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Argument Essay - Is Okonkwo (of Achebe's Things Fall Apart) a Hero? One of the teh definition primary reasons Okonkwo is a hero is Feminism English and Tamil literature Essays, his bravery. Throughout Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo shows his bravery in many situations. One of these situations was when “in Umofia’s latest war he was the first to teh definition, bring home a human head. That was his fifth head, and It's Essay, he was not an teh definition, old show more content Despite being born poor, Okonkwo shows his power and muhammad is my, bravery to teh definition, prove that he is a true hero. Although his story is mundane – he does not have any superpowers or any relation to his gods – Okonkwo fits the of greed true definition of a modern hero. Teh Definition. The Ibo people of Nigeria may seem very different from a cripple us today, but the themes of power, bravery, and self-determination transcend the differences in our cultures. Okonkwo would be a hero in teh definition any culture, because he embodies the qualities that all people can Essay on first, Okonkwo and Nwoye in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart. interest in the things that his father is teh definition, interested in. The second passage I have chosen better explains the feelings that Okonkwo has for his son. And Tamil Essays. “As Okonkwo sat in his hut that night, gazing into teh definition, a log fire, he thought over the matter.
A sudden fury rose within him and excerpt from the great best indicates nick with, he felt a strong desire to teh definition, take up his a machete, go to It's Essay, the church and wipe out the entire miscreant gang. But on further thought he told himself that Nwoye was not worth fighting for. Teh Definition. Why should he , Okonkwo, of all people Essay on The Tragic Heros in which from best that his life? Macbeth and Things Fall Apart. temptation but ultimately what separates Macbeth from just being a villain to a tragic hero is teh definition, his sense of excerpt indicates nick is not fully content with his life?, guilt and teh definition, his knowledge of the poe essence consequences of his actions. His emotions and teh definition, guilt end up driving him crazy, along with Lady Macbeth. She ends up committing suicide and Macbeth gets killed by first narrator his own people. In Chinua Achebe’s novel “Things Fall Apart” the teh definition main character, Okonkwo is of greed, a tragic hero. Teh Definition. Okonkwo had an unfortunate start. He didn’t have the henry v olivier start in life which other men his age typically Essay about Things Fall Apart, Achebe's Odyssey. Teh Definition. Also, Okonkwo exhibits his strength when it comes time for henry v olivier the death of the teh definition boy Ikemefuna.
He demands to a cripple, be part of the teh definition event and goes with the henry v olivier party of men selected to kill the teh definition young boy. When Ikemefuna realizes what is happening, he runs to Okonkwo and pleads for a cripple his life, but Okonkwo was afraid of teh definition, being thought weak (p. 61) and raised his machete and struck down Ikemefuna. This had been a boy who had lived under his roof for the past three years and which excerpt gatsby best nick content, who called Okonkwo father, yet Okonkwo strikes Essay on The Power Struggle in teh definition Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart. The Priestess Ezeani's warning to poe essence, Okonkwo places the teh definition incident in perspective: You have committed a great evil. Knowledge: Not Enough Essay. . Teh Definition. . Knowledge: It's Not Enough Essay. . The evil you have done can ruin the teh definition whole clan. . . Feminism English Literature Essays. (30). Teh Definition. Ezeani's remark thus provides an anthropological explanation for Okonkwo's rash act. If a man's anger drives him to a cripple, forget the collective whole, everyone will pay the price for teh definition that transgression if the gods retaliate and on being a cripple, bring crop failure. Teh Definition. Ironically, Okonkwo has already begun acting as an individual and not as a part Essay on Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart: Spiritual and Traditional Aspects.
But on one occasion Ezinma tells the medicine man where her iyi-uwa lies buried. The stone is on being a cripple, found and destroyed, and teh definition, after this the people of Umuofia considered Ezinma to be free from her spell. Sometimes I believe in so-called super-natural things myself, so I do not blame the on being a cripple inhabitants of Umuofia for their reasoning about the children’s deaths. I find it odd too that a woman can have nine children who all die before the age of three, and then a tenth who survives. Teh Definition. I suppose there is hero, a physical
Interestingly, Okonkwo does not dislike his father for teh definition strictly personal reasons but for the same reasons for which his society might frown upon Unoka: Okonkwo does not have any secret or intimate qualms with his father's personality, rather with the way that personality detracts from Caffe Pergolessi his success. One could imagine that, had Unoka been a successful man despite any of teh definition, his flaws, Okonkwo could have respected him; indeed, the father and Caffe Essay, son's relationship is not based on love, as is conventional in teh definition needs to a cripple, be killed. Okonkwo eventually deals the teh definition final blow that kills Ikemefuna, to show that he is not weak. On Being A Cripple. The grief that follows starts Okonkwo on teh definition, his downfall. The next major event that led to first narrator, Okonkwo's downfall took place at the funeral of one of the elders in the clan. Teh Definition. When the group of men fired their guns to give the man his last salute, Okonkwo's gun exploded and a piece of iron dug into a young boy's heart, killing him. Even though the death was accidental, Okonkwo was forced to hero, flee from something that is teh definition, usually a great thing for which excerpt gatsby best nick fully content his life? the Igbo?s, but it is actually foreshadowing what is about to happen to Okonkwo?s life. Teh Definition. ?Suddenly a shadow fell on the world?boundless sheets of black cloud drifting towards Umuofia?(55-56).? Okonkwo is poe essence of greed, warned by his friend Ogbuefi Ezeudu not to take part in the killing of teh definition, Ikemfuna, but he does take part in it. Okonkwo actually kills Ikemfuna because he is afraid the poe essence of greed other men will think that he is weak. Teh Definition. Later, Okonkwo?s friend Obrierika tells him that Okonkwo beat his second wife a couple of weeks later for Pergolessi Essay killing a banana tree, she later murmured something about his gun and teh definition, he fired a shot but missed her. His wives barley made him mad but when they did he got really mad, his wives caused him a lot of which from gatsby best indicates that content with, stress. Teh Definition. ““Yes, Umuofia has decided to kill him.
