. The Lettres provinciales , as they became known, introduced an entirely new tone and style into the bystander effect refers to the finding that, contemporary theological debate. From time to time, the genre had served as a forum for obfuscation, vituperation, abstruse technical language, and stodgy academic prose. Pascals Lettres injected a new note of wit and humor and ran the sir gawain gamut from light irony and sarcasm to outright mockery and scorn. They also featured a popular idiom and conversational tone and made use of literary devices such as characterization, dialog, dramatization, and narrative voice. Effect Finding? They became a sensation and attracted the amused attention of readers throughout France. Who, people wondered, is this clever fellow Montalte? The Jesuits, stunned and slow to respond, seemed to classism definition, have met their intellectual match. During the same week that Pascals fifth provinciale (a polemic against Jesuit casuistry) was published, and just when rumors of new antagonism and refers finding that, royal disfavor with Jansenism began to circulate, an extraordinary event occurred at perseus Port-Royal.

As a gift from a benefactor, the community had accepted and agreed to display a holy relic a true thorn, so it was claimed, from the Saviors crown. Partly as an act of faith and partly out of desperation, Pascals ten-year-old niece Marguerite, Gilbertes daughter, was put forward to receive a healing incision from the holy object. For more than three years she had suffered from a lacrimal fistula, a horrible swelling or tumor around her eye that, according to her physicians, had no known cure and was thought to be treatable if at all only by cauterization with a red hot stylus. Yet remarkably, within a few days of being pricked by the sacred thorn, Marguerites eye completely healed. The seeming miracle excited the Pascal family and the entire Port-Royal community; news of the the bystander effect event soon spread outside the walls of Port-Royal and around the to the nation.

After an inquiry, the cure was confirmed as a bona fide miracle and officially accepted as such. Port-Royal rejoiced, and for a while the antagonism against it from the larger Catholic community abated. Pascal regarded the that miracle as a sign of divine favor for his Lettres project and for the cause of Jansenism in general. It also confirmed his belief in miracles, a belief that would form part of the foundation for his view of religious faith as set forth in the Pens ees . Despite the auspicious sign of heavenly favor, and even though the Lettres were brilliantly successful in the short term, they failed in their ultimate goal of sir gawain vindicating Arnauld and Port-Royal. A papal bull condemning Jansenism was issued by Alexander VII in October of 1656 and approved in France in the bystander effect refers finding that December of 1657.

An official oath decreeing that Jansenist doctrine was contaminated by heresy was circulated and all French priests, monks, and nuns, including the cellini's perseus Port-Royalists and Pascals sister Jacqueline, were compelled to sign. In 1660 the refers to the finding that little schools of Port Royal, renowned for excellence and models of progressive education, were closed. Cellini's? In 1661 the refers to the monastery was no longer allowed to accept novices. History Of Folk Music? Early in the next century the abbey would be abolished, the community of worshippers disbanded, and the buildings razed. Overwhelmed by a combined force of royal politics and papal power, Port-Royal would lie in ruins and effect refers finding, Jansenism, though it would inspire a few random offshoots and sir gawain pentangle, latter-day imitations, would find itself largely reduced to an interesting but brief chapter in the history of French Catholicism.

Meanwhile, in the spring of 1658, as he was studying the Bible and doing preparatory work for what was to be his magnum opus the great Apology for Christianity that would become the Pensees Pascal turned his attention once again to mathematics and to the problem of the roulette or cycloid. Gilberte blames this reversion to worldly pursuits on Pascals physicians, who recommended that he leave off his serious theological investigations for lighter activities. She also claims that the solution to the bystander effect refers finding, the problem, which had challenged the likes of Galileo, Torricelli, and Costa Mesa Guide examples, Descartes, came to him almost despite himself and during a bout of sleeplessness caused by a toothache. She finally alleges that Pascal decided to finding that, make his discovery public only when he was at length persuaded by others that it was Gods will. Gilbertes claims are questionable. What is Costa Mesa Guide examples known is that when Pascal, under the pseudonym Amos Dettonville, actually did publish his solution, which was done within the context of a contest or challenge that he had thrown out to to the that, some of the best mathematical minds of Europe, the result was a controversy that occupied his time and energy for several months and which distracted him from working on his new project. The Pensees occupied Pascals final years and were undertaken at a time when his health, which was never robust, deteriorated and grew progressively worse. Effect Finding? Originally conceived as a comprehensive defense of the the bystander effect to the Christian faith against non-believers, the work in what is passive euthanasia its existing form is a rich assortment of notes, fragments, aphorisms, homilies, short essays, sermonettes, and apercus that even in their disorganized and unfinished state constitute a powerful and the bystander effect to the finding that, fascinating contribution to cellini's perseus, philosophy, theology, and literary art. Pascal worked determinedly on the Pensees to the extent that his health permitted him, which was unfortunately not very often or for very long. By early 1659 he was already seriously ill and could work for only short spurts before succumbing to mental and physical exhaustion.

His condition improved somewhat a year later when he was moved from Paris to his native Clermont, but this relief lasted only a few months. When he returned to the bystander effect, Paris he mustered enough energy to work out his plan for a public shuttle system of omnibuses for cellini's perseus, the city. When this novel idea was realized and put into the bystander refers to the, actual operation in 1662, Paris had the first such transit system in history the world. The last two years of the bystander refers to the finding Pascals life were spent in Paris under the care and supervision of music Gilberte and Florin, who had taken a home nearby. It was a grim period for all the Pascals; Jacqueline died in 1661, only a few months after being forced to subscribe to the formulary condemning Jansens Augustinus as heretical. As Pascals physical health declined, his mental powers weakened and his personal habits and spiritual outlook became even more harsh and austere. According to Gilberte, he regarded any sort of dining pleasure or gastronomic delight as a hateful form of to the that sensuality and adopted the (very un-Gallic) view that one should eat strictly for nourishment and not for perseus, enjoyment. He championed the refers ideal of poverty and claimed that one should prefer and use goods crafted by the poorest and most honest artisans, not those manufactured by the best and most accomplished.

He purged his home of luxuries and pretty furnishings and the bystander effect to the, took in a homeless family. He even cautioned Gilberte not to be publicly affectionate with her children on grounds that caresses can be a form of sensuality, dependency, and self-indulgence. In his opinion, a life devoted to God did not allow for the bystander refers to the finding, close personal attachments not even to family. During his last days he burned with fever and colic. Mesa Newcomers Essay? His doctors assaulted him with their customary cures. He wavered in and out of consciousness and the bystander refers to the finding, suffered a series of classism recurrent violent convulsions. However, Gilberte attests that he recovered his clarity of mind in time to make a final confession, take the Blessed Sacrament, and the bystander effect refers to the, receive extreme unction.

His last coherent words were reportedly May God never abandon me. He died at 1:00 AM August 19, 1662, at the age of 39. Even post-mortem Pascal was unable to escape the curiosity and intrusiveness of his physicians. Shortly after his death an autopsy was performed and revealed, among other pathologies, stomach cancer, a diseased liver, and is passive euthanasia, brain lesions. Nor after death, was he granted peace from the still ongoing crossfire between Jesuits and Port-Royal. The Bystander That? Was Pascal, it was asked, truly orthodox and a good Catholic? A sincere believer and effect refers finding that, supporter of the the bystander powers of the Pope and the priesthood and classism, the efficacious intervention of the Saints? Did he reject the Jansenist heresy on his deathbed and accept a more moderate and the bystander to the finding that, forgiving theology? Those questions have been taken up and Essay, debated by a succession of biographers, critics, latter-day devils advocates, and posthumous grand inquisitors. His works have fared better, having received, during the three and a half centuries since his death, first-rate editorial attention, a number of superb translations, and an abundance of expert scholarly commentary.

The Pensees and the Provincial Letters have earned him a place in the pantheon of French philosophical non-fiction alongside names like Montaigne, Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, and the bystander to the that, Sartre. Pascals Provincial Letters (henceforth Letters or provinciales ) are a series of 18 letters plus a fictional Reply and an unfinished fragment composed and published between January, 1656, and March, 1657. History Of Folk? Their aim was to defend the Jansenist community of Port-Royal and its principal spokesman and spiritual leader Antoine Arnauld from defamation and accusations of the bystander refers to the that heresy while at the same time leading a counter-offensive against the accusers (mainly the Jesuits). Polemical exchanges, often acrimonious and personal, were a common feature of the 17 th -century theological landscape. Pascal ventured into this particular fray with a unique set of of folk weapons a mind honed by mathematical exercise and scientific debate, a pointed wit, and sharp-edged literary and dramatic skills. In the background of the letters stand two notable events: (1) In May of 1653, Pope Innocent X in the bystander refers to the finding a bull entitled Cum Occasione declared five propositions supposedly contained in Cornelius Jansens Augustinus to be heretical. (2) In January of 1656, after a long and heated trial, Arnauld, who had repeatedly denied that the five propositions were in Jansens text, was officially censured and history of folk music, expelled from the Sorbonne.

The five propositions can be stated as follows: 1. That? Even the just, no matter how hard they may strive, lack the power and grace to keep all the commandments. 2. In our fallen condition it is impossible for us to resist interior grace. 3. In order to deserve merit or condemnation we must be free from external compulsion though not from internal necessity. 4. It is heresy to say that we can either accept grace or resist it. 5. Christ did not die for Costa Newcomers Guide Essay, everyone, but only for the elect. Two separate questions were at stake: (1) Are the the bystander effect to the finding propositions actually in classism definition Jansen, if not explicitly and verbatim , then implicitly in the bystander finding that meaning or intention?

This was the so-called question of fact ( de fait ). (2) Are the propositions, as plainly and ordinarily understood, indeed heretical? This was the question of right or law ( de droit ). Classism? The Port-Royal position was yes in the case of the second question, no in the case of the effect finding that first. Arnauld claimed that the history of folk propositions do not occur, verbatim or otherwise, anywhere in Jansens text, but he acknowledged that if they did occur there (or for the bystander refers, that matter anywhere), they were indeed heretical. Sir Gawain? Despite the fact that he disavowed any support for the five propositions, he and the Port-Royal community as a whole stood under suspicion of secretly approving, if not openly embracing them. Such was the situation that Pascal found himself in when he sat down to compose the first provinciale . What he produced was something utterly new in the annals of the bystander effect refers that religious controversy. In place of the usual fury and technical quibbling, he adopts a tone of easy-going candor and colloquial simplicity. He presents himself as a modest, ordinary, private citizen (originally anonymous, but later identified in the collected letters by the pseudonym Louis de Montalte) who is writing from Newcomers Essay Paris to a provincial friend. Montaltes purpose is to pass along his personal observations, insights, and commentary on the learned and mighty disputes that recently took place at the Sorbonne. In essence, via his fictional persona, Pascal provides an account of laffaire Arnauld and effect refers finding, the case against Jansenism as viewed by a coolly observant, playful outsider.

In the course of the letter, Pascal/Montalte introduces a series of fictional interlocutors who explain or advocate for the Jansenist, Jesuit, and Thomistic views on a range of theological issues, most notably the doctrines of sufficient grace vis-a-vis efficacious grace and the notion of proximate power. Sir Gawain Pentangle? These happen to be exactly the sort of deeply esoteric, highly technical, theological matters that Montalte and his provincial friend (and thus, by extension and the bystander to the finding that, more importantly, his target audience of plain-spoken, commonsense, fellow citizens) were likely to find strained, incomprehensible, and somewhat silly. Through devices of interview and dialogue Montalte manages to present these issues in relatively clear, understandable terms and persuade the reader that the history of folk music Jansenist and Thomist views on each are virtually identical and perfectly orthodox. He goes on to show that any apparent discrepancy between the two positions and in fact the whole attack on effect refers to the, Jansenism and Arnauld is based not on doctrine, but is entirely political and personal, a product of classism Jesuit calumny and the bystander effect to the that, conspiracy. In effect, a complicated theological conflict is presented in the form of a simple human drama. Irony and stinging satire are delivered with the suave aplomb of a Horatian epistle. Not all of the provinciales deal with the same issues and concerns as the first.

Nor do they all display the same playful style and tone of plaisanterie that Voltaire so much admired. In fact some of the later letters, far from being breezy and affable, are passionate and achieve sublime eloquence; others are downright vicious and the bystander effect to the finding that, blistering in their attack. Letters 1-3 offer a defense of Arnauld, challenging his trial and effect to the finding that, censure. Letter 4, pitting a Jesuit against a Jansenist, serves as a bridge between provinciales 1-3 and 5-10. Letters 5-10 attack Jesuit casuistry and doctrine; in them Montalte accuses the Society of hypocrisy and moral laxity and of placing ease of conscience and the glory of the Order above true Christian duty and love of God. Letters 11-16 are no longer addressed to music, the provincial friend, but instead address the Jesuit fathers directly. Letter 14 includes an extended discussion of both natural and the bystander that, divine law and makes an important ethical distinction between homicide, capital punishment, and suicide.

Letter 16 ends with Pascals famous apology for prolixity: The present letter is what is passive euthanasia a very long one, simply because I had no leisure to make it shorter.) Letters 17 and 18 are addressed to Father Annat, SJ, confessor to the King, and are direct and personal. Finding? Here Pascal virtually abandons the artifice of Montalte and seems almost to come forward in his own person. In Letter 17, a virtual reprise and summation of the case of the five propositions, he repeats once again that he writes purely as a private citizen and denies that he is a member of Port Royal. Since Pascal was neither a monk nor a solitaire within the community, the claim is technically accurate, though it arguably leaves him open to the same charges of truth-bending and casuistry that he levels against the Jesuits. Although the Letters gained a wide readership and enjoyed a period of popular success, they failed to achieve their strategic goal of preserving Port-Royal and Jansenist doctrine from to the finding external attack. They also had a few unfortunate, unintended consequences. Refers Finding That? They were blamed, for instance, for what is passive, stirring up cynicism, disrespect, and even contempt for the clergy in the bystander effect to the finding that the minds of ordinary citizens. Quickly translated into English and Latin, they also became popular with Protestant readers happy to extend Pascals wounding attack on Jesuit morality into a satirical broadside against cellini's Catholicism as a whole.

After the publication of the provinciales , the the bystander finding that term Jesuitical would become synonymous with crafty and subtle and sir gawain, the words casuistry and casuistical would never again be entirely free from a connotation of sophistry and excuse-making. Banned by order of Louis XIV in 1660 and placed on the Index and effect refers finding, burned by the Inquisition, the provinciales nevertheless lived on sir gawain, underground and abroad with their popularity undimmed. Today, the provinciales retain documentary value both as relics of Jansenism and as surviving specimens of the bystander 17 th -century religious polemic, but modern readers prize them mainly for their literary excellence. They represent the sir gawain original model not only for the bystander effect to the, the genre of satirical non-fiction, but for classic French prose style in sir gawain pentangle all other genres as well. Rabelais and Montaigne were basically inimitable and far too quirky and idiosyncratic to serve as a style model for later writers.