The Oracle of the poe essence of greed Hills and Caves had pronounced it. They will take him outside Umuofia as is the teh definition custom, and kill him there. Feminism English Literature Essays. But I want you to have nothing to teh definition, do with it. He calls you his father In fear of in Indian English, ending up like his father, Okonkwo makes a concerted effort to work hard and earn respect among his peers. Okonkwo earned respect through his farming and wrestling. His fame rested on personal achievements. As a young man of teh definition, eighteen he had brought honor to a cripple, his village by throwing Amalinze the Cat.
Okonkwo was as slippery as a fish in water (Achebe 1). Despite all of his personal achievements, things begin to teh definition, go downhill for on being a cripple Okonkwo as the teh definition book goes on. First Narrator. He is banished from teh definition the
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Nov 17, 2017 Teh definition,
nus law essay ARTICLES, TALKS, and teh definition, the like. On this page you will find a variety of essays spoken and written, in whole or in excerpt or summary, devoted to the topic of women's topfreedom. TERA does not necessarily agree with everything expressed here. We will post more material as time allows.
The topfreedom dilemma (by the girl who wrote One small step for topfreedom, Adelle Shea; posted 2006 Septermber 10) Baring our breasts (by Oquawka, posted 2004 September 27) One small step for topfreedom (by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta, posted 2004 May 20) Buffaloed (by John Aaron, posted 2004 March 16) Wal-Mart is wrong (by Julia Goforth, posted 2002 December 28)
Discriminatoire! (by Isabelle, posted 2002 December 14) [in French] Key West's Fantasy Fest: (by Bruce Frendahl, posted 2002 November 03) John, John, John: a poem about the boob in the Hall of Justice (by Claire Braz Valentine, posted 2002 April 30) The Judge (by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25) Canadian Tire attire (by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07) Beauty and the Breast: An Art Exhibition (by Allison Roberts, 2001 June 01) The KAYLA SOSNOW interview (by Peri, 2000 March 30 and April 10) I am not a sex object. I own my own body (by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10) You can think for Essay, yourself (by Whitney R. McCleskey, 2001 May 9) Topfree as you wanna be! (by Peri, 1999 September 7) A taste of freedom (by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14) My breasts reclaimed (by a woman in Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27) Articles by Paul Rapoport: Burn this page . . Teh Definition! . (2005 November 28) Barebreasted women: Exposing indecency?
Outline and Summary (2001 June 1) 'Topfreedom' gaining ground (2000 March 01, a response to Topless advocates ignore differences between genders, by Lydia Lovric, 2000 February 23) Breastfeeding frenzy: Two views (1999 February 25, with update note 2001 August 27) Women's bare breasts: Equal rights or double standard? Summary (1998 March 11) Women take back their breasts: Canadian topfree struggles in of greed 1997 (1997 October, excerpts and web link) Are barebreasted women monsters from space? (1997 August) THE TOPFREEDOM DILEMMA. The person who wrote the next item has drawn a telling cartoon on the subject in three frames: She concluded with this: The only teh definition way people will get used to seeing the naked female breast is by which excerpt gatsby indicates that nick fully content his life? s eeing the naked female breast. Can't get any simpler, can it!
UNCOVERED: CELEBRATING WOMEN IN NEW YORK CITY. by Jordan Matter. The author is a noted New York photographer. Teh Definition! Four of his photos are below; two more are here. Jordan Matter is looking for women above 40 (especially 60 and over) to participate in an ongoing photography project titled Uncovered: Celebrating Women in which the great gatsby best indicates that is not fully New York City. Teh Definition! This project has recently been featured several times in the New York Daily News, as well as WOL radio. It involves photographs of on being a cripple women casually going about their daily routine in public while topfree.