Pascals combination of brisk clarity and concise elegance set a pattern for French authors from the bystander effect that La Rochefoucauld, Voltaire, and Diderot to Anatole France. Even Paul Valery, arguably Pascals most severe critic, excoriated his predecessor in sir gawain a prose style heavily indebted to him. Boileau claimed to base his own terse and vigorous poetic style on the prose of the provinciales : If I write four words, he said, I efface three, which had been Pascals habit as well. Effect Refers Finding That? Voltaire declared the collected Letters to be the best-written book yet to appear in France. Cellini's Perseus? DAlembert also cherished the work but wished that Pascal had aimed his sharp wit and irony at his own absurd beliefs. He argued that Jansenism is every bit as shocking, and as deserving of scorn and ridicule, as the the bystander effect that doctrines of Molina and the Jesuits. Of Pascals modern readers only the arch conservative Joseph de Maistre, spearhead of the counter-Enlightenment, utterly scorned the work, calling Jansenism a vile and unblushing heresy and sir gawain pentangle, finding the style of the Letters rancorous and bitter. In the end, its unfortunate that the principal debate in the provinciales was theological rather than philosophical, for it would have been useful and the bystander refers to the finding that, interesting to have Pascals candid discussion of free will vs. The Bystander Effect Refers To The Finding That? psychological determinism, instead of a tortuous doctrinal showdown between efficacious and sufficient grace. Jansens own formula that man irresistibly, although voluntarily, does either good or evil, according as he is dominated by grace or by concupiscence is paradoxical and tries to have it both ways. (Can an effect refers to the finding act be both voluntary and irresistible?) Pascal also seems equivocal on the issue, though he insists that his views are consistent with Catholic orthodoxy.

He wrestled with the is passive euthanasia problem of grace and free will not only in the Letters, but also in portions of the Pensees and especially in his Ecrits sur la grace (1657-58), where he offers an effect finding extensive commentary on Augustine and compares the sir gawain Calvinist, Jansenist, and Jesuit views. However, even there his account is abstruse and theological rather than blunt and philosophical and is thus of interest mainly to specialists rather than general readers. i. Plan and Purpose of the Work and its Textual History. The Pensees are a rarity among literary and philosophical works a magnum opus by a major author that has achieved classic status despite being unfinished, fragmentary, and almost scrapbook-like in form. The Aeneid , The Canterbury Tales , De Rerum Natura , Kafkas manuscripts all had work remaining or were incomplete when their authors died, but they seem like final drafts compared to the Pensees . Sainte-Beuve compared the work to the bystander refers, a tower in which the stones have been piled up but not cemented. The text, as we have it today, represents the sir gawain assembled notes, fragments, miscellaneous aphorisms, and short essays-in-progress of what was to be a detailed and comprehensive Apology for effect to the that, Christianity a defense of the faith against atheism, deism, libertinism, pagan philosophy, and the cult of honnetete . Inspired by the force and certainty of his own conversion and by the late excitement of the Holy Thorn, Pascal was further encouraged by the recent success of the provinciales . Confident in his powers of argument and persuasion, both logical and literary, he felt called upon to is passive, undertake a bold new project. The new work was to be nothing less than a definitive affirmation and justification of Christianity against its detractors and critics. It would also be an to the finding exercise in the bystander to the finding spiritual outreach and proselytization an earnest appeal, addressed to both the reason and the heart, inviting scoffers, doubters, the undecided, and the lost to the bystander effect finding, join the Catholic communion.

In the classism definition Pensees , Pascal would assume the role of refers to the finding both Apologist and Apostle. In the spring of pentangle 1658, he presented a detailed outline of his project, explaining its scope and goals, to an audience of friends and members of Port-Royal. The plan was greeted enthusiastically and given the groups full approval and endorsement. The work would be unified, but layered and the bystander effect, textured, with multiple sections and two main parts: First part : Misery of man without God. Second part : Happiness of man with God. First part : That nature is corrupt. Proved by nature itself. Second part : That there is a Redeemer. Proved by Scripture. (6/40). The project was designed as an example of what is today termed immanent apologetics . In simple terms, this means that Pascal wont base his presentation on objective argument, systematic logic, and metaphysical proofs of Gods existence.

Indeed, except for a few instances, such as 135/167, where he finds evidence in nature for a Being who is necessary, infinite, and eternal, Pascal eschews most of the traditional proofs of God, even Augustines. He will instead appeal to the unfolding history of the Christian faith from its roots in Old Testament prophecy through its early development to the modern Church. Further, he will appeal directly to the subjective human spirit and to each readers personal experience, emphasizing our existential human need for God and our feelings of cellini's perseus incompleteness and wretchedness apart from Him. In essence, Pascal will leave it to readers to effect refers finding that, decide whether his account of the human condition and his descriptions of their social and physical worlds (not as they might wish them to be, but as they actually experience them in our daily lives) are credible and persuasive. If the reader accepts his accounts, Pascal will be halfway to his goal.

It will remain for him to further convince readers that the pentangle solution to our wretchedness, to the disorder and unfairness of life, is acceptance of the bystander refers to the finding that Jesus Christ. He will argue that not only is belief in Christianity not contrary to reason, but that its the only religion that is fully compatible with it. Cellini's Perseus? To support this claim, he will offer historical evidence in refers its favor from the authority of Scripture and ancient witnesses, and also in Newcomers Guide Essay examples the form of miracles, prophecies, and figural (typological) hermeneutics. Effect Refers To The Finding That? However, he admits that this evidence will not be conclusive for Christianity can never be proved by reason or authority alone. It must be accepted in the heart ( coeur a special term in classism definition Pascals vocabulary that includes connotations of spirit, soul, natural human instinct, and effect refers to the that, even love,): It is the heart which experiences God, and not the pentangle reason. This, then, is faith: God felt by the heart, not by effect finding, the reason (424/680). Such in essence was the pentangle plan. The Bystander Refers To The Finding? Its execution, limited by pentangle, Pascals nearly constant illness and fatigue, continued off and on over his remaining four years. Upon his death, his manuscripts were placed in the custody of Arnauld and a committee of fellow Jansenists.

While transcribing the manuscripts, the refers that committee produced two variant copies. The original Port Royal edition of Pascals works came out in 1670, incomplete and carefully screened to avoid offending the government. Prosper Faugere brought out a revised and authoritative edition of the work in 1844. Several new editions, with different arrangements of the material, appeared over the next century. The numerical ordering used in Leon Brunschvicgs 1897 edition became standard, but was superseded first by the 1951 edition of Louis Lafuma (which was based on of folk music, the First Copy) and then again by the 1976 edition of Phillipe Sellier (which was based on the Second Copy). The publication of Jean Mesnards 1993 edition gives French readers yet another excellent text. Death, God, infinity, the nature of the the bystander effect refers to the that universe, the limits of reason, the meaning of life these are just a few of the big ideas and philosophical topics that Pascal reflects on in the sir gawain short space of the Pensees . Indeed, other than the gnomic fragments of Heraclitus or the terse aphoristic texts of Wittgenstein, its hard to think of a work that packs as many provocative philosophical musings into so few pages. Yet even with its multiple subject headings and effect that, wide range of topics, the work can still be read as the deep exploration of a single great theme: the Human Condition, viewed under its two opposing yet interrelated aspects our wretchedness without God, and our greatness with Him. Pascal argues that without God our spiritual condition is essentially a state of misery characterized by anxiety, alienation, loneliness, and cellini's, ennui. He suggests that if we could only sit still for an instant and honestly look within ourselves, we would recognize our desperation. However, we spend most of our time blocking out or concealing our true condition from ourselves via forms of self-deception and amour-propre. (Like Augustine before him, Pascal accurately describes mechanisms of denial and to the, ego-defense long before they were clinically and technically defined by Sigmund Freud).

Chief among these ego-protective devices is divertissement (distraction or diversion), Pascals term for our continual need and almost addictive tendency to seek out mindless or soul-numbing forms of entertainment and amusement. Such distractions may sometimes involve behavior that is immoral or culpable, for example, prostitution, drunkenness, sexual promiscuity, but more often take the form of habits and activities that are merely wasteful or self-indulgent, like gaming or the salon. They may even consist of pastimes that are basically innocent, but which are nevertheless vain, trivial, or unedifying, for example, sports like tennis and fencing. From Pascals severe point of view, even the arts, and especially dance and theatre, are but species of divertissement . So are all the luxuries, consumer goods, and worldly delights with which we proudly surround ourselves. According to Pascal, we use these goods and activities not, as we self-flatteringly suppose, to certify our achievements or add a touch of bonheur to our inner life. On the sir gawain contrary, we use them mainly as a way of concealing our bleak inner reality from the bystander effect finding ourselves and from one another. They are a means of denying our own mortality and hollowness. (136/168; 139/171.) In effect diversions prevent us from acknowledging our essential misery. They create a false sense of security that hides the sir gawain pentangle abyss or vacuum within.

On the other hand, wretchedness and insecurity are only part of effect to the that our nature. Our condition, as Pascal points out repeatedly in of folk the Pensees and also in his conversation with Sacy, is dual. We are one part misery and one part grandeur; and alongside our feelings of isolation and the bystander refers finding, destitution we also have a profound sense of our intrinsic dignity and worth. Pascal calls us thinking reeds, though his stress is on thinking . For thought, he argues, is the effect refers finding that whole basis of our dignity, the the bystander effect to the finding that attribute of our nature that elevates and separates us from the sir gawain pentangle rest of the material universe. Its an accident of history that Pascals collection of notes came to be called Pensees . But the the bystander finding title is appropriate, since the work as a whole could well be described as an extended meditation on human consciousness, on what it means to think . iv. Sir Gawain Pentangle? Critical Approaches and Interpretation. Criticism and interpretation of the Pensees have followed two main approaches. Effect Finding That? The first, which could be called the conventional or historical approach, is the effect to the finding that one favored by the bystander effect refers to the finding, most literary scholars and sir gawain pentangle, historians of religion, including most notably Philippe Sellier, David Wetsel, and Jean Mesnard. According to this view the Pensees are to be understood within the context and framework of traditional Christian apologetics. Moreover, the authors original design and purpose (so far as modern scholarship can determine them) are to be carefully reconstructed and fully respected.

Most of the biographers and critics who follow this approach agree that Pascals primary purpose was to articulate and defend Christianity and especially the to the that Augustinian-Jansenist form of Christianity practiced at Port-Royal against its skeptical, atheistic, and deistic opponents. In particular, they argued, Pascal aims to convert the contemporary free-thinker and honnete homme that is to to the finding that, say, a figure much like his friends Mitton and Mere and indeed not unlike a secular, rationalistic, and worldly version of himself. The work is thus understood to be not an inner drama enacting Pascals own personal struggles with religious belief but rather an artfully contrived dialog with and rhetorical proselytization of an imagined adversary. The I of the work, in this view, is not Pascal himself in propria persona but a polyphonic fiction a range of literary voices and masks adopted by Pascal strictly as a rhetorical device and as a means of persuasion. Thus, any time we seem to refers finding that, hear the narrative voice of the sir gawain pentangle Pensees expressing fear, doubt, conflict, or existential agony we are to understand that voice not as Pascals own, but as that of a literary creation or persona whose utterances are to be interpreted ironically or as presented for dramatic or rhetorical effect.

Although he was neither a literary scholar nor a historian of religion (but more like a cantankerous version of each), Voltaire seems to have read and understood the Pensees in this traditional way. That is, he interpreted the work as an example of Christian apologetics aimed at a scoffer or doubter pretty much like himself. Needless to the bystander finding, say, he was not swayed by Pascals arguments. To the claim that the human condition is one of to the anxiety and wretchedness, he responds that we are neither as wicked nor as miserable as Pascal says. As for Pascals extensive discussion of miracles, prophecy, the figurative interpretation of Scripture, and the like, Voltaire regards the effort as so much wasted breath. He even suggests that Christianity would be better off without such strained and overwrought apologetics, which he compared to trying to prop up an oak tree by effect refers to the finding that, surrounding it with reeds. The poet and critic T. S. Eliot, in his 1933 introductory essay to the Pensees , also interprets the work in this traditional way. However, in direct opposition to Voltaire, whom he acknowledges to be Pascals greatest critic, he finds Pascals arguments on Costa Newcomers Guide examples, the whole sincere and psychologically persuasive. He departs from the effect refers finding traditional reading only to the extent that he considers the Pensees not only as a work of Christian apologetics but also as an example of spiritual biography, an expression of Pascals forceful and idiosyncratic personality and unique combination of passion and intellect (360). In opposition to this essentially historical and the bystander that, scholarly way of effect that reading the Pensees , several critics and commentators, from Chateaubriand and Walter Pater to Paul Valery, AJ Krailsheimer, and perseus, Lucien Goldmann, have offered versions of what might be called a romantic, confessional, or phenomenological approach.

According to this line of effect refers finding interpretation, Pascals fragmentary narrative represents either a fictional portrait of a soul in crisis or a true personal confession in the manner of Augustine (and later Rousseau). Cellini's? That is, it presents a cri de coeur or cri de triomphe that provides a direct look into the heart and soul of a penitent former sinner who, after a long and agonizing struggle, finds Christ and renounces the world. Romantic readers themselves disagree on the extent to the bystander refers to the finding, which this exercise in Costa Essay self-revelation is refers to the a conscious product that is, a carefully arranged and skillfully made artifact or, in a more psychoanalytic vein, the is passive euthanasia expression of the authors actual inner conflicts and the bystander effect refers to the finding, unconscious motives and intentions. They also offer different interpretations of the audience or addressee of the work. Are the Pensees a dramatic monologue?

A private confession addressed to cellini's, God? A dialog between Pascal and the reader? Between Pascal and effect refers to the finding that, himself? Are they truly intended to convert a Mere or a Mitton, and are they addressed only to skeptics and the bystander that, those lacking faith? Or are they meant also as a meditative exercise and inspiration for active Christians, a spiritual tool to help guide believers and strengthen their faith? Or perhaps Pascal, in the manner of St. Paul, is trying to be all things to all people and the bystander to the that, thus to a certain extent trying to do some or all of the the bystander effect finding above at the same time? The great Victorian critic Walter Pater compares the Pensees to effect that, Shakespearian tragedy and notes that Pascal is not a converted skeptic or former infidel who has seen the light. Instead, he seems caught at the very centre of pentangle a perpetually maintained tragic crisis holding the faith steadfastly, but amid the well-poised points of the bystander refers essential doubt all around him. The Pensees , Pater goes on to claim, dramatize an intense inner dialectic: no mere calm supersession of a state of doubt by a state of faith; the doubts never die, they are only just kept down in history a perpetual agonia .

This view of the Pens e es as an interior dialogue or psychomachia dramatizing Pascals own personal struggle between faith and that, doubt is thoroughly rejected by Jean Mesnard and other scholars who insist that any hint of such a struggle is merely a rhetorical pose on Pascals part and employed for dramatic effect. Pascal was proclaimed a heretic and a Calvinist during his lifetime and sir gawain pentangle, has been called everything from a skeptic to a nihilist by modern readers. So to a certain extent Paul Valery in his controversial essay Variations on a Pens e e was for the most part only repeating criticisms of the author that earlier critics, many of them Catholic clergymen, had made before (for example, that he was a poor theologian, that he was insensitive to natural beauty and to the bystander refers that, art, and so forth). Valery seems to recognize a distinction between Pascal the author and the I of the Pensees , but he finds the I of the work so artificial and overwrought that he accuses the author of being hypocritical and insincere. What Euthanasia? Thinking of the passage in the Pensees about the terror induced by the bystander to the, the eternal silence of infinite space (201/233), he says, here is a strange Christian, who gazes upon the starry heavens yet fails to discover his Heavenly Father.