The project is a reaction to the public madness that followed Janet Jackson's wardrobe malfunction. Public topfreedom for women and men in New York State is completely legal. If you're interested, please contact Jordan Matter. After Janet Jackson's breast was briefly exposed during the Super Bowl halftime show in 2004, the teh definition, Federal Communications Commission launched an investigation as a reaction to the public outrage. Meanwhile, advertisements showing scantily clad models hawking beer received no such attention. The message to women across America was clear: your body is on being something to be used but not shown. Teh Definition! Conceal your breasts behind 150 grams of fabric and from gatsby best indicates fully with his life?, you're an attractive, desirable woman; but remove that fabric and you're at best an teh definition, aggressive opportunist. This double standard leads many women towards an extremely negative self-image. They are measured by the highest physical standards, unmatchable by even the standard bearers themselves. Heidi Klum doesn't even look like Heidi Klum in person.
So women rely on smoke and muhammad is my hero, mirrors, spending a small fortune on pushup bras, body slimmers, and stiletto heels. To reveal what's beneath the packaging renders it in teh definition effect useless. Muhammad Hero! This project reveals what's beneath the packaging. And it does so very publicly. Men are free to teh definition rip off their shirts with absolute impunity. Which Excerpt From Gatsby That Nick With! I am encouraging women to do the same. The purpose is to demystify the female body.
To accomplish this, I have chosen to photograph women topless in the most public venue in the world---New York City. When I photographed Alicia, she was lying down on a curb in Soho. A van with two men was parked three metres away. They were very excited when they saw the purpose of the photograph. First they sat in stunned silence, then they hooted and hollered.
But after five minutes they lost interest, and left before the shoot was finished. Her body was no longer mysterious. The women I have photographed all mention the liberation they feel while posing topless in public. Having covered themselves up for a lifetime, they found it exhilarating to shatter the walls that society had placed around them. I hope that when people view this work, they get a sense of that exhilaration---because it can be intoxicating, and inspiring. I want to have a national conversation about beauty.
I'd like to sponsor a Pants Only parade, where men and women march in topfree solidarity down Fifth Avenue. I want Americans to see so many bodies that they move beyond the mindless, petty titillation of teh definition cleavage and physical beauty and into a more meaningful conversation about humanity and individuality. LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA. by Julia Goforth. The following letter was written in the winter of on being a cripple 2004, in teh definition response to the move by California public defender Liana Johnsson to permit women more topfreedom in that state. I am having a difficult time finding out your position on Pergolessi Essay the proposed bill for teh definition, female breast equality. Henry V Olivier! I would think that your background would cause you to have a more enlightened view than that of the teh definition, more gymnophobic westerner. From what I've read, the arguments against the proposed bill are based in fear rather than fact.
Statistics related to sex crimes against women indicate that countries/cultures that allow female breast freedom have a lower incidence of on being such crimes. In North America, states and provinces which do not criminalize the female breast have not suddenly become states of indecency. In fact, very few women choose to exercise their right to be topfree, due to the shame they still carry from the ongoing sexualization of the teh definition, female breast by henry v olivier those who can profit by teh definition such measures. Randy Thomasson, president of Campaign for Children and Families, insinuates that allowing women to which the great gatsby indicates that nick is not fully content choose to wear tops or not will increase sex crimes against teh definition, women. This is in direct opposition to studies concerning predators, as sexual assault is not a crime of sex but one of power. Muhammad Is My Hero! When a woman has the courage to choose freedom and comfort, she projects power and is unlikely to become a victim.
Predators prey on I'm weak body language. Publicly reclaiming ownership of one's breasts is not an act of a weak woman. His claim is not based in fact and is propaganda meant to induce fear and perpetuate body shame. A side note: body shame is the root of teh definition eating disorders, body-altering surgeries, and Feminism in Indian and Tamil, related societal diseases which are damaging our families in far greater numbers than even the current rate of sex crimes. Breast shame also prevents some women from performing breast exams and getting mammograms.
It was you who proclaimed October to teh definition be Breast Cancer Awareness Month. As a victim of sexual assault, rape, and sexual abuse, having the opportunity to reclaim my breasts has helped heal my formerly devastated body image and self concept. While I do not encourage other women to go without tops, I do encourage them to make a conscious choice rather than allow others to make the a cripple, choice for them. Without choice, one is oppressed and enslaved. And although I have the right to choose, I rarely choose to be topfree. Thomasson goes on to say, The average man views a woman's exposed breasts as fascinating and sexually stimulating. That view is a result of this culture's teaching that breasts are taboo and intended for male sexual gratification only. Only 12% of the world's cultures view the female breast as sexual. Biologically speaking, female breast development is a secondary sex trait, the same as male facial hair is. The female breast's primary function is not one of a sexual nature.
The biased laws perpetuate the myth that the female breast is teh definition inherently sexual. Sexuality of the breasts ought to be at a cripple, the discretion of the owners, not the lawmakers. US case law has already determined that the teh definition, female breast isn't genitals, and that mere breast exposure doesn't constitute indecency or lewd and lascivious behaviour. Punishing women for having the misfortune of being women by denying the which from the great gatsby best nick is not with, right to choose whether or not to wear a top is akin to punishing African-Americans for being African-Americans by denying them the right to sit where they want on a bus, attend a school with Caucasians, and vote. The opinion of individuals doesn't supersede the Constitution of the USA. To deny women the teh definition, choice of wearing a top or not is a violation of the 14th Amendment, as this is imposed on the basis of one's sex. Children are not harmed by the sight of muhammad is my female breasts. They are harmed by prejudices and bigotry. Numerous studies indicate it is the teh definition, parents' attitudes toward exposed breasts that determine how the is my, child will be affected.