Echoing a criticism formerly made by Voltaire, Valery likens Pascal to a tragic poet who portrays the human condition as much bleaker and cellini's, harsher than it actually is; who describes the fears and torments of life vividly, but who depicts its delights and joys, its moments of excitement and intensity, hardly at all. Lucien Goldmann has argued that the fragmentary form of the Pensees may be an accident due to that, Pascals death, but it also qualifies as a brilliantly achieved creative product, an aesthetically and psychologically appropriate form that not only reflects the true style and state of mind of Pascal himself and of his narrative persona but also captures the mood and classism, temper of his time. Writing from a Lukacsian-Marxist and evolutionary perspective that he calls genetic structuralism, Goldmann views Pascal as both a cutting-edge, creative force and at the same time a product of his personal circumstances and historical era. To The? In this interpretation, Pascal sets up dialectical polarities in the Pensees mans wretchedness vs. his greatness; concupiscence vs. History Of Folk Music? godliness and sacrifice; Old Testament type vs. New Testament antitype; reason vs. the heart; and so forth, all of which are polarities that are supposedly resolved and reconciled in the person of effect to the Jesus Christ. Sir Gawain? Those polarities are homologous with and paralleled by the larger historical oppositions of the period: the the bystander finding that new science vs. Is Passive? ancient philosophy and traditional theology; Cartesian rationalism vs. skepticism; the administrative class ( noblesse de robe ) and bourgeoisie vs. the nobility; Protestantism and Jansenism vs. Catholicism; and so forth. Viewed in effect to the that this way, the Pensees can be seen to encapsulate and effectively dramatize the main intellectual and social dynamics of an effect refers that entire era.

One of the more remarkable developments in Western philosophy is the fact that one sliver of the Pensees , a single fragment of effect refers to the finding that a fragmentary text and but a small portion of the untidy, multi-part, unfinished work that contains it, has achieved a full literary life of its own, with its own lively history of Mesa Newcomers commentary and criticism. This is the famous fragment (418/680) known as Le Pari de Pascal , or Pascals Wager. Extensive discussions of the Wager can be found both in effect refers finding print and online, including an euthanasia article in finding this encyclopedia. These discussions address a range of issues relating to the Wager, such as its status in the development of what euthanasia decision theory and the bystander refers to the finding that, probability theory, the various objections that have been made against Mesa it, and the numerous revised or alternate versions and the bystander to the finding that, applications that have been derived from it. This section will take up only euthanasia two matters related to the topic: (1) the question of whether or not Pascal himself sincerely approved the Wager and believed that it presents a legitimate and persuasive argument for to the finding that, faith in classism definition God; (2) the effect to the finding response to the Wager on the part of a few selected philosophers and critics along with a glance at some of its precedents in effect refers literary history. Simply characterized, the Wager is a second-person dialog in which Pascal imagines an individual forced to choose between belief in the bystander refers that God and disbelief in Him. He analyzes the situation as if the reader-protagonist (the you of the imaginary dialog) were involved in a great existential coin-toss game. The conditions and possible outcomes of the music Wager are presented in effect to the finding the following table: Pascal argues that given the terms of the Wager it is not simply prudent, it is practically obligatory to bet on Gods existence and illogical and utterly foolish to bet against Him. For consider: if you bet on His existence, you stand to win an infinite reward (an eternity in paradise) at the risk of only a small loss (whatever earthly pleasures you would be required to forego during your mortal life). On the other hand, if you bet against His existence, you risk the possibility of an to the finding infinite loss (loss of paradise along with the possibility of an effect finding that eternity in Hell) for only a limited gain (the opportunity to euthanasia, enjoy a few years worth of worldly delights). Pascal was a lifelong Catholic whose personal conversion from lukewarm to whole-hearted faith was accomplished not by rational argument but by a life-changing mystical experience.

So its unlikely that he himself ever gave serious personal consideration to an argument like the Wager. He simply didnt need any further incentive or rational inducement to refers to the finding that, belief other than the passionate conviction within his own heart. On the other hand, its not unlikely that he thought the Wager might appeal to and perhaps even sway a libertine, a skeptic, or a Deist who might be teetering on is passive euthanasia, the brink of belief. Refers To The Finding? And that goes even more for a figure like a Mere or Mitton or any of the other young gallants and connoisseurs of honnetete whom Pascal came to know in the salons and gaming rooms of Paris. After all, what better than a wager to entice a gambler? Follow me, Jesus had said to the fishermen Peter and Andrew, and I will make you fishers of men (Matthew 4:19). Similarly, Pascal, in the role a latter-day apostle, uses a game of chance as a net to bring sinners to salvation.

The concept of the Wager was by no means original with Pascal. Versions of it can be found as far back as Euripides The Bacchae . In the play, when Dionysus proclaims himself a deity and demands to be worshipped, Cadmus argues that its prudent, even if we dont believe him, to honor him like a god since theres no harm in doing so. Pentangle? (On the the bystander refers that other hand, we risk a great deal of refers finding that personal hardship by effect refers to the that, failing to show him proper reverence if he truly is a god.) Sir Thomas Mores anecdote of the Gallant and the Friar presents in history of folk music an inverted form a similar conflict and effect refers finding, moral: When a gallant sees a friar walking barefoot in the snow, he asks him why he endures such pain. Classism Definition? The friar responds that the the bystander that pain is trivial, if we remember Hell. What? But what if there is no hell? inquires the amused gallant, adding then art thou a great fool. Yes, master, the the bystander effect that friar replies, but what if there is a hell? Then art thou a greater fool.

A comical modern parody of the Wager occurs in the 1951 Broadway musical Guys and Dolls . Professional gambler Sky Masterson challenges a group of is passive euthanasia fellow professionals with a proposition: on a single roll of a pair of dice, hell pay each player $1000 if he loses. But if he wins, the the bystander to the finding that gamblers will have to what, attend a midnight revival meeting at the Save-a-Soul mission. As in Pascals Wager, the bet seems irresistible: theres a large payoff if you win, with only a small sacrifice, and even a shot at salvation, if you lose. Sky wins his wager. The gamblers are saved.

Voltaire called the Wager indecent and childish and thought it strange that Pascal reduced questions of the highest gravity to the mathematics of games of chance. As for the Wager itself, he points out that just because someone promises me that I shall enjoy a great benefit doesnt mean that its true. For example, suppose a fortune-teller tells me that she has a strong presentiment that Ill win the lottery. Of course I hope shes right, but should I be willing to wager on her presumed foreknowledge? If so, how much? In the end, Voltaire claims that Nature offers far more evidence for Gods existence than Pascals mathematical subtleties. Following up on finding that, Voltaires objections, Diderot pointed out that Pascals same basic argument (better to believe than not to believe) would apply equally well to any other religion: An imam could argue just as well this way. Indeed, by the bystander to the finding that, this logic, it could be argued that the more fanatical the religion, and the more extreme its promised rewards for belief and punishments for non-belief, the more powerful the argument in its favor. Although he doesnt specifically address the the bystander finding that issue raised by the bystander to the finding, Pascals Wager, John Stuart Mill in his essay Theism provides a utilitarian defense of the effect finding that concept of religious hope. In effect, he argues that in a case where the Costa Mesa Newcomers Guide examples truth is uncertain and the alternatives, immortality of the soul vs. extinction; existence of God vs.

His non-existence, appear equally probable, it is legitimate to prefer the the bystander refers to the finding that more hopeful option as being the choice more likely conducive to overall happiness. In his essay The Will to Believe William James offers a sharp critical assessment of the Wager and finds Pascals basic argument to be weak, sophistic, and insincere: . . Guide Essay Examples? . When religious faith expresses itself thus, in the language of the gaming-table, it is the bystander effect finding put to its last trumps. Surely Pascal's own personal belief in masses and holy water had far other springs; and this celebrated page of his is but an classism argument for others, a last desperate snatch at a weapon against the hardness of the unbelieving heart. We feel that a faith in masses and holy water adopted willfully after such a mechanical calculation would lack the inner soul of faith's reality; and if we were ourselves in the place of the Deity, we should probably take particular pleasure in cutting off believers of this pattern from their infinite reward (224). However, having said this, James goes on to makes a pragmatic case for voluntary belief similar to Mills utilitarian defense of hope and to some extent comparable to Kierkegaards leap of faith. He argues that there are matters where the the bystander effect to the that truth is in doubt and science is incapable of passing judgment as in the question of effect finding that whether God exists. Where that choice is, in his terms, live (meaning that it seems of vital interest and effect refers, value to us and engages us emotionally), momentous (meaning that it is non-trivial and has serious consequences), and forced (meaning that we must choose one way or the other and cannot simply sit the fence or stand aside), then it is lawful, indeed even necessary for us to weigh the risks and evidence and choose . In the end, James basically recasts Pascals Wager in sir gawain pentangle a new form, re-focusing on its existential and effect refers to the finding that, psychological dimensions and dispensing with what he regards as its stagy and cheapening gambling metaphors. Besides his two major works (the Pensees and the Provinciales ), Pascal also wrote several shorter works touching on a wide range of topics from political legitimacy and social order to Stoicism and sir gawain, romantic love. A brief overview and precis of some of the better known and more important of these minor works follows.

Essentially an extensive commentary on refers to the that, human nature and the doctrine of divine grace, the Ecrits represent Pascals most ambitious venture into the arena of Catholic theological debate. First published in 1779, the work was written at the same time as the provinciales and covers much of the same ground (proximate power, concupiscence, free will, and so forth), though in a more serious and less cavalier manner and in Mesa Newcomers Guide Essay examples a more direct and methodical form. Along with other deep matters, Pascal here explicates Augustines distinction between human nature in its unfallen state as pure, innocent, and naturally just, though capable of choice and error, and our postlapsarian condition, which is in thrall to concupiscence and the bystander that, naturally prone, indeed practically bound to do evil if it were not for Gods prevenient grace. Adam was upright but free to fall; we children of Adam are weighed down by sin, and history, incapable of rising by our own effort. But, we are free to accept grace and can therefore be lifted up. Pascal dissects the problem of effect that free will in sir gawain pentangle a similarly Augustinian fashion. Adam had free will in the sense that he could freely choose either good or evil, though he naturally inclined to effect refers, the former. We, in our concupiscent state, are also free to choose. However, we are naturally inclined to prefer evil, which in perseus our ignorant, fallen condition we commonly mistake for good. Effect Refers To The Finding That? Pascal also points out that through the grace of classism definition Jesus Christ, a grace instilled by the Holy Spirit, we can achieve a redeemed will a will sufficient to overcome concupiscence and capable of recognizing and choosing good.

Commentators on the Ecrits have questioned whether its depiction of grace (which is presented as something largely mysterious yet vital for the bystander refers to the, salvation) is consistent with the rational apologetic approach and systematic style of argument that Pascal sought to use in the Pensees . Pascals essay on the geometric spirit outlines both a theory of knowledge and the bystander effect refers to the finding, an intellectual capability or logical mental faculty. Refers Finding That? He asserts that geometry and definition, mathematics are the only areas of human inquiry that provide knowledge that is refers to the that both certain and infallible. He then supports this claim with arguments and demonstrations. He goes on to describe a certain quality or faculty of mind that he calls lesprit geometrique , which he defines as the ability to take known or perceived truths and to present them in such a way with such precise steps, perfect elegance, and logical rigor that their truth cannot help but be recognized and approved by others. Such an irrefutable and triumphant persuasiveness the ability to vanquish all doubt and counter-argument seems to of folk, have been Pascals goal in effect refers that all his writings, whether on scientific subjects or in matters of theological dispute. In any case, the geometric spirit is both a prominent characteristic of Pascals own genius as well as an important epistemological idea (illustrating both the powers and limitations of the human mind) that he returns to repeatedly throughout his writings. iii. Discourse on is passive, the Passions of Love. Pascals authorship of the Discourse on the Passions of Love has been disputed for the obvious reason that its subject (romantic love) and sentiments (that love exalts the effect refers finding that soul, that those with the greatest souls make the truest lovers, that secret or undeclared love entails both exquisite joy and agonizing pain, and so forth) are highly uncharacteristic of the writer and would seem to be far outside his range of interest and expertise.

Yet the style of the Discourse is distinctively Pascalian and some of the ideas contained in pentangle it (such as the distinction between the geometric mind and the spirit of finesse) are certifiably his own. Effect Refers? Thus his authorship, while dubious, is at least possible, and sir gawain, so the question for his critics and biographers becomes: how to account for a work that seems so utterly contrary to Pascals own modest habits and reputation, so much more in the spirit of the salons of Paris rather than the cells of Port-Royal? The most popular way of dealing with the Discourse has been simply to dismiss it as uncanonical and the bystander effect finding, regard it as, at bottom, some kind of anonymously composed pastiche that incorporates bits and history, echoes of the bystander finding Pascal along with selections from other sources. Alternatively, it could be argued that the Discourse is written in the style and spirit of the Paris salons because Pascal himself intentionally wrote it in that vein, possibly as a kind of literary exercise or demonstration on his part for the amusement of his friends Mere and Mitton and their circle. (One can indeed easily imagine the pair challenging their shy friend to attempt such an exercise and then delighting in his successful performance.) So even though the what Discourse may indeed be Pascals, its content and sentiments are for the most part artificial and insincere, many of the expressed opinions being mere restatements or variations of age-old commonplaces and platitudes about romantic love taken either from the pr ecieuse poetry of his own era or from earlier literature. (See, for to the that, example, the history medieval Rules of Courtly Love of Andreas Capellanus, a compendium of witty, lofty, acerbic, or tongue-in-cheek observations about love very similar to refers to the finding that, Pascals.) iv. Discourses on Costa examples, the Condition of the Great. Despite its minor status, the refers finding Discourses on the Great is nevertheless of interest since it is the only work of Pascals that attempts to formulate something like a social or political philosophy. The work (which is addressed to a young man of high degree) begins with a parable about a castaway on an island whom the inhabitants (owing to sir gawain, his close physical resemblance) mistake for their long-lost king. Such, Pascal argues, is the condition of those born to the bystander effect to the finding that, nobility or wealth within society: it is only by coincidence or lucky accident and by the power of custom and convention, not by nature, that they have their status. From this it follows that persons of rank are obligated to conduct themselves with due humility and must never allow themselves to treat those on what is passive euthanasia, societys lower rungs with insolence or disrespect. Pascal concludes the Discourses by reminding his young learner of his true condition and enjoins him to rule and effect refers finding, lead with beneficence. Simply stated, the political philosophy expressed in the Discourses is history of folk noblesse oblige . Pascal acknowledges that the origins of the bystander effect refers human inequality are of two kinds, natural and institutional.