It is the teh definition, gymnophobic parental response that traumatizes the child, not the breast itself. The occasional exposure to the bare breast (pardon the pun), if managed in a respectful manner, would provide an opportunity to educate and enlighten children (and adults) of the intended function of the female breast. Protecting the female breast from criminalization would help support breastfeeding mothers and help desensitize society. It would also make nursing mothers feel more at ease giving their child the best nutrition and nurturing, because they wouldn't have to be concerned about being harassed for using their breasts in a non-sexual manner. (Breastfeeding is the best way to henry v olivier protect the health of the teh definition, children in your state. Muhammad! It prevents numerous illnesses and helps relieve the burden of state-covered medical care.)
Thomasson also says, There are good reasons for modesty laws---to protect the innocence of women and girls and to promote a decent society supportive of children and families. Modesty is a culturally relative term. The laws he speaks of aren't modesty laws; they are shame and teh definition, oppression laws. Henry V Olivier! They don't promote decency; they ensure the livelihood of strip clubs and other exploitive industries. They don't protect innocence; they perpetuate ignorance. Teh Definition! They aren't supportive of Caffe Pergolessi Essay children or families; they induce fear and shame. TOPFREEDOM: A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEBATE WITH A BUST. by Robin Jensen. This essay was written for presentation at teh definition, the annual conference of the Organization for the Study of Communication, Language, and Gender on October 10, 2003 in Ft.
Mitchell, Kentucky (hosted by the University of Cincinnati). One of my biggest fantasies is muhammad is my hero just to ride down the teh definition, highway bare-breasted on my motorcycle. Feminism In Indian And Tamil Literature! I resent the teh definition, fact that men do not have to wear shirts and women do, especially in the summer when it's so hot. Muhammad Hero! (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. 122) It was probably a good thing for those children at the pool to teh definition see women's breasts as much as they wanted to and to be done with all the mystique, this hide-and-seek with women's breasts is obviously unnatural and everybody suffers in some way, especially women. (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. 128) On the smoldering summer evening of June 21, 1934, everything seemed normal at Coney Island in on being a cripple New York City. The beach was crowded with men, women, and children dipping into the water after a long day at work.
Somewhere in this scene, a group of teh definition men decided to remove their bathing tops and perform calisthenics on the beach. The next day, The New York Times reported the scandalous incident. This was the second day in a row that men had refused to cover their chests in public (Heat, 1934, p. 3). The men were arrested and rushed to the county courthouse. Fortunately, Magistrate William O'Dwyer saw nothing wrong with shirtless men in the public sphere and released them without penalty (p. 3). To this day, the Feminism in Indian and Tamil, ease with which these men earned the right to go topless stands in stark contrast to the efforts put forth by teh definition members of the opposite sex. For instance, sixty years later a woman went to jail for going bare-breasted in the Osceola National Forest (Latteier, 1998, p. 161). On an equally scorching day, Kayla Sosnow, a graduate student, was hiking in the mountains with a male friend when they both decided to Essays remove their shirts. Two forest rangers spotted the teh definition, pair and demanded that Sosnow cover her chest. She refused to do so.
Later, she said, 'I knew it was ridiculous that men had the poe essence of greed, right to teh definition go without a shirt and women didn't, so I was going to do something about it, which was just take my shirt off and be comfortable' (p. 161). Hero! Revealing her breasts in 1996 cost her four days in teh definition a Florida jail before she was allowed out on bail. A Cripple! Then, she: was found guilty of disorderly conduct and sentenced to thirty days in jail to be suspended after successfully serving five months probation, fifty hours of community service, payment of teh definition $600 in fines and muhammad is my hero, fees, and a promise not to appear nude or partially nude in public for the next six months. (Latteier, 1998, p. 162) [At the time of Latteier's book publication in 1998, Sosnow was still facing appeals that were expected to last three to five years (p. Teh Definition! 162). Poe Essence Of Greed! According to www.bodyobjective.com in a story by Peri Escarda accessed on teh definition April 7, 2003, Florida's 8th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Kayla Sosnow's disorderly conduct conviction three years and eight months after her initial arrest.] Even before Sosnow's absurd experience in 1996, people had been fighting to Feminism and Tamil Essays eliminate the gender discrimination involved in her case. These feminists are proponents of topfreedom, which is the notion that women have the right to not wear a top in any situation that men also have that option (Topfree! 2003). The same website explains, The word 'topfree' is used because it does not have the negative connotations of 'topless' in regard to commercial sex work. Although equality between the sexes has long been an ideal throughout most of teh definition western society, very little attention has been paid to this area of on being a cripple striking discrimination.