The former arise from relative abilities or deficiencies of mind or body. For instance, A has better eyesight than B; X is taller and stronger than Y).Institutional inequalities, unless they are sanctioned by perseus, divine law, are entirely conventional and sometimes even arbitrary and can be rescinded or overturned. The Bystander Effect Refers To The That? That, as far as social theory is music concerned, is about as far as Pascal goes in the Discourses. Since his primary purpose is to offer moral instruction to a young nobleman, he doesnt address topics like property, the social contract, divine right theory, which was a view recently and avidly affirmed by the bystander effect refers to the that, Louis XIV, or the ethics of revolt. From scattered comments in Costa Mesa Guide examples the Pensees , we know that he was politically conservative and despised violence. Apparently his experience during the the bystander effect that Fronde led him to believe that even oppressive order is better than anarchy and that there is no worse social evil than civil war (see Pensees 94/128, 81/116, 85/119).

v. Prayer on classism, the Proper Use of Sickness. Pascals Prayer to God on the Proper Use of Sickness is a striking work that has perplexed and offended some readers while stirring sympathy and admiration in others. Readers of the first sort, knowing of Pascals persistent illnesses and chronic pain, are disturbed to find him here not only begging forgiveness for the few pleasures he enjoyed during his brief intervals of health, but even thanking God for his lifetime of afflictions and earnestly beseeching Him for more of the same. These readers view the the bystander effect that Prayer as an expression of almost pathological morbidity and euthanasia, the testament of a fanatic. Interpreted in this way, Pascals portrayal of the the bystander refers to the finding that pleasures of life as cruel and deadly and of disease and affliction as salutary and of folk, healing seem not so much holy paradoxes as evidence of the extent to which the gloom of Jansenism had darkened his entire outlook. This reading is defective in at least two ways. First, it ignores the fact that the paradoxes invoked in the Prayerlife is death; death is life; health is illness, illness is health; pain is pleasure, pleasure is pain; and so forth are Christian commonplaces and that the the bystander to the rhetorical use of such figures had long been a standard feature of of folk Christian discourse. (See, for effect refers to the that, example, the writings of Augustine or John Donnes sermons and Holy Sonnets.) Second, any accusation of exaggerated melodrama or overstatement in the Prayer also overlooks the degree to which serious illness and devastating rates of mortality plagues, deaths, executions, amputations were an sir gawain everyday part of to the finding life in Europe during the perseus 17th century. Viewed in this context, the effect refers finding Prayer may still strike modern readers as unnaturally bleak, but it expresses sentiments and sir gawain pentangle, feelings that many of Pascals contemporaries would have been familiar with and shared. The Prayer can be more accurately characterized as a simple statement of faith and humility and a plea for patience and courage. It expresses the the bystander finding blend of neo-stoicism and contemptus mundi that was common in prayers and sermons of the day. Music? Christian stoicism had been recently introduced into French literature via the to the that writings of Guillaume du Vair, and Pascal had likely read Epictetuss Enchiridion in du Vairs translation.

Although he remained critical of classical stoicism, he was apparently more accepting of du Vairs version a philosophical and theological view that holds that we should willingly accept, as a revelation of divine will, whatever fate God bestows on us. Far from being a fanatical doctrine, this was a code that even non-believers found agreeable. Indeed most of Newcomers examples us find it admirable when individuals who are sorely afflicted with a disease or who have suffered the loss of an organ or limb accept their condition with fortitude and equanimity. vi. Pascals Conversation with M. de Saci on Epictetus and Montaigne.

The minor work Entretien avec M.de Saci is not actually Pascals, but was composed by Nicolas Fontaine, a member of the the bystander effect refers that Port-Royal community. It is the record of a conversation that took place between Pascal and his spiritual director Lemaistre de Sacy shortly after Pascal took up residence at Port-Royal in 1654. The work wasnt published until 1736, but its an classism definition important document nevertheless since it represents the fullest discussion that we have of Pascals views on Western philosophy. Effect Finding? The portrait of Pascal that emerges from the what is passive Conversation is the bystander effect refers to the finding well drawn and seems authentic, and the words and Newcomers Guide Essay examples, style are recognizably his own. Many of the ideas presented in the bystander to the that the work can be found scattered throughout the Pensees , where they are expressed in nearly similar language and history of folk, where once again Epictetus and Montaigne stand as mighty opposites: the former championing but over-estimating the greatness and the bystander effect refers finding, nobility of humankind, the latter recognizing but exaggerating our folly and ignorance. Pascal praises Epictetus as a brilliant philosopher whose knowledge of our essential moral duties and especially of is passive our need for patience, courage, faith, and effect finding that, humility is unsurpassed.

Unfortunately, the philosophers diabolic pride leads him astray. For example, Epictetus wrongly supposes that human reason is a perfectly reliable guide to truth. He also errs in sir gawain holding that the mind and the senses are sufficient for perceiving and understanding the true nature and overall justice of the cosmos. Of Montaigne, Pascal remarks that although he was a professed Catholic he nevertheless chose to the bystander effect refers that, forego Christian doctrine as a source of moral law and turned instead to his, admittedly fallible, personal judgment and natural instinct as ethical guides. Pascal then goes on to criticize Montaigne for his utter and thoroughgoing Pyrrhonism symbolized by the device of a scales that Montaigne had emblazoned on the ceiling of his study with his famous motto Que sais-je? (What do I know?) inscribed beneath.

Pascal argues that, in contrast to perseus, Epictetus, Montaignes error consists not in glorifying or over-estimating human reason and the bystander refers that, knowledge but rather in denying them any credit or status whatsoever. Pascal confesses that it is pleasant sport to watch Montaigne poke holes in the arguments of Guide Essay his opponents and see proud reason so irresistibly baffled by its own weapons. Of course, ironically, Montaignes skepticism effectively undermines not just his opponents views but his own arguments as well. Near the the bystander effect to the finding that end of the conversation, Pascal launches into an oratorical peroration describing how the errors, imperfections, and opposing polarities represented by the two philosophers are ultimately mediated and reconciled in the person of Jesus Christ. @ It is therefore from this imperfect enlightenment that it happens that the one [that is, Epictetus] knowing the duties of man and being ignorant of the bystander refers finding his impotence, is lost in presumption, and that the other [that is, Montaigne], knowing the impotence and being ignorant of the to the duty, falls into laxity; whence it seems that since the one leads to truth, the other to pentangle, error, there would be formed from their alliance a perfect system of morals. But instead of this peace, nothing but war and to the that, a general ruin would result from their union; for the one establishing certainty, the Mesa Newcomers Guide other doubt, the one the greatness of man, the other his weakness, they would destroy the truths as well as the falsehoods of each other. So that they cannot subsist alone because of their defects, nor unite because of their opposition, and thus they break and the bystander refers finding that, destroy each other to cellini's, give place to the truth of the Gospel. This it is that harmonizes the contrarieties by a wholly divine act, and uniting all that is true and expelling all that is false, thus makes of them a truly celestial wisdom in which those opposites accord that were incompatible in human doctrines. . . . The Bystander Effect To The Finding? Such is the the bystander to the finding marvelous and novel union which God alone could teach, and which He alone could make, and which is only a type and the bystander finding that, an effect of the ineffable union of two natures in the single person of history of folk a Man-God. No single paragraph better summarizes Pascals philosophical and theological views than this climactic comparison. 3. Mathematical and Scientific Works. Pascal made his first important mathematical discovery and published his first article, the Essay on Conics (1640), at the bystander effect to the finding that the age of sixteen. Barely an essay at all, the work is a one-page document consisting of three diagrams, three definitions, and perseus, two lemmas.

Although it had little immediate impact beyond a small circle of refers to the mathematicians, it was nevertheless a breakthrough contribution to music, the emerging new field of projective geometry. His discovery (which he referred to as his Mystic Hexagram) is known today as Pascals Theorem. It states that if six points are situated on a conic section (an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola), and if these points are then joined by line segments to the bystander finding that, form a hexagon, then if the sides of this hexagon are projected beyond the section, the pairs of opposite sides will meet in classism three points all of the bystander effect finding that which lie on a straight line. Figure 1: Pascal's Mystic Hexagram. This illustration shows that when the opposite sides of a hexagon inscribed within a ellipse are projected, they will intersect at three points along a straight line. (In this case all the points lie entirely outside the ellipse.) After his death, Pascals unpublished mathematical papers (including what seems to sir gawain pentangle, have been a full treatise on conics) were collected by his nephew Etienne Perier. Eventually these manuscripts were turned over to the great German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz for his evaluation and use. Leibniz left behind an extensive set of notes on the bystander that, the collection and history, registered his admiration for Pascals genius.

Unfortunately Pascals original papers have all been lost. In 1644 the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, testing a hypothesis suggested by Galileo, took a glass tube closed at one end and filled it with mercury. He then inverted the tube, open end down, into a bowl also containing mercury and watched as the refers to the that mercury in the tube dropped slightly leaving a vacant space at the top. Contrary to the prevailing scientific view upheld by Aristotelians and Cartesians alike according to which a vacuum in nature is a physical impossibility, Torricelli surmised that the space at the top of the tube was indeed a vacuum and that it was created by the pressure of the external air, which exactly balanced the pressure exerted by the column of mercury inside the tube. Pascal learned of the experiment from his former mentor Pere Mersenne. Cellini's Perseus? Excited by the controversial scientific issues at stake, he set to work devising his own experimental test of Torricellis results.

Just obtaining the required apparatus posed a huge challenge. Scientists of the era typically had to design, specify, oversee the effect refers that production of, test, and of course pay for their own equipment. Pascal did all that and then went to history of folk, work conducting his own experiments and demonstrations. Confident of his results, he went on the bystander effect that, tour to demonstrate his hypothesis, which he was able to do using tubes of different length and diameter and a variety of perseus liquids. He published his findings in a short pamphlet New Experiments concerning the Vacuum (1647). The decisive experiment, proving that the level of mercury in the tube was due to external air pressure, was conducted at the Puy-de-Dome, the mountainous lava dome near Pascals native Clermont. To The Finding? Pascal designed and organized the of folk music experiment, but because of his health issues it was actually conducted by his brother-in-law Florin Perier along with a team of observers, clerics, and effect to the finding, local officials. Using two identical tubes, the team measured the levels of mercury at a base point in the town. Then, with a portion of the party staying behind to monitor the mercury level in one tube, which remained at the home base, Florin and the rest of the party ascended the mountain with the other tube and definition, measured the mercury level at effect to the various elevations. It was found that the level of perseus mercury in the mobile (or test) tube varied inversely with the altitude. Meanwhile, the mercury level in the stationary (or control) tube never varied.

Repeated experiments produced the same conclusive results: the the bystander that level of mercury was due to air pressure, which also has the ability to create a vacuum. Pascal published a record of the experiment in a short document entitled The Account of the Great Experiment of the Equilibrium of Fluids. to which he appended a closing note that deserves quotation since it marks a historic turning point in what euthanasia the advance of effect refers finding modern science vis-a-vis ancient authority. On the basis of his experiments, he asserts that nature has no repugnance for the vacuum and makes no effort to avoid it: . . . all the effects that have been attributed to her horror have their origin in the weight and pressure of the air, that it is history their sole and true cause. . Effect Finding? . . It is not on this occasion only that, when the weakness of men has been unable to find the true causes, their subtlety has substituted imaginary causes to which they have given specious names filling the ears and not the of folk music mind. Thus it is said that the sympathy and antipathy of natural bodies are efficient causes, responsible for refers that, many effects, as if inanimate bodies were capable of sympathy and antipathy; it is the same with antiperistasis and with many other chimerical causes, which but give a vain solace to mans hunger to know hidden truths, and which, far from revealing them, serve only to cover up the ignorance of such inventors and to cellini's perseus, feed that of their followers. One other document relating to the vacuum that dates from this period (October 29, 1647) and which bears special mention is Pascals reply to (the felicitously if improbably named) Pere Noel. A Jesuit priest who embraced the widely accepted doctrine (approved by both Aristotelian and the bystander refers to the, Cartesian physicists) that nature is a material plenum and will not permit a vacuum, Noel had written a letter to Pascal defending the horror vacui viewpoint and arguing that the empty space that Pascal claims to have observed at the top of the tubes in sir gawain his experiments was not empty space at effect refers all but a space necessarily filled with rarified air or some other subtle form of substance . Pascals response is a perfect specimen of understatement and polite forbearance in which the tone often approaches but never quite crosses over into condescension or ridicule. Sir Gawain? The provinciales are usually cited as the original instance of refers finding that classic French prose style, but the letter to Noel and indeed a number of history of folk music Pascals scientific papers all notable for their force, clarity, concision, and elegance as well as for their utter absence of the bystander effect finding that bombast, fustian, and needless adornment could also lay claim to setting the model.

An early paragraph in Pascals letter succinctly defines his criteria and standards of truth in matters of scientific investigation; two later paragraphs illustrate his tactful but forceful way of dealing with the kind of learned ignorance that Sir Francis Bacon had referred to as vain imaginations and the idols of the Costa Mesa Guide theatre: The rule [of scientific method] is never to make a decisive judgment, affirming or denying a proposition, unless what one affirms or denies satisfies one of the two following conditions: either that of itself it appear so clearly and refers to the finding, distinctly to sense or to reason, according as it is subject to one or the other, that the mind cannot doubt its certainty, and this is what we call a principle or axiom, as, for what, example, if equals are added to equals, the results are equal; or that it be deduced as an infallible and necessary consequence from such principles or axioms . . . Effect Refers That? . Everything satisfying one of Newcomers Guide Essay these conditions is certain and true, and to the finding that, everything satisfying neither is cellini's considered doubtful and uncertain. We pass decisive judgment on things of the first kind and effect to the finding, leave the rest undecided, calling them, according to their deserts, now a vision , now a caprice , occasionally a fancy , sometimes an idea , and at perseus the most a happy thought ; and since it is rash to affirm them, we incline rather to the negative, ready however to return to the affirmative if a convincing demonstration brings their truth to light. For all things of this kind [that is, hypothetical entities] whose existence is not manifest to sense are as hard to believe as they are easy to refers to the that, invent. Many persons, even among the most learned men of the day, have opposed me with this same substance [that is, rarified air or some comparable ethereal matter] before you (but simply as an idea and not as a certain truth), and that is why I mentioned it among my propositions. Others, to fill empty space with some kind of of folk music matter, have imagined one with which they have filled the entire universe, because imagination has this peculiarity that it produces the greatest things with as little time and trouble as little things; some have considered this matter as of the same substance as the sky and the elements, and others of a different substance, as their fancy dictated, for they disposed of it as of their own work. But if we ask of them, as of you, that you show us this matter, they answer that it cannot be seen; if we ask that it make a sound, they say it cannot be heard, and so with all the remaining senses; and they think they have done much when they have convicted others of powerlessness to show that it does not exist by depriving themselves of all power to show that it does.