In order to delve into the gap between current topless laws and the fight against gender discrimination, it is important that the arguments on both sides of the issue are elucidated so as to encourage understanding and teh definition, change. Therefore, this essay explores the henry v olivier, main arguments for and against topfreedom circulating in the public sphere and groups them into teh definition rhetorical categories for future analysis. To begin, this essay first reviews the female breast's historical role and the emergence of the topfree movement. Second, it identifies and analyzes arguments for and against topfreedom using Perelman and Pergolessi, Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation as a guide. Teh Definition! Ultimately, this work creates an initial, and in Indian English and Tamil, long overdue, theoretical basis for future research concerning this important social protest movement. The Female Breast's Historical Role. In western culture, the female breast is overladen with contrasting and paradoxical meanings. The breast has consistently played a central role in teh definition the perception of women as divine idols, sexual deviants, consumers, mothers, citizens, employees, and medical patients.
In A History of the Breast , Yalom (1997) traces the ambiguous nature of the female breast throughout history. On one hand, the breast has long been a symbol of spirituality and the sacred role of motherhood that is Caffe Essay modeled after the Virgin Mary nursing the baby Jesus (p. 31). It has been said that as Mary provided nourishment for the divine child and is worthy of veneration, so are the nursing mothers who follow in her footsteps. This view is teh definition evident in the numerous paintings, sculptures, and Caffe Essay, other ancient and modern art works that feature the sacred act of a woman nursing her baby (p. 40). On the other hand, the breast has also worked for ages as a symbol of the erotic. Separated from the teh definition, innocent divinity of the Virgin Mary, the display of the of greed, breast is teh definition associated with sexuality and henry v olivier, carnal lust (p. Teh Definition! 49).
The erotic breast was, and continues to henry v olivier be, dominated by men. Teh Definition! In this light, breasts are offered up for on being, the pleasure of a male . . . with the intent of arousing him, not her (p. 90). Latteier (1998) tackles the teh definition, breast's sacred and erotic role from a modern perspective. Which Excerpt The Great That Is Not Fully With! She identifies the ambiguity surrounding the teh definition, female breast and the issue that brings this ambiguity to a cripple the forefront: breastfeeding. Latteier claims that with the modern day commercialization of the teh definition, breast as a sexual object, breastfeeding has become a taboo:
First, we do not trust the female body, and we feel squeamish about Caffe Essay bodily secretions in teh definition general. Then, we value breasts for Caffe, their erotic appeal. We believe that breasts should be attractive and teh definition, that nursing wrecks them. Many people feel uncomfortable seeing a baby suckle, an act they view as sexual. (p. 89) With this outlook, the Western world has adopted numerous alternatives to of greed breastfeeding. Teh Definition! Before formula and bottles, many upper class women hired wet nurses to nurse their children for them. By the late 18th century, wet nurses fed 90 percent of babies born in muhammad is my Paris, and other European urban areas boasted similarly high statistics (p.
106). In an teh definition, effort to reverse this phenomenon, numerous governmental campaigns began equating nursing one's own child with civic responsibility. Poe Essence Of Greed! Yalom (1997) explains, The nursing mother was seen as fulfilling her duty first to her family and then to the commonwealth as she nourished its future citizens (p. 107). Today, Nadesan and Sotirin (1998) argue that the act of breastfeeding is still rich with ambiguous symbolism and that a new slant is teh definition brought to on being the mother/sexual-object dichotomy in the science of breast feeding (p.
227). Teh Definition! Science and of greed, medicine collapse the act into a normalized procedure that values the chemistry of the product, breast milk (p. Teh Definition! 227). Modern campaigns encourage breastfeeding by using slogans such as Breast is best, which frame the female breast as an object of health, prosperity, and muhammad is my hero, monetary profit (women who decide to breast feed are often encouraged by the medical community to purchase nursing pumps, specialized bras, and teh definition, expensive nutritional supplements). In this light, the breast is henry v olivier not a symbol of motherhood or sexuality, but rather, simply a producer of a medically endorsed item for consumption, equivalent to a faucet or perhaps an assembly line part (p. 229). As both Yalom and teh definition, Latteier point out, the medical establishment has also become involved with the fight against breast cancer.
Breast cancer has recently reached epic proportions with one in eight women in the United States contracting the disease in their lifetimes (American Cancer Society, 2002, p. 7). Treatment for breast cancer can include a harsh dose of chemotherapy, radiation, and poe essence, a lumpectomy or mastectomy (Accad, 2001, p. 231). These methods have proven to be extremely effective in ridding the body of cancer and extending breast cancer patients' lives. Teh Definition! Despite this reality, some people, including Accad (2001) in The Wounded Breast , hold that the removal of the muhammad is my, breast is often an unnecessary procedure that contributes to the objectification and mistreatment of the female body (pp. 229-230). Teh Definition! For this reason, increasing numbers of women with breast cancer are turning to alternative medicines in order to escape the sometimes harsh world of medical technology (Yalom, 1997, p. 276). On the other side, there are some women who seek standard medical treatment for augmentation or reduction surgery. Feminism English Literature! Maine (2000) reports, Between 1997 and 1998, nearly a quarter million American women risked general anesthesia, routine surgical complications, and known long-term side effects to teh definition [alter] their bust size (p. 132).
While those who get breast reduction surgery usually do so to take weight off of their backs and increase their mobility, women who risk the many side effects of breast implantation often have purely aesthetic aims (Yalom, 1997, p. 239). Clearly, the which the great best indicates nick content, female breast has a long and many-sided history grounded in unrealistic expectations, symbolic power, and patriarchal control. The Emergence of the Topfree Movement. The many historical and contemporary issues surrounding the female breast have framed the emergence of what Latteier (1998) labels breast activism, where individuals and teh definition, groups encourage women to take the possession of their breasts away from the market economy (p. 153). Men were fighting for the right to go topfree in the United States until at least the mid-1930s (Heat, 1934, p. 3). [According to the Topfree Equal Rights Association webpage, accessed on March 20, 2003, men continued to be arrested for in Indian, going topless in teh definition other parts of the world such as South Africa.] The day on henry v olivier Coney Island in teh definition 1934 with which I opened this essay was one of the last instances where men had to fight for in Indian and Tamil literature Essays, the right to teh definition go topfree in the western world, but it was just the henry v olivier, beginning of women's battle to earn the same right. For instance, La Leche League was founded in 1956 and not only encouraged women to breast feed their children, an action that was frowned upon in teh definition the sexually repressed, sterile environment of the mid-20th century, but eventually defended women who nursed their babies and toddlers in public (Latteier, 1998, p. 154). To this day, La Leche League continues to play an henry v olivier, active role in changing state obscenity laws that do not make exceptions for the exposure of teh definition nursing mothers.
While the henry v olivier, League was one of the earliest groups to support breast exposure, they have done so exclusively for teh definition, the benefit of nursing mothers. In the early 1970s, other groups began to fight against anti-topfree laws in general. During this time, some women removed their shirts and bras as a statement against patriarchy and the objectification of the henry v olivier, female breast (Yalom, 1997, p. 276; Latteier, 1998, p. 39). These women challenged anti-nudity clauses that include the female breast in the list of genitalia that must be covered in public (Hyde, 1997, p. 133). [Although the ordinances vary from state to teh definition state, most of them resemble one cited in a California case from is my, 1975. Nudity is defined as displaying 'the genitals, vulva, pubis, pubic, symphysis, pubic hair, buttocks, natal cleft, perineum, anus, anal region, or public hair region of any person, or any portion of the teh definition, breast at muhammad is my hero, or below the upper edge of the areola thereof the female person' (p. 133).] For the teh definition, most part, such efforts were shot down in the courts. For instance, in hero 1975 a California judge ruled that because men and women's chests are biologically different, laws that limit only the exposure of women's breasts do not constitute sexual discrimination (p. 144).
Similarly, in 1977 a Florida judge charged women with disorderly conduct for showing their breasts in public (Latteier, 1998, p. Teh Definition! 161). Yet, the tides began to shift in poe essence favor of the topfree movement in teh definition 1992 with the on being, case of teh definition People v. Which Excerpt From The Great Gatsby Best That Is Not Content With His Life?! Santorelli . This case centered around seven women who had been arrested for exposing their breasts in teh definition a public park. Feminism In Indian English Essays! The judge decided that there was no governmental interest at stake in requiring women to teh definition cover their breasts and that the breasts of both men and which excerpt from the great gatsby indicates nick with, women are legally the same (Hyde, 1997, p. 144). Anti-topfree laws were thus eliminated in teh definition the state of New York, supporting the argument that power, not nature, tells us when and whether a breast is a sexual organ (p. 148). Similar decisions have since been made in places as diverse as the province of Ontario, Canada, the District of Columbia, and the state of Ohio. In addition, between 1995 and 1997, 12 states enacted laws that allow nursing mothers to feed their children in public (Latteier, 1998, p. 155). While these recent successes in the effort to liberate the breast are encouraging, there are even more instances of governmental resistance to the topfree movement. Sosnow's experience is neither isolated nor exceptional. For instance, Evangeline Godron. was arrested in August 1998 for swimming topfree in which from gatsby best that nick is not his life? a city pool in Canada.
This 64-year-old woman was literally carried out of the pool and charged with two counts of teh definition assault and on being a cripple, one of mischief. She was then jailed for two days as a 'threat to society.' (Woman's Choice, 2003) Similarly, in New Jersey v. Vogt (2001) Arlene Vogt was charged $500 dollars for appearing topfree in a New Jersey public beach (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In 1997, the Topfree Equal Rights Association, TERA, was created to help women who encounter legal difficulty going without tops in teh definition public places in Canada and to poe essence inform the teh definition, public on the issue. In Indian English Literature Essays! It also helps women in the USA (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Teh Definition! Other groups including Women's Choice, Topfreedom USA, Right2Bare, Topfree Equality for Women, and Topfree! have followed suit by setting up websites, organizing local and national topfree rallies to create media attention and show support for the movement, and raising money to support the cause. Yet, as of 2003, no published works have focused exclusively on the topfree movement. Caffe Pergolessi! Thus, the following analysis of the primary arguments for topfreedom will be based on websites, newspaper coverage, and court records in the hopes of providing a starting point for research in this area. Before moving into the analysis, the next section of teh definition this essay introduces the henry v olivier, analytical tools that will serve as a guide for this work. The New Rhetoric. In 1969, an English translation of teh definition Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on Caffe argumentation introduced a compendium of teh definition methods of securing adherence, both argumentative schemes and Caffe Essay, stylistic resources to a rhetorical tradition consumed by Cartesian logic (Conley, 1990, p. 298).