Pascal later composed, but never published, two detailed monographs that were discovered among his manuscripts after his death: a Treatise on the bystander to the finding that, the Equilibrium of finding Liquids and a Treatise on the Weight of the Mass of Air . These two treatises represent seminal contributions to refers to the that, the sciences of hydraulics and definition, hydrostatics and include the discovery that if no other forces are acting on a fluid, the effect finding pressure will be the sir gawain pentangle same throughout the fluid and the same in all directions an observation that is known today as Pascals Principle. It is in recognition of his important work in the study of fluid mechanics that a standard unit of pressure is today known as the pascal (Pa), defined as a force equal to 1 Newton per square meter. c. Pascals Triangle and Probability Theory. In 1654, Pascal responded to a series of problems posed by his friend Antoine Gombaud, the self-styled Chevalier de Mere, an amateur mathematician and noted gambler. Effect Finding? Suppose, Pascal was asked, that you are given 24 rolls of a pair of dice. What is the probability of perseus your throwing double sixes at least one time? Mere also asked a related question known as the problem of the points (also known as the problem of the the bystander to the that division of the stakes). Is Passive Euthanasia? This problem asks, if a wager game is terminated before it has been completed, how should the contestants divide the stakes?

For example, suppose that A and B are playing a winner-take-all game in which a point is scored on every try and the winner is the first player to reach ten points. How should the stakes be divided if the game is terminated after A has 7 points and B has 5? Pascal developed solutions to these and other problems relating to effect refers finding, the calculation of gambling odds and in an exchange of letters shared his insights with the the bystander refers finding that great Toulouse mathematician Pierre de Fermat. Together the two correspondents effectively founded the the bystander effect refers modern theory of probability. Part of the cellini's perseus foundation for the modern theory is provided in Pascals Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle, which he composed in 1653. (He sent a copy of this document to Fermat during their correspondence, but it was never published until after his death.) The Treatise explains how to effect to the, construct and apply the remarkable configuration (in essence a triangular array of binomial coefficients) known today as Pascals Triangle. The array had been generated and used previously by pentangle, Chinese, Indian, Persian, and European mathematicians, and Pascal never claimed to to the that, have discovered or originated it.

He was simply interested in demonstrating its fascinating properties and cellini's, powers. Figure 2. Pascal's Triangle. Pascal calls the square containing each number in the array a cell . Refers To The That? The numeral 1s at the top of his triangle head perpendicular rows ; those on of folk music, the left side of the triangle head parallel rows . He calls the third (diagonal) side of the triangle the base. The Bystander Effect To The That? Cells along any diagonal row are called cells of the same base . The first diagonal row (consisting of the number 1) is row 0. The second diagonal row (1, 1) is row 1; and so on. The number value of each cell is equal to the sum of its immediately preceding perpendicular and music, parallel cells. For example, 120 in the base diagonal (item 4 in effect refers to the finding row 7) = 36 + 84.

Furthermore, the number value of to the each cell is also equal to the sum of all the to the cells of the preceding row (from the first cell to the cell immediately above the target cell). For example, 126 (the number value of cell 6 in row 5) = 1 + 4 + 10 + 20 + 35 + 56 (the sum of effect cells 1-6 of effect refers to the that row 4). Pascal explains in detail how the Triangle can be used to calculate combinations (that is to compute C in cases where n C r = n things taken r at a time). Music? As Pascal demonstrates, to find the answer we would move perpendicularly down to the nth row and then move diagonally r cells. For example, for 5 C 4, we would go perpendicularly down to the bystander to the finding that, row 5 and then move diagonally 4 cells and pentangle, find that the number of combinations is 5. Similarly, if we calculate for effect refers that, 6 C 3 ,we would move down 6 rows and then diagonally 3 cells and find that the what answer is 20. And so on. The Bystander Refers? In another section of the Treatise, Pascal explains how to use the is passive Triangle to solve the Problem of Points. Solutions to Meres problems: 1. Probability of at least one double-six in 24 rolls of two dice: 1 - (35/36) 24 = 0.4914.

2. Problem of points: A needs 3 more points, B needs 5 more points. The Bystander? (Game will end after seven more tries since at that juncture one of the players must reach ten points.) Count 3 + 5 rows on the Triangle; then sum the first 5 items. That sum divided by the sum of all items in the row is cellini's perseus As portion of the stakes. Then sum the remaining 3 items in the bystander refers to the finding that the row and what euthanasia, divide that total by the sum of all the items in the row. That will be Bs portion. From the Triangle: (1+7+21+35+35) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 99/128 = As portion. (1+7+21) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 29/128 = Bs portion. Expressed as a percentage, A receives 77.34375 percent of the stake; B receives 22.65625 percent of the stake. The idea of mathematical infinity of a number that can be vaguely conceived but whose properties and nature can never be fully understood has strong affinities with Pascals idea of God and also relates to his Wager and to his personal anxiety as he contemplates the eternal silence of these infinite spaces (201/233). Imagine Pascals Triangle.

Now realize that there are an infinite number of such triangles, each stretching out vertically and horizontally to infinity, with each diagonal base in the structure containing within it a theoretically infinite subset of ever-smaller triangles. Such is the effect refers to the paradoxical notion of infinity, a concept that astounded and haunted Pascal, and which has teased, baffled, and intrigued a long list of cellini's perseus theorists and commentators from effect to the finding that Nicholas of sir gawain pentangle Cusa and Giordano Bruno to Bertrand Russell and David Foster Wallace. Although the the bystander to the idea of infinity can fill the imagination with dread, it can also, as Pascal points out at the conclusion of his treatise Of the Geometrical Spirit , provide us with a true understanding of nature and of our place in it: But those who clearly perceive these truths will be able to admire the grandeur and power of nature in this double infinity that surrounds us on all sides, and to learn by this marvelous consideration to know themselves, in regarding themselves thus placed between an infinitude and a negation of extension, between an infinitude and a negation of number, between an infinitude and a negation of movement, between an infinitude and sir gawain pentangle, a negation of time. From which we may learn to estimate ourselves at our true value, and to form reflections which will be worth more than all the the bystander effect finding that rest of of folk geometry itself. A discovery that should have been Pascals final mathematical triumph wound up instead creating acrimony and the bystander to the finding, controversy. In the spring of 1658, supposedly as a diversion while contending with a toothache, he took up the problem of the roulette or cycloid, a problem that had puzzled some of Europes best mathematicians, including Galileo and Descartes, for nearly a century. Figure 3: Cycloid. Imagine a point P on the circumference of the bystander effect refers finding that a revolving circle. The Bystander Effect Refers To The? A cycloid is the curve described by history, P as it rolls along a straight line. Effect To The Finding That? The challenge is to discover and prove the area of this curve geometrically.

Pascal worked out his own solution and then, as was common practice at the time, issued a public challenge to fellow mathematicians. Under the name Amos Dettonville, an anagram of the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, which he had used to write the provinciales (an anagram of the motto Talentum Deo Soli My talent for God aloneaccording to classism definition, Morris Bishop), Pascal drew up a list of six problems relating to the cycloid and offered a prize of 600 livres to the first person to solve them (Bishop 222). If after a specified time limit, no solutions were reported, Dettonville would reveal his own. A problem arose almost immediately when Pascal discovered that his first four questions had in effect already been solved by his friend Roberval. Effect Refers? The contest was therefore reduced to the final two questions, a change that, unfortunately, was not made clear to perseus, all the contestants. In addition, some contestants protested that the time limit was unreasonably short.

Christian Huygens and Christopher Wren published solutions, but did not compete for the prize. A few other eminent mathematicians participated and submitted answers. To The That? However, Pascal, finding none of the submissions fully satisfactory, eventually revealed his own solutions and declared himself the winner. Predictably, this provoked bitterness and suspicions of plagiarism or misrepresentation on all sides. Though the the bystander refers controversy left a blemish on Pascals reputation, his work on the cycloid has been admired by effect refers to the finding, later mathematicians for its ingenuity and elegance, and he is credited, alongside his great contemporaries Galileo, Torricelli, Descartes, Mersenne, Roberval, Fermat, Wren, and Huygens, as having helped to solve the curve once known for its power to attract and captivate all who studied it as the Helen of geometers. In 1672, after having obtained and reviewed copies of Pascals papers on conics and the cycloid, Leibniz attested to their brilliance and concluded that were it not for an evil fate (by which phrase its unclear whether he meant their authors short lifespan or his absorption in what is passive Jansenist theology) Pascal would have almost certainly gone on to make further and deeper mathematical discoveries. Summarizing Pascals scientific and mathematical achievements, it can be said that in an age of amateurism, when everyone from priests and attorneys to soldiers and salonnieres dabbled in natural philosophy, he was a marvel who often found himself in a position analogous to that later experienced by Newton and Leibniz: that is, he had to communicate dramatically new, highly complex and abstract concepts to readers who lacked his extraordinary mathematical imagination and effect refers that, facility. Having made his discoveries more or less instinctively, using his own private mathematical inventions and history music, methods, he then found he had to translate his ideas into the conventionally accepted language and procedures of his peers and effect finding that, fellow numerophiles. Applying his own terminology, one can say that he made his discoveries through what he called lesprit de finesse , that is, the intuitive mind, with its instinctive twists and turns, lucky hunches, and inspired guesswork. He found, however, that in order to communicate his findings to others he had to turn to what he styled lesprit geometrique that is, the geometric mind, which he defined as the skill or capacity for demonstrating truths already found, and of elucidating them in such a manner that the definition proof of finding that them shall be irresistible.

Excellence in cellini's perseus science and mathematics, he argued, requires both capabilities. The Bystander Effect Refers Finding That? It was Pascals good fortune to possess both lesprit de finesse and cellini's perseus, lesprit geometrique in rare and refers that, powerful abundance. 4. Philosophy of Science and what is passive, Theory of Knowledge. Of the effect refers to the finding that many great natural philosophers of the 17 th century a group that includes both theoreticians and experimentalists and such illustrious names as Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Boyle, Huygens, and Gassendi Pascal arguably was the Mesa Newcomers Essay examples one who came closest to articulating a coherent, comprehensive, durable philosophy of science consistent with and comparable to the standard view that prevails today, except that he came up short. As Desmond M. Clarke has argued, Pascal was torn between his love of geometric proof and pure logical demonstration on the one hand and his skeptical, pragmatic instincts in favor of down-to-earth experimentalism and empiricism on the other.

As a result he seemed trapped in a kind of philosophical limbo. (See Pascals Philosophy of effect refers to the finding that Science, in Hammond, 118.) Similarly, although he seemed to recognize that our knowledge of the what natural world is that only probable and can never be certain, a part of him nevertheless remained enthralled by music, the will-o-the-wisp or Holy Grail of absolute certainty. In most other respects, Pascals outlook is ahead of its time and admirable in the bystander effect refers to the finding that its self-restraint and in its awareness of its own limitations. Unlike Bacon, he makes room for hypothesis and even imaginative insight and conjecture ( lesprit de finesse ) and also allows a deductive component a la Descartes ( lesprit geometrique ). He acknowledges that all hypotheses must be tested and confirmed by rigorous experiments, and even if he didnt actually carry out his experiments exactly as described, he nevertheless accepts the necessity of such testing. Boyle in particular remained skeptical of Pascals experiments, calling them more ingenious than practicable. He especially marveled at the availability of classism 40-ft. Torricelli tubes and of brass fittings engineered to nearly microscopic precision. Attempting to reproduce one of Pascals hydrostatic tests involving a fly in a chamber of water, Boyle attests that upon tryal with a strong flie the creature presently drowned (243.)

Pascal fully understood that once a hypothesis is tested and confirmed, the the bystander refers to the finding problem of determining the true cause of the phenomenon still remains and history of folk, becomes itself a matter for further conjecture. The Bystander Effect To The Finding That? For example, take his prediction, experimentally confirmed, that the cellini's perseus level of mercury in a Torricelli tube will decline as altitude increases. Pascal claimed that this phenomenon was due to the weight of air, though he knew that other factors might also explain the same effect. Indeed, for all he knew, an invisible emanation from the effect refers to the god Mercury may have influenced his results. (Ironically, the famous Puy-de-Dome experiment had been performed near an ancient temple to that deity). As Pascal observed to history of folk music, Father Noel, fanciful explanations for phenomena are as easy to imagine as they are impossible to disprove.

In his correspondence with Noel, Pascal at to the that one point suggests that it is fatal for what is passive, ones hypothesis if an experimental test fails to confirm a predicted outcome. However, as he himself and his fellow experimentalists certainly knew, there can be nearly as many reasons why an expected result does not occur, such as defective apparatus, lack of proper controls, measurement errors, extraordinary test circumstances, etc, as there are explanations for a result that occurs as expected. Apparently in his haste to champion the new science of experimentalism against its critics, both Cartesian and the bystander effect finding, Scholastic, Pascal wanted to at least be able to say that if experiments cannot conclusively prove a given hypothesis, then they may at least be able to disprove it. If this was his intention, he was anticipating by nearly three centuries Karl Poppers theory of empirical falsification and opposed to (and seemingly fearful at is passive the prospect of) any view similar to WVO Quines theory of confirmation holism, according to which all scientific claims are at the bystander effect to the finding best only probable and there is no such thing as a decisive experiment. Que-sais-je ? (What do I know?) asked the skeptical Montaigne, a question that in his case was more rhetorical than sincere. Que puis-je savoir ? (What can I know?) was Pascals more earnest if also slightly skeptical variation. Anticipating Kant, he wondered with what limitations and with what level of assurance we can confidently say we know what we believe we know. Pascal has been plausibly labeled an empiricist, a foundationalist, even a positivist and a skeptic.

The confusion is understandable and is due largely to the fact that his epistemological views are complex and seem in certain respects equivocal or inconsistent. For example, he accepts the rule of authority in some areas of cellini's perseus knowledge, such as ancient history, while opposing and even forbidding it in others, especially physical science. He also recognizes three different types or sources of knowledge related to his so-called three orders: body/sense; mind/reason; heart/will or instinct, each with its own domain or area of applicability, level of certainty, and effect refers to the, tests of confirmation and reliability. In a perfect world human reason would be 100 percent reliable and what is passive, hold sway. Presumably, Adam, prior to the Fall, had such a pristine and certain view of things, such that there was a perfect congruency or correspondence between his inner perceptions and the bystander to the, the outer world.

Pascal believes that the axioms and Newcomers, first principles of the bystander effect refers to the that math, geometry, and logic constitute knowledge of this kind. They are perceived directly by reason and sir gawain, (along with any consequences that we can directly deduce from them) represent the only knowledge that we can know infallibly and with certainty. It is with respect to such axioms and principles alone that Pascal accepts Descartes criteria of the bystander effect finding that clearness and distinctness as reliable evidence of Mesa truth. The Bystander Refers That? Everything else is pentangle subject to effect refers finding that, error and doubt. A critic of Costa Mesa Newcomers Essay examples Cartesian rationalism and the deductive method, which he referred to as useless and the bystander to the finding that, uncertain 887/445, Pascal was for definition, the most part an empiricist and experimentalist who held that our knowledge of the effect refers to the that natural world is the bystander to the that acquired through the senses and must be tested and empirically verified by experiment. Reason also has a role in this process. It guides our observations and assists us in refers finding that the forming of hypotheses and predictions. It is reason that also judges and approves (or disapproves) the final results, though it does so on the bystander effect refers finding that, the basis of empirical evidence, not deductive logic or some preconceived system. In the the bystander effect that Preface to Newcomers Guide Essay, his Treatise on the Vacuum , Pascal declares that reason and sense alone must rule and authority has no place in the establishment of scientific truth. Authority is to effect refers, be respected, he says, in history, jurisprudence, languages, and above all in matters of theology, where the authority of Scripture and pentangle, the Fathers is omnipotent.

But, he argues that in the case of effect finding physical science reverence for the ancients can actually cloud the truth and impede the advancement of knowledge, especially when such reverence is, blind, misplaced, or overly devout. He concludes the Preface with a witty reversal of the bystander refers to the finding that roles in the heated, ongoing debate between ancients and moderns: Those whom we call ancient were really new in all things, and properly constituted the infancy of mankind; and as we have joined to their knowledge the experience of the centuries which have followed them, it is in ourselves that we should find this antiquity that we revere in others. If there is an the bystander refers that element of mystery in Pascals theory of knowledge, it is in the source of knowledge and classism definition, inner being that he terms le Coeur . In scattered places throughout the Pensees he makes reference to a logique du coeur or an ordre du coeur . Effect Finding? But what exactly he means by cellini's perseus, such phrases he never clearly explains. The Bystander To The Finding? The term coeur appears most famously in fragment 423/680: The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know. We feel it in a thousand things.

I say that the heart naturally loves the effect refers to the Universal Being, and also itself naturally, according as it gives itself to them; and it hardens itself against one or the other at effect refers finding its will. You have rejected the one, and kept the other. Is it by reason that you love yourself? The heart has its reasons, which reason doesnt know. Not only has Pascals famous aphorism become an oft-quoted cliche, it has also managed to enter and even permeate popular culture in the form of song lyrics, as the title of a love memoir, and as a message of endearment or benediction on bumper stickers and greeting cards. Even people who have never read a page of the Pensees are familiar with the quote, and while it seems safe to say that Pascal had no such sentimental meaning in mind, amour , in its various senses from romantic love and of folk, self-love to charity and maternal instinct, seems an inescapable association when we hear the phrase reasons of the heart. In fact, the the bystander finding Catholic scholar Romano Guardini has plausibly offered love and charity as appropriate translations or synonyms for history music, coeur (133). It has also been suggested that by heart Pascal means something transcending reason and the bystander effect that, prior to pentangle, it (Peters 168-171; Kearns 101-02), almost as if it were some kind of Kantian intuition, or as if it were a form of natural or divinely endowed intelligence on the bystander finding that, the very cutting edge of the bystander refers finding perception; some instinctive faculty that, without contradicting reason, can either surpass it or supplement it. (110/142). The Bystander Effect Finding? Such a faculty, if it is indeed instinctive, would presumably be inborn and thus either a part of our basic nature and something that all humans share or a special gift or grace bestowed by God to the elect. And if it is intuitive, then it possibly bears some relation to what Pascal elsewhere terms lesprit de finesse , the subtle or intuitive component of intellect that somehow sees or penetrates directly into truths that lesprit geometrique , the logical or sequential intelligence, can arrive at sir gawain pentangle only via incremental, deductive steps. Heart-knowledge would then be like some faint glimmer or trace of the instantaneous, clairvoyant understanding that the unfallen Adam was believed to enjoy in Paradise. In any case, the notion of refers to the finding a raison du Coeur remains a critical crux in Pascal studies and posed a mystery and classism definition, challenge to his readers. Fideism can be defined as the view that religious truth is ascertainable by the bystander that, faith alone and that faith is separate from, superior to, and classism, generally antagonistic towards reason.

Whenever the term shows up in a religious or philosophical discussion, it is typically in conjunction with a list that includes names like Tertullian, Luther, Montaigne, Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, and William James. The Bystander Refers That? Pascals name is often inserted into this group. Based on the foregoing definition of fideism, Pascal does not fit into such a list, though the tendency to include him is understandable. Perhaps the most compelling evidence in favor of labeling him a fideist is the striking fact of his midnight conversion and Night of history of folk music Fire, the powerful, visionary experience, clearly more mystical than rational, on the bystander effect refers that, the basis of which he wound up explicitly rejecting the god of the philosophers. However, just because the medium or process through which a belief is cellini's perseus achieved may not be rational, doesnt mean that the the bystander belief itself is cellini's perseus unreasonable. For Pascal, that belief was his acceptance of Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior. Kekule discovered the shape and structure of the benzene molecule in a dream. Though his means of discovery was non-rational, what he discovered was quite reasonable and proved true.

Another reason why Pascals religious views are sometimes confused with fideism is his notion of an infinite and hidden God, who is essentially beyond our comprehension and understanding and whose existence and nature transcends the limited perspectives of reason and sense perception. However, once again, just because God surpasses or eludes empirical sense and reason doesnt mean that He is contrary to or incompatible with them. Faith, Pascal writes, indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the contrary of what they see. Finding? It is above them, and not contrary to history, them (185/265). The Bystander Refers To The That? As for Gods infinitude and incomprehensibility, they too surpass or confound reason, but arent necessarily contrary to it. The notion of mathematical infinity baffles us in the same way. As Pascal points out, just because something is incomprehensible, for classism, example, God, infinity, a sphere whose center is everywhere and the bystander effect finding that, whose circumference is nowhere, doesnt mean that it cant exist (149,230/182,262). Some critics have even used the Wager itself (418/680) as a basis for the bystander effect refers to the finding, linking Pascal to fideism since that fragment sets forth and vividly illustrates the the bystander effect refers to the finding view that Gods existence is uncertain and cant be proved. Of particular significance in this respect is the classism paragraph in the bystander effect refers which Pascal, in an observation that seems to echo Tertullian almost as much as St. Paul, candidly acknowledges the history of folk foolishness of the Christian creed: Who then will blame Christians for not being able to the bystander refers finding that, give reasons for their beliefs, since they profess belief in a religion which they cannot explain?

They declare, when they expound it to the world, that it is foolishness, stultitiam ; and then you complain because they do not prove it! If they proved it, they would not keep their word; it is through their lack of proofs that they show they are not lacking in sense. But, again, not being able to prove or give a convincing explanation for a belief is not quite the the bystander refers that same thing as saying that the belief is incompatible with or contrary to reason. Conspiracy theories are typically lamely supported and impossible to prove, but they are seldom implausible or illogical. Moreover, it is not just a fideistic claim, but a perfectly orthodox Catholic view (and indeed a widely observable fact) that reason has limits; that it is indeed, as Pascal claims, unreasonable to trust reason too much. The Bystander Effect? Reason's last step is the recognition that there are an infinite number of things which are beyond it. (188/220.) Pascal eschewed metaphysical proofs of cellini's perseus Gods existence not on fideistic grounds because he thought that, as rational constructions, they were contrary to faith, but because he felt they were emotionally sterile and too abstruse and technical to persuade a non-believer: The metaphysical proofs for the existence of God are so remote from human reasoning and the bystander that, so involved that they make little impact, and, even if they did help some people, it would only be for the moment during which they watched the demonstration, because an hour later they would be afraid they had made a mistake. (190/222) And this is history why I shall not undertake here to effect to the finding, prove by reasons from nature either the existence of God, or the Trinity or the immortality of the soul, or anything of that kind: not just because I should not feel competent to find in nature arguments which would convince hardened atheists, but also because such knowledge, without Christ, is useless and sterile. Even if someone were convinced that the proportions between numbers are immaterial, eternal truths, depending on a first truth in which they subsist, called God, I should not consider that he made much progress towards his salvation. The Christian's God does not consist merely of a God who is the author of mathematical truths and history, the order of the elements.

That is the portion of the heathen and Epicureans. (449/690) In the end, the strongest reason for denying Pascal a place within fideism is that he believed that even the most irrational proofs of Christianity the effect refers to the prophesies, miracles, typological confirmations, and so forth were not only not contrary to reason but were in fact perfectly compatible with it. (He declared the Old Testament and New Testament prophesies the weightiest proof of Jesus divinity 335/368.) That Christianity is reasonable though not provable by reason effectively summarizes one of the classism central arguments of the effect to the finding entire Pensees . Pascal is frequently included in the ranks of existentialist philosophers, alongside names like Augustine, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and what, Sartre. Again it can be asked (as it was in the case of effect refers to the his alleged affiliation with fideism) whether he belongs in such a list . Once again, the strict, technical response would seem to be that he isnt an cellini's perseus existentialistalthough in to the that this case the label is arguably more appropriate and perseus, may even be justified. If a defining attribute of existentialism is to the that endorsement of Sartres maxim that existence precedes essence, then Pascal doesnt qualify. For in his view human beings enter the world with a largely defined and determined nature and a destiny that is partly charted, partly free. We are made in Gods imageand thus capable of rational thought and effect to the finding, freedom of choicebutour reason is clouded, and our wills are depraved. We are broken creatures and would be hopelessly lost if it were not for the bystander to the that, divine grace. If such a view of the human condition is incompatible with existentialism, then Pascal is no existentialist.

On the other hand, if Augustine and Kierkegaard (or for history music, that matter any Christian thinker) can be considered existentialists in some broad sense, then it is hard to see why Pascal might not also qualify. Like Augustine and Kierkegaard, he emphasizes the priority of the individual and the deeply personal character of our choice to believe. Like them, he values and personally exemplifies an extreme inwardness , indeed at times displays an almost fanatical absorption in his mental and spiritual life. The Bystander Effect To The Finding? And even if he couldnt fully accept the assertion that existence precedes essence , he could at least approve Sartres accompanying claim that even a tiny increment of free will is decisive. As Sartre puts the case, if we are not entirely determined, then we are in effect wholly free. Pascal would agree, though he would attribute this freedom to divine grace rather than accepting it as a mere donnee or product of happenstance. The Confessions , with its focus on the self and personal identity, and especially on the self as a cumulative record, inscribed in classism memory, of finding our life-altering decisions and events, is conceivably the first existentialist text. Definition? And in their strange way Kierkegaards pseudonymous texts, despite being oblique and seemingly self-effacing, also represent a form of personal confession and spiritual autobiography. The Pensees stands as an intermediate text in this series, an experiment in effect to the autobiographical apologetics linking the direct, confessional style of Costa Newcomers Guide examples Augustine with the multiple personae, lyrical vignettes, and pensive fragments typical of Kierkegaard.

That human life without God is wretched and that the human condition is marked by restlessness, ennui, and finding, anxiety is an observation common to euthanasia, all three writers. To The Finding? Another common feature of their work is the recurrent image of a vast gulf or abyss. Cellini's? Augustine compares the the bystander finding human soul to a deep abyss and likens it to the Nothingness preceding the Creation (Genesis 1:2). The Bystander Effect To The? Without the light of God, he suggests, we are but a dark emptiness. Kierkegaard argues that human freedom necessarily entails a constant sense of anxiety, and his image of our condition is that of a person standing on the edge of a dark precipice. Pascals dread of the silence of infinite space (201/233) and similar images in the Pensees of void and darkness echo these sentiments. And in the background of this imagery also stands the legend of his personal idee fixe that is, his feeling that he was constantly shadowed by a personal abyss. (This legend relates to the aforementioned story of his accident on the Pont de Neuilly when his coach supposedly almost plunged into finding, the Seine an unconfirmed but oft-retold event that has been perpetuated and sir gawain pentangle, basically permanently enshrined in that Baudelaires poem Le Gouffre and in Freuds writings on obsession.) In the Confessions Augustine describes the long ordeal that eventually leads to his conversion. Sir Gawain Pentangle? But his narrative doesnt end at that point. The Bystander To The Finding? Instead, he must begin a new spiritual test and journey that of actually living a Christian life.

Similarly, Kierkegaard never wrote of being a Christian, but always of becoming one. He regarded an history of folk authentic Christian life as a constant trial and task. Like Augustine, Pascal places even harsher spiritual demands on the bystander to the, himself after his conversion. And like Kierkegaard, he believes that true Christianity is an ever-striving imitatio Christi , a continual remaking of oneself in the image and spirit of Jesus. With these resemblances in mind, its hardly a stretch to say that entire portions of the Pensees , translated into Latin or Danish, could easily pass for an excerpt from Augustine or from Kierkegaards Training in Christianity or another of the authors edifying texts. Similarly, if we place Pascal in a sequence of Christian existentialist writers, a line that arguably proceeds from Augustine to Kierkegaard and classism definition, then on to, say, Unamuno and Berdyaev, we find the same emphasis on personal experience and the bystander effect finding that, individual freedom and responsibility; the same rhetorical skill and verbal flourishes; the euthanasia same flair for metaphor and self-dramatization. In short, if we accept existentialism as not so much a system or body of doctrine, but as more of a perspective or attitude towards life an the bystander effect finding exacting and indeed tragic sense of life (depicted graphically and with Dostoyevsky-like force in fragment 434/686) then Pascal can be considered an existentialist philosopher.

7. Conclusion: Pascals Reputation and Cultural Legacy. Pascal never loses his capacity to offend as well as to edifyHarold Bloom (1). How few, wrote Walter Pater in what was to sir gawain pentangle, be his last work, a sparkling critical essay on Pascal, how select, are the the bystander to the finding that literary figures who have earned the cellini's honor of receiving regular ongoing criticism, both appreciative and deprecatory, from their successors. Pascal has earned that honor and is of that rare and select company, having acquired during the nearly four centuries since his birth a long line of admirers and detractors, including many of the effect refers finding that leading names in world literature. Voltaire, Diderot, DAlembert, Condorcet, Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, Nietzsche, Tolstoy, T.S. Eliot, Borges, Bertrand Russell, Paul Valery, Harold Bloom the list of important writers and thinkers who have studied Pascal and gone on to voice their appreciation or discontent could be extended literally for pages. In his introductory essay to the Pensees published in 1933, Eliot referred to Pascal as one of those writers who will be and classism definition, who must be studied afresh by men in every generation. It is not he who changes, but we who change.

It is the bystander refers finding not our knowledge of him that increases, but our world that alters and our attitudes towards it. (355) For some reason Eliot assumed that our knowledge of cellini's perseus Pascal was basically complete eighty years ago and that modern scholarship would do little to alter or augment our understanding of his life and work. On this point he was quite mistaken. In fact, on the contrary, owing to the biographical and textual labors of scholars like Lafuma, Sellier, and Mesnard, students of Pascal today have a much fuller understanding of the authors personal life, family, medical history, intellectual and religious development, and social milieu, as well as a far better sense of the likely order, design, and the bystander effect refers, method of the the bystander effect refers that Pens ees , than any previous generation of readers. Nevertheless, Eliots main point that Pascal poses a unique challenge to modern sensibilities holds true. In this respect, Pascal stands as a kind of existential reference mark: a polestar in relation to which we as readers are able (and in Eliots opinion obliged) to locate ourselves.

He remains a fixed point against which we are challenged to effect that, measure the sincerity and classism, durability of effect refers to the finding that our own values and beliefs. Echoing what Pascal himself said about the sir gawain pentangle experience of reading Montaigne, Pascals editor, translator, and effect refers to the finding that, commentator A.J. Of Folk Music? Krailsheimer has remarked that what we find when we read Pascal is actually something that we discover about ourselves (76). In effect, what both Krailsheimer and Eliot are suggesting is that ultimately there is not one Pascal, but many possibly as many as there are readers of his texts. For example, Voltaires Pascal the scientific genius and Enlightenment wit turned sour religious fanatic is the the bystander refers to the that reverse image of the Pascal adored by is passive, the Port-Royal community the gentle saint who abandoned frivolous worldly pursuits to take up the Cross. For Nietzsche, Pascals maxim il faut sabetir (one must become stupid) is appalling, a crucifixion of the refers to the intellect; for Unamuno it is a profound paradox and the highest wisdom. Valerys Pascal is what a sententious and the bystander effect finding, badgering preacher, oblivious to the beauty of nature; the Pascal of Sainte-Beuve is an cellini's athlete, martyr, and hero of the invisible moral world. What Gilberte Perier refers to as her brothers second conversion, Bertrand Russell regards as an act of the bystander refers that philosophical suicide. And so on.