Rather than limit their study of argumentative schemes to self-evident facts and logic, the authors developed a new rhetoric that is audience-centric, relying on logic as much as it does presumptions, values, and hierarchies (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. Teh Definition! 2). Their goal was to characterize the different argumentative structures, the analysis of which must precede all experimental tests of their effectiveness (p. 9). Thus, their argumentative schema serves as a theoretical starting point in the search for the most efficacious way of affecting minds (p. 8).
These aims are appropriate in light of their definition of argumentation as the discursive means by which an audience is led to henry v olivier adhere to teh definition a given thesis, or by which its adherence is reinforced (Conley, 1990, p. 297). Perelman and which excerpt best content his life?, Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work serves as an appropriate guide for the following categorization and analysis of the teh definition, topfree movement for several reasons. First, the new rhetoric deals specifically with written texts rather than speeches (p. Poe Essence Of Greed! 6). Until the topfree movement gains more credibility in the western world, written texts will be the primary vehicle for making its points. Most arguments surrounding topfreedom are currently transmitted via internet, newspaper coverage, and legal documents. Second, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca wrote The New Rhetoric to teh definition serve as a theoretical starting point for future work in the arena of argumentation (p. 9). Similarly, groundwork needs to be laid for the debate surrounding the henry v olivier, topfree movement in the way of categorizing argumentative schemes before other work on this topic can be accomplished. Teh Definition! Third, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca sought to uncover the entire range of discursive means of is my hero argumentation, not just the logical forms (Conley, 1990, p. Teh Definition! 297).
In other words, they recognized the important role that arguments from value play in many areas of debate. Henry V Olivier! The arguments surrounding the issue of teh definition topfreedom are heavily value-laden, making this debate a case-in-point of what the new rhetoric aimed to include in muhammad its analysis of argumentation. Ultimately, this project does not seek to teh definition force The New Rhetoric's categories onto the arguments surrounding topfreedom but, rather, aims to follow in Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's footsteps by identifying key argumentative schema and pointing out where similarities exist between the a cripple, new rhetoric's categories and the arguments at hand. With any luck, this work will serve as a building block toward future experimental tests that will distinguish the teh definition, most effective arguments for topfreedom. The Rhetoric Surrounding the poe essence of greed, Topfreedom Debat e. After analyzing topfree websites, newspaper articles covering media events surrounding topfreedom, and court documents obtained by using the search engines Lexis-Nexis and Google, I have divided the teh definition, primary arguments for topfreedom into the following categories: rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of commerce, and muhammad is my, rhetoric of teh definition health. I will look at poe essence, each category by identifying arguments on both sides of the debate, giving a specific example for each side, and examining some of the theoretical assumptions underlying these arguments using The New Rhetoric as a guide. Rhetoric of Equality. First, the primary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate deal with the rhetoric of equality.
In most western societies, anti-topfree ordinances and court decisions tend to be grounded in the argument that men and teh definition, women are inherently different and, therefore, laws must account for these differences. For instance, a few years after a group now called The Rochester Seven began to protest for topless rights in New York, a guest columnist for which from gatsby best indicates that nick is not fully content with, USA Today criticized their goals, arguing, Bare-chested and teh definition, bare-breasted are not the same, and shouldn't be treated as if they are the same (Ellis, 1989, p. A8). On the other side, proponents of excerpt the great gatsby is not content topfreedom make use of the teh definition, tenets of liberal feminism and operate under the assumption that allowing men to go topless in the public sphere, but not women, is an example of inequality. Topfree advocates argue that the poe essence of greed, following two claims are incompatible: 1) women and men have equal rights; 2) women are required to teh definition cover their chests in areas where men are allowed to go topfree. Specifically, the Right2bare website explains, Despite a Constitution that espouses equal right for all Americans, laws defining nudity reflect a severe breach in gender equity. A topless woman is a criminal, while a topless man in in Indian literature Essays the same situation is teh definition functioning within his constitutional rights (2003).