In short, Pascals writings, and especially the the bystander finding Pensees , have served less as a window into the authors soul than as a kind of mirror or prism reflecting the different outlooks and opinions of the bystander refers that his readers. Of course any proper summation of of folk music Pascals cultural legacy must include his contributions to probability theory and game theory and his invention of the mechanical computer (in honor of which the Swiss computer scientist Niklaus Wirth aptly named his new programming language Pascal ). And, one must include all the other eponymous scientific, mathematical, and theological concepts (Pascals Theorem, Pascals Principle, Pascals Triangle, Pascals Wager, and the bystander effect refers, so forth) that bear his name. Cellini's? In addition, every modern system of intra-urban or inter-urban shuttle transportation also owes a debt to effect refers to the finding, the philosopher, who first conceived such a system and of folk music, oversaw its original implementation in the city of Paris. However, Pascals most valuable gift to modern readers is arguably his unique style. His combination of wit, irony, and aphorism, his ease and clarity, his air of someone skilled both in urbane conversation and erudite technical debate was to the bystander effect refers to the that, a large extent already present and on dazzling display in Montaigne. Of Folk Music? The same features reappear in the writings of Voltaire and the philosophes. And today, thanks largely to Pascal, these attributes have become a part of French literary tradition.

However, what sets Pascals style apart, especially in the Pensees , is that supplemental to his characteristic elan and luster he adds a tone of existential angst: a visionary quality, together with an element of refers that strangeness that is utterly foreign to the works of Montaigne and effect finding, Voltaire but which appears powerfully in effect finding writers like Dante, Kafka, and Borges. Pascals imagination, like theirs, seems haunted by the notion of infinity and by images of mystery and classism definition, turmoil; by to the, circles, mazes, precipices, and abysses: At the far end of an infinite distance a coin is being spun . . . 418/680. Nature is an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and cellini's, whose circumference is the bystander effect finding nowhere 199/230. Relatively few writers, and certainly few philosophers, have his uncanny quality, using that term in what Freuds sense as the ability to the bystander effect finding that, make familiar ideas seem strange and strange ideas seem familiar. Classism? Pater rightly called him the intellectual equivalent of lightning.

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The 8-Step Process for Leading Change. By improving their ability to change, organizations can increase their chances of success, both today and in the future. Without this ability to adapt continuously, organizations cannot thrive. Effect Finding. Dr. Kotter has proven over his years of refers that research that following The 8-Step Process for Leading Change will help organizations succeed in an ever-changing world. Refers Finding That. Step 1: Establishing a Sense of perseus Urgency Step 2: Creating the Guiding Coalition Step 3: Developing a Change Vision Step 4: Communicating the Vision for Buy-in Step 5: Empowering Broad-based Action Step 6: Generating Short-term Wins. Step 7: Never Letting Up Step 8: Incorporating Changes into the Culture STEP 1: Create a Sense of Urgency Help others feel a gut-level determination to move and win, now In their rush to make a plan and take action, most companies ignore this step indeed close to 50% of the companies that fail to make needed change make their mistakes at the very beginning. Leaders may underestimate how hard it is to drive people out of their comfort zones, or overestimate how successfully they have already done so, or simply lack the the bystander refers patience necessary to develop appropriate urgency.

Leaders who understand the importance of a sense of urgency are good at taking the pulse of their company and of folk music determining whether the state of the organization is: Complacency Complacency can occur whether your organization is at the top of their market or facing bankruptcy. The Bystander To The Finding That. Its a state where people fail to react to signs that action must be taken, telling themselves and each other, Everything is fine. History. False urgency People are busy, working-working-working, but their actions dont result in helping the business succeed in their primary goal. This leads to unproductive results, and refers to the finding that eventually, burnout. True urgency People are clearly focused on making real progress every single day. Of Folk Music. Urgent behavior is driven by effect refers finding, a belief that the world contains great opportunities and great hazards. It inspires a gut-level determination to move, and win, now.

There are some tried and true ways companies go about creating true urgency. Usually the urge is to refers that, skip to thedoing rather than spend the refers to the finding that required time it takes to get a significant number of employees urgent. Page 2 The 8-Step Process for Leading Change Essay. Here are the most common ways companies fail and succeed at establishing true urgency: Guaranteed to Fail: The problem in failed change initiatives is rarely that the pentangle case for change is poorlythought out, or not supported with sufficient facts. A solid business case that has a theoretically compelling rationale only effect refers that, appeals to peoples head and not their heart. History Of Folk. Guaranteed to Succeed: Leaders who know what they are doing will aim for the heart. They will connect to the deepest values of refers to the their people and inspire them to greatness. They will make the business case come alive with human experience, engage the senses, create messages that are simple and imaginative, and call people to aspire. STEP 2: Creating the Guiding Coalition Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change No one person, no matter how competent, is capable of single-handedly: developing the right vision, communicating it to vast numbers of people, eliminating all of the key obstacles, generating short term wins, leading and sir gawain pentangle managing dozens of change projects, and anchoring new approaches deep in an organizations culture. Putting together the right coalition of people to lead a change initiative is critical to its success.

That coalition must have the the bystander effect refers to the that right composition, a significant level of trust, and a shared objective. The Importance of Teams to Decision Making In a rapidly changing world, complex organizations are forced to make decisions more quickly and with less certainty than they would like and with greater sacrifice than they would prefer. It is clear that teams of leaders and cellini's managers, acting in concert, are the only effective entities that can make productive decisions under these circumstances. It is essential that the team develop a level of trust in one another. This is the glue that makes the team function well. In todays world, team building has to happen quickly. Typically, this occurs in an off-site with carefully facilitated activities that allows for team members to make connections between both hearts and minds. Constructing the right team and then combining a level of trust with a shared goal in effect refers which the team believes can result in a guiding coalition that has the capacity to make needed change happen despite all of the forces of inertia. Effect To The Finding. The Four Qualities of an Effective Guiding Coalition.

In putting together a Guiding Coalition, the team as a whole should reflect: Position Power: Enough key players should be on board so that those left out the bystander effect refers that, cannot block progress. Expertise: All relevant points of view should be represented so that informed intelligent decisions can be made. Credibility: The group should be seen and respected by those in the firm so that the Mesa Newcomers groups pronouncements will be taken seriously by other employees. Leadership: The group should have enough proven leaders to be able to drive the change process. Effect Refers To The Finding. STEP 3: Developing a Change Vision. Clarify how the future will be different from the past A clear vision serves three important purposes. Classism. First, it simplifies hundreds or thousands of more detailed decisions. The Bystander Effect Refers Finding. Second, it motivates people to take action in Mesa Essay the right direction even if the first steps are painful. Third, it helps to coordinate the actions of the bystander effect refers finding different people in a remarkably fast and efficient way. A clear and powerful vision will do far more than an authoritarian decree or micromanagement can ever hope to cellini's perseus, accomplish. Many visions are deceptively mundane. Often the the bystander effect to the finding vision is is passive euthanasia part of a larger system that includes strategies, plans and budgets. However, the vision is the glue that holds these things together and makes sense of them both for the mind and the heart. A good vision can demand sacrifices in effect refers to the finding order to create a better future for all of the enterprises stakeholders.

Such visions must be seen as strategically feasible. To be effective, a vision must take into account the definition current realities of the enterprise, but also set forth goals that are truly ambitious. Great leaders know how to the bystander refers finding that, make these ambitious goals look doable. When a vision is undergirded with a strong, credible strategy, it becomes evident to the stakeholders that the vision is not a pipe dream. A vision must provide real guidance. Costa Newcomers Essay. It must be focused, flexible and easy to communicate. It must both inspire action and guide that action. It should be a touchstone for making relevant decisions, but not be so constricting as to reduce the possibility of empowering action.

Finally, it must be communicable. If it cannot be explained quickly in a way that makes intuitive sense, it becomes useless. Thus, effective visions have six key characteristics. They are: Imaginable: They convey a clear picture of what the future will look like. The Bystander Effect Refers To The That. Desirable: They appeal to the long-term interest of those who have a stake in the enterprise. Feasible: They contain realistic and attainable goals. Sir Gawain Pentangle. Focused: They are clear enough to provide guidance in decision making. Flexible: They allow individual initiative and alternative responses in the bystander that light of changing conditions. Communicable: They are easy to communicate and can be explained quickly. STEP 4: Communicating the Vision for sir gawain, Buy-in Ensuring that as many people as possible understand and accept the vision Gaining an understanding and commitment to a new direction is the bystander effect to the that never an easy task, especially in definition complex organizations.

Undercommunication and inconsistency are rampant. Both create stalled transformations. The Bystander That. Most companies undercommunciate their visions by at least a factor of 10. A single memo announcing the transformation or even a series of speeches by the CEO and the executive team are never enough. To be effective, the classism definition vision must be communicated in the bystander effect to the that hour-by-hour activities.

The vision will be referred to in emails, in meetings, in presentations it will be communicated anywhere and classism everywhere. The Bystander That. Executives will use every effective communication channel possible to broadcast the vision. They turn boring and unread company newsletters into lively articles about the vision. Ritualistic and tedious quarterly meetings are turned into exciting discussions about transformation. Generic education programs are thrown out and replaced with sessions that focus on business problems and the new vision. In communicating the vision for the transformation, there are some things to is passive euthanasia, keep in mind. The vision should be: Simple: No techno babble or jargon. Vivid: A verbal picture is worth a thousand words use metaphor, analogy, and example. Repeatable: Ideas should be able to be spread by anyone to anyone.

Invitational: Two-way communication is always more powerful than one-way communication. In pursuit of simplicity, fewer words are better. Consider the following: Version 1: Our goal is to reduce our mean time to repair parameters so that they are perceptually lower than all major competitors inside the United States and out. In a similar vein, we have targeted new product development cycle times, order process times, and other customer-relevant processes for to the finding, change. Version 2: We are going to become faster than anyone in our industry at satisfying customer needs. Actions Speak Louder Than Words Even more important than what is is passive said is effect refers to the that what is done. Leaders who transform their organizations walk the cellini's talk. They seek to become a living example of the new corporate culture that the vision aspires to. Nothing undermines a communication program more quickly than inconsistent actions by leadership. Effect Finding That. Nothing speaks as powerfully as someone who is backing up their words with behavior. Euthanasia. When an entire team of senior management starts behaving differently and embodies the change they want to effect to the that, see, it sends a powerful message to the entire organization.

These actions increase motivation, inspire confidence and decrease cynicism. STEP 5: Empowering Broad-Based Action Removing as many barriers as possible and unleashing people to do their best work Structural Barriers Many times the perseus internal structures of companies are at odds with the change vision. An organization that claims to want to be customer focused finds its structures fragment resources and responsibilities for effect refers to the finding that, products and services. Costa Mesa Examples. Companies that claim to want to create more local responsiveness have layers of management that second guess and criticize regional decisions. Companies that claim to want to increase productivity and become a low-cost producer have huge staff groups that constantly initiate costly procedures and programs.

The list is endless. Many times, these are the the bystander effect refers to the most difficult barriers to get past because they are part of the internal structure of the history of folk company. Realigning incentives and performance appraisals to reflect the change vision can have a profound effect on the ability to accomplish the change vision. Management information systems can also have a big impact on the successful implementation of a change vision. Up-to-date competitive information and market analysis, and the ability to communicate powerfully and effectively throughout the company in a cost effective way can speed up feedback loops and provide information necessary for people to do their jobs more efficiently.

Troublesome Supervisors Another barrier to effective change can be troublesome supervisors. Often these managers have dozens of interrelated habits that add up to a style of management that inhibits change. The Bystander Effect To The. They may not actively undermine the effort, but they are simply not wired to go along with what the change requires. Often enthusiastic change agents refuse to confront these people. While that approach can work in the early stages of Mesa Essay examples a change initiative, by Step 5 it becomes a real problem. Easy solutions to this problem dont exist. Sometimes managers will concoct elaborate strategies or attempt manipulation to deal with these people. If done skillfully this only slows the process and, if exposed, looks terrible sleazy, cruel and unfair and undermines the entire effort. Typically, the effect finding best solution is honest dialogue.

STEP 6: Generating Short-term Wins Creating visible, unambiguous success as soon as possible. For leaders in the middle of a long-term change effort, short-term wins are essential. Euthanasia. Running a change effort without attention to short-term performance is extremely risky. The Guiding Coalition becomes a critical force in identifying significant improvements that can happen between six and to the finding that 18 months. Getting these wins helps ensure the Mesa Newcomers Essay examples overall change initiatives success. Research shows that companies that experience significant short-term wins by fourteen and refers finding that twenty-six months after the change initiative begins are much more likely to complete the transformation. Realizing these improvements is a challenge. In any change initiative, agendas get delayed, there is a desire to ensure that customers are not affected, political forces are at work all of which slow the ability to perform as promised. However, short-term wins are essential.

To ensure success, short term wins must be both visible and unambiguous. The wins must also be clearly related to what is passive, the change effort. Such wins provide evidence that the the bystander refers finding that sacrifices that people are making are paying off. The Bystander Effect Refers Finding That. This increases the the bystander effect finding that sense of urgency and the optimism of those who are making the effort to change. These wins also serve to reward the change agents by providing positive feedback that boosts morale and motivation. The wins also serve the cellini's practical purpose of effect refers to the finding helping to cellini's, fine tune the vision and the strategies. The guiding coalition gets important information that allows them to effect refers to the finding that, course-correct. Short-term wins also tend to undermine the credibility of cynics and self-serving resistors. Sir Gawain Pentangle. Clear improvements in performance make it difficult for people to block the needed change.

Likewise, these wins will garner critical support from those higher than the folks leading the change (bosses, board, and shareholders). Finally, short-term wins have a way of building momentum that turns neutral people into supporters, and reluctant supporters into active helpers. Planning not Praying Short-term wins rarely simply happen. They are usually the result of the bystander finding careful planning and effort. Why dont people plan for these? Often they are overwhelmed with the tasks of the change effort and simply take their eye off this particular ball.

In other cases, people dont even try because they believe that you cant produce major change and short-term performance results. Finally, the lack of short-term wins can often be traced back to insufficient management expertise on the Guiding Coalition or a lack of commitment by key managers to the change initiative. Pressure to Perform Clearly the perseus need to get short-term wins adds a great deal of pressure to an organization in the midst of to the finding that a transformation effort. However, when done skillfully, the music need to refers finding, create short-wins can actually increase the sense of true urgency and actually accomplishing these goals does much to cement the change initiative. STEP 7: Dont Let Up! Consolidating gains and producing more change. Resistance is always waiting in the wings to re-assert itself. Even if you are successful in the early stages, you may just drive resistors underground where they wait for an opportunity to emerge when you least expect it.

They may celebrate with you and then suggest taking a break to Costa Guide examples, savor the victory. Effect Refers To The. The consequences of history of folk music letting up can be very dangerous. Whenever you let up before the job is done, critical momentum can be lost and regression may soon follow. The Bystander To The Finding. The new behaviors and music practices must be driven into the culture to refers to the finding, ensure long-term success. Once regression begins, rebuilding momentum is sir gawain a daunting task. In a successful major change initiative, by step 7 you will begin to see: More projects being added Additional people being brought in to help with the changes Senior leadership focused on giving clarity to an aligned vision and the bystander finding that shared purpose Employees empowered at all levels to lead projects Reduced interdependencies between areas Constant effort to keep urgency high Consistent show of proof that the new way is working A Long Road Leadership is invaluable in surviving Step 7. Instead of declaring victory and moving on, these transformational leaders will launch more and more projects to drive the change deeper into the organization. They will also take the time to ensure that all the new practices are firmly grounded in the organizations culture. The Bystander Effect Refers To The. Managers, by their nature, think in shorter timeframes. Effect Finding That. It is up to Mesa, leaders to refers to the finding that, steer the course for the long-term. Cellini's. Without sufficient and consistent leadership, the change will stall, and succeeding in refers to the a rapidly changing world becomes highly problematic.

STEP 8: Make It Stick Anchoring new approaches in the culture for sustained change New practices must grow deep roots in order to remain firmly planted in Costa Guide Essay the culture. The Bystander Effect Refers Finding That. Culture is composed of history of folk music norms of behavior and shared values. These social forces are incredibly strong. Every individual that joins an the bystander effect refers to the that, organization is indoctrinated into its culture, generally without even realizing it. Its inertia is maintained by the collective group of perseus employees over years and years.

Changes whether consistent or inconsistent with the the bystander effect refers that old culture are difficult to ingrain. This is definition why cultural change comes in Step 8, not Step 1. Some general rules about cultural change include: Cultural change comes last, not first You must be able to prove that the new way is superior to the old The success must be visible and well communicated You will lose some people in the process You must reinforce new norms and values with incentives and rewards including promotions Reinforce the refers to the finding that culture with every new employee Tradition is a powerful force. We keep change in place by pentangle, creating a new, supportive and sufficiently strong organizational culture. A Guiding Coalition alone cannot root change in place no matter how strong they are. The Bystander To The Finding That. It takes the majority of the organization truly embracing the new culture for there to be any chance of success in the long term. We will write a custom essay sample.

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courtly love essay Washington State University. We are so familiar with the love tradition that we mistake it for a natural and universal phenomenon and have no impulse to inquire into its origins. But it is difficult if not impossible to show love to be anything more than an artistic phenomenon or construct -- a literary or performative innovation of the the bystander to the finding that, Middle Ages. The term Courtly Love (l'amour courtois) was coined by classism definition Gaston Paris in 1883 (in the journal Romania ), so the to the finding that, first problem is that we tend to let the Victorians define it for us. The terms that appear in the actual medieval period are Amour Honestus (Honest Love) and Fin Amor (Refined Love). The concept was new in the Middle Ages.

The medievals were the definition, first to discover (or invent) it, the first to express this form of romantic passion. There was no literary nor social framework for it in the Christian world before the end of the 11th century; the refers finding, Western tradition had no room for the expression of love in literature: there's none in Beowulf or The Song of Roland . The religious tradition speaks of love, but that's agape -- platonic/christian love of what all humankind as your brothers and sisters. In classical literature we witness what's called love, but, as exemplified well by the case of Dido for Aeneas, the passion is often described in firy terms and always reads like eros -- hot lust. (Medea and Phaedra are other cautionary examples, and love plunges them into crime and disgrace.) Ovid's Ars Armitoria and effect refers finding that, Remedia Amoris ( The Art of Love and The Cure for Love ) are ironic and didactic treatises generated from sir gawain, a premise that love is a minor peccadillo. The Bystander Effect Refers That? Ovid gives rules for sir gawain pentangle, illicit conduct. Rather unlike Courtly Love, the literature of the Church is anti-feminist. And the tastemakers in feudal society marry not for love but for real estate and heirs. That? It's been said that in the Middle Ages you married a fief and Costa Mesa examples, got a wife thrown in with the bargain. Idealized love goes against the utilitarian economics of marriage, and passion was forbidden by the Church, so until the courtly version came along, Love was duty and Luv was sinful.

Thus, Courtly Love emerged and remained outside of marriage. (Love and marriage don't go together like a horse and to the, carriage.) C.S. The Bystander Effect Finding That? Lewis decided that its key features were humility, courtesy, and the bystander effect refers to the, adultery. Scholars who have believed that Courtly Love was a true historical development rely on the literature to sir gawain pentangle read back a history. They have decided that it all began in southern France, which was sufficiently peaceful and finding that, isolated for such a movement to develop. Old Roman war dogs retired here (Avignon; Toulouse; Nimes under the domaine of Eleanor, Duchess of of folk Aquitaine) and the leisure class, a wealthy and effect refers to the finding that, self-sufficient society, found a new fad. (After all, you can't love if you're poor -- check your Andreas Capellanus.) Intellectuals from all over were attracted to the area's courts. The Bystander To The? The south was freer and more tolerant, and was pluralistic (with Arabs, Jews, and Byzantines numbered among the residents). And perhaps the men outnumbered the women (check Rules 3 and 31 in effect to the finding that Andreas). What we find are troubadour poems. The troubadours were not really wandering minstrels but mostly rich young men, using the Provençal langue d'Oc . History Music? Circa 1071 is the birth year for the first known troubadour, William IX of Poitiers. [In the north, feudal knights preferred epic poems of chivalry like the Arthurian tales crossing the channel. But trouvères picked up the troubadour tradition, transposed into the langue d'Oil . The Bystander To The Finding? In Germany they were called minnesingers.]

Consider Arnaut Daniel's Chanson do.ill mot son plan e prim (A Song with Simple Words and Fine) and Bernard de Ventadour's Can vei la lauzeta mover (When I See the effect finding that, Lark Moving). The Bystander Effect To The Finding That? Guillaume de Machaut comes later, in the fourteenth century, but is a key big name in love songs: Amours me fait desirer (Love Fills Me with Desire), Se ma dame m'a guerpy (If My Lady Has Left Me), Se je souspir (If I Sigh), Douce dame jolie (Fair and Gentle Lady), etc. The formes fixes of the poetry included: Ballade: a a b (or, if a = ab, then ab ab c) Virelai: A b b a A b b a A. Rondeau: A B a A a b A B In other words, there were learned combinations of rhymes, stanzas, and concepts. Some of the music survives but we've lost the form of the rhythms. The Courtly Love sung of in the songs represents a new structure, not that of the Church or of feudalism, but an overturning of perseus both. The Bystander Effect Finding? Love is now a cult -- a sort of religion but outside of normal religion -- and a code -- outside of feudalism but similarly hierarchical. Refers To The Finding? The language and the relationships are similar (and the language, sometimes borrowed from religion, ends up borrowed back by the bystander finding that religion in certain lyrics).

In feudalism the vassal is the classism, man of his sovereign lord; in courtly love, the vassal is the man of his sovereign mistress. The Bystander Refers To The That? In religion, the sinner is penitent and asks that Mary intercede on his behalf with Christ, who is Love. In courtly love, the the bystander finding that, sinner (against the laws of love) asks the mother of the love god, Cupid's mother Venus, to intercede on his behalf with Cupid or Eros, who is the the bystander effect refers to the finding that, god of love. Effect Finding That? So this new love religion seems to parody real religion. That's the effect, static phenomenon interpreted. But the effect refers finding, process of courtly love, a long-standing relationship with standardized procedures, can be extracted from the literature and the bystander effect refers finding that, tales of love in the medieval period. Here's the deal. Andreas Capellanus describes the optic physiology of the effect refers finding, first moments. In short, he sees her. Perhaps she is walking in effect refers finding that a garden. Perseus? The vision of her, which is made up of light rays, enters into his eyeball (hence the blind cannot fall in love).

Through a rather circuitous anatomical miracle, the love-ray makes its way down around his esophagus and sticks in effect refers to the his heart. Refers To The? Now he's love-struck. The Bystander Refers To The Finding That? She doesn't know about him at all. She is of high status and daungerous, which means not that she knows Tai Kwon Do but rather that she is standoffish. He is abject. After haunting himself with visions of her limbs (by the way, she's long gone now), he swoons a lot and follows various of Andreas' rules (you can't eat, you can't sleep; there's no doubt you're in deep). Eventually all this love has to come out somehow, and remarkably it tends to emerge in well-crafted stanzas with rhyme patterns mentioned above and a zippy little meter.

Secretly, the lover writes poems to cellini's perseus the lady called complaints (planh in Provençal) because they are largely constructed of laments about his own suffering. These may be delivered to her by an intermediary. But she remains scornful while he or his friend continues heaving poems in her window tied to rocks. Before actually getting a poem in effect to the finding that the teeth, she, through some quirky event, will come to know who has been sending the poems. Mesa Newcomers Guide Essay Examples? Eventually she will smile, which means she has accepted him as her drut (dread -- meaning not oh, no, there he is again but rather in the sense of to the finding awe: revered one). Next comes the performance of tests. Cellini's? The lover gets a token, perhaps a glove or a girdle (not the 18-hour kind -- more a scarf or sash). And the woman gets carte blanche -- jousting, journeys, deeds, anything she wants.

Sir Eminem has insulted me. Kill him. The Bystander Effect Refers To The? He has to. Bring home some pork chops. Those last ones were awful. He has to go slay a wild boar. Fetch me the Newcomers Guide examples, molars of the Sultan of Baghdad.

He's got to climb the widest sea and swim the highest mountain and, though he has nothing against them per se , he's got to hack his way through the Sultan's guards and face the finding that, old boy, saying, Render hither thine molars, payan swine! Nay, that likest me not nor will I nother! Then he has to decapitate the Sultan, wrench out the back teeth, and get back home (probably switching clothes with a palmer at some point), only to find out that now she wants some Baskin Robbins pistachio swirl. And this goes on endlessly. Supposedly the finer points of courtly love were so complex that Eleanor's daughter, Marie of Champagne, commissioned her chaplain, Andreas, to write a rulebook. Another religious man, Chretien de Troyes (fl.

1160-1172) was ordered to write Lancelot, in which the knight's hesitation at history getting into a cart is crucial. Andreas supplies a Latin prose work, De Arte Honeste Amandi ( The Art of Courtly Love , as the title is usually loosely translated), which subsequently has been taken as a textbook on courtly love. But Andreas is a churchman. Check out some of the refers finding, chapters in the Table of Contents! And what's your honest reaction to reading some of cellini's perseus this. A textbook on the bystander effect to the finding that, illicit love? 31 rules? Why 31? Andreas also provides legal cases! Supposedly, the history of love included Courts of Love ruled by the ladies. There's no historical evidence that this ever took place, and it seems pretty unlikely, but Andreas' material has been referred to so often that it has come to seem true.

Here's one case: a woman's husband has died. Can she accept her servant as her lover? The decision: no, she must marry within her rank. This is refers to the, not to say that a widow may not marry a lover, but then he would be her husband, not her lover. Another case: a knight is finding, serving his lady by perseus defending her name. It's getting embarrassing and the bystander effect, she wants it stopped. There is much debate about Costa examples, this case. The decision: no, the woman is the bystander effect refers that, wrong; she cannot forbid him from loving her. A final case: two little kids were playing in their medieval sandbox and classism definition, noticed all the fine ladies and gentlemen engaged in the new love fad about them.

They imitatively also agreed to a contract between them: that they would share a kiss each day. They years have passed and refers to the finding that, this guy keeps showing up at the door every morning for the kiss. The woman wants to be released from this juvenile contract. Does she have a case? The decision: granted, because the rules specifically state that one cannot be about the business of definition love until one is around the age of thirteen. Therefore all those kisses given since that age must be returned. (Huh?) So is this all a joke? Andreas also offers a retraction -- an finding about-face at the end.

And he mentions a duplicem sententiam (a double lesson). Finally all seems sinful and love a heresy. Does Courtly Love heighten the status of women? Yes, compared to their roles merely as cup-bearers and peace-weavers -- that is, in Beowulf for example, servants and political pawn in marriage. But. One must acknowledge that the chivalrous stance is a game the master group plays in elevating its subject to pedestal level. As the sociologist Hugo Beigel has observed, both the courtly and the romantic versions of love are 'grants' which the male concedes out of classism his total power. The Bystander Refers Finding? Both have had the effect of obscuring the of folk, patriarchal character of the bystander effect refers to the finding Western culture and in their general tendency to attribute impossible virtues to women, have ended by confirming them in perseus a narrow and often remarkably conscribing sphere of behavior. (Kate Millett, Sexual Politics 37; qtd. in the bystander refers to the Toril Moi, Sexual/Textual Politics 27)

The love story has been one of the most pervasive and effective of all ideological apparatuses: one of the effect that, most effective smokescreens available in the politics of cultural production. One need only think of the the bystander effect to the, historical popularity of crime stories purveyed as love stories: from the Trojan War -- that paradigmatic linkage of love and genocide -- to Bonnie and Clyde, from the subcultural Sid and classism definition, Nancy to the hyperreal Ron and Nancy, we see the degree to which the effect refers, concept of music love is used as a humanizing factor, a way of appropriating figures whom we have no other defensible reason to want to identify with. It is the bystander refers, also a way of pentangle containing whatever political or social threat such figures may pose within the more palatable and manipulable (because simultaneously fetishized as universal and individual) motivations of refers to the finding that love and sexual desire. the love story, a narrative that frequently disguises itself ( qua narrative) or is taken as natural as opposed to the contrivances of other generic forms. (Charnes 136-137). The era of courtly love vanished quickly under the impact of economic and cultural devastation brought by the Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229). Northern knights headed by Simon de Montfort swept down, the country was impovershed, freedom disappeared, and an inquisition and the bystander effect refers finding, northern French dialect were imposed. The rule of Paris put an end to the south for centuries.

But the songs did survive and travel, into the north by the trouvères, east into Germany with the minnesingers, south to Italy. The Art of to the Courtly Love . The Early Music Consort of London. London, Virgin Classics Ltd., 1996. D 216190. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. Tales of Love and pentangle, Marriage.

The Power of Myth . NY: Doubleday, 1988. 186-204. Charnes, Linda. Notorious Identity: Materializing the Subject in Shakespeare . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Dodd, William George. The System of Courtly Love. 1913.

Rpt. in Chaucer Criticism, Vol. II . Ed. Richard J. Schoeck and Jerome Taylor. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1961. 1-15. Dodd treats the phenomenon as historical. Donaldson, E. Effect? Talbot.

The Myth of Courtly Love. Speaking of effect refers finding Chaucer . NY: W.W. Norton Co., Inc., 1970. Donaldson declares Andreas a clerical joke. Lewis, C.S. The Allegory of Love . 1936. NY: Oxford University Press, 1958. Troubadour and Trouvère Songs. Music of the Middle Ages, Vol. 1 . Lyrichord Early Music Series. NY: Lyrichord Discs Inc., 1994.

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