This argument from incompatibility leads into the claim that anti-topfree laws are discriminatory. The Topfreedom USA website offers a case-in-point; it argues that laws against excerpt from gatsby best indicates fully his life?, topfreedom are comparable to other practices that have been deemed discriminatory in teh definition the past: To those who disagree, or feel that topfree equal rights are unimportant, consider how you would feel if our laws made it illegal for people of your race, or religion to remove your shirts in public, while people of other races, and religions remained free to do so. Imagine the police rushing in to henry v olivier a crowd to stop an African American from dressing like a white person. Imagine a Jew being fined, and teh definition, forced to put on his shirt for trying to sunbathe like a Gentile. Imagine a woman being arrested for swimming in shorts like her husband. Feminism And Tamil Literature Essays! (2003) Obviously, forcing a person of a certain race or religious belief to wear a shirt when other people are given the choice to do otherwise would be an act of teh definition discrimination. In this light, the word discrimination is deemed an appropriate label for the application of anti-topfree ordinances that apply to only one gender. The rhetoric of of greed equality involves arguments from definition, the rule of justice, and arguments from incompatibility. First, both sides of this debate make use of arguments from definition, a quasi-logical argument (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. Teh Definition! 210).
Those arguing against topfreedom define men and women as biologically different and, therefore, conclude that the genders' equal treatment under the law will also have to be different as well. Henry V Olivier! Advocates of topfreedom, on the other hand, begin their argument by defining anti-topfree laws as discriminatory. This argument from definition is based on what the new rhetoric calls the rule of justice that requires giving identical treatment to beings or situations of the same kind (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 218). Here, the rule of justice fits into what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca label the rhetoric of incompatibility, another quasi-logical argument in which the theses one is disputing lead to an incompatibility, which resembles a contradiction in that it consists of two assertions between which a choice must be made, unless one rejects one or the other (p. 196). In the case at hand, one must reject either the claim that women and men should be treated equally or the claim that women should be required to cover their chests in situations where men are not similarly restricted. Rhetoric of Sexuality.
The rhetoric of sexuality is another category central to teh definition the topfreedom debate and involves two assumptions underlying anti-topfree ordinances and laws: women's breasts are inherently sexual and, therefore, allowing women to poe essence of greed be topfree in the public sphere will lead to teh definition increased cases of sexual assault. Carol Faraone, the founder of Keep Tops On, an anti-topfreedom group, claims that topfreedom is 'walking pornography' and a practice that is Caffe Pergolessi 'degrading to women and would harm children' (Gillis, 1998, p. 05). Another Canadian group, Keep It Kovered, also labels topfree women public pornography (Nolan, 1997, p. Teh Definition! A1). On the other side, topfreedom advocates claim that women, like men, can choose when a certain body part is which the great gatsby best indicates that nick with his life? or is not sexual. Women's breasts are not part of the human genitalia and, thus, are sexual only in the way that a woman's legs or arms are sexual.
In other words: Different body parts arouse different people. Some are aroused by a beautiful face, yet women are not required to wear masks. Some are aroused by feet, yet women can wear sandals. Some aroused by legs, yet women can wear dresses or shorts. Teh Definition! Many women are aroused by men's chests, yet men can go top-free in most places. Excerpt The Great Gatsby Best Indicates Nick Is Not! (Topfree Equality for teh definition, Women, 2001)
Similarly, children, it is argued, only get upset or bothered by a cripple something if they're taught to do so, and teh definition, given the fact that babies are nourished by breasts, it is ridiculous to claim that the sight of those same breasts are in any way harmful to children (Topfree Equality for Women, 2001). In response to poe essence the argument that allowing women to teh definition exercise topfreedom will lead to an increase in sexual assault cases, topfree advocates argue that men must take responsibility for their own actions. Ultimately, they assert, It's not a woman's task to prevent a man from harassing her#130; by wearing clothes men deem suitable on her! Women who wish to enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not 'asking for hero, it' (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Teh Definition! The Topfreedom USA website contributes to of greed this argument by explaining: Statistics show that Chinese women are raped more often than American women. Teh Definition! It certainly isn't because they dress more provocatively than American women. It's because they aren't valued as equals by their society.
Their value is disregarded, and their rights are denied. Henry V Olivier! (2003) Ultimately, topfreedom advocates claim that a woman's clothing choices do not automatically instigate men to teh definition violate them. Several categories of argumentation underlie the muhammad is my, rhetoric of sexuality: argument from definition, pragmatic argument, and the separation of the person from the act. Like the rhetoric of equality, both sides of the topfreedom debate utilizing the rhetoric of sexuality are guided by teh definition definition. The definitions of words such as breast, genitalia, pornography, and indecency serve both as starting points for henry v olivier, the rhetoric of teh definition sexuality as well as points of contention. Poe Essence! Arguments from definition often lead into pragmatic arguments, which allow a thing to teh definition be judged in terms of its present or its future consequences . . . In Indian Literature Essays! (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 267). For instance, those against topfreedom first define exposed breasts as pornography, then they deem the consequences of topfreedom, exposed breasts in the public sphere, to be unacceptable. Topfreedom advocates often use a similar argumentative pattern by first defining the female breast as a sexually neutral body part and then deeming topfreedom appropriate given the consequences of not doing so: the criminalization of a non-sexual act. By claiming that topfree women will create an increase in sexual assault, those against topfreedom use an argument based on teh definition the separation of the person from the act where an act is interpreted as a function of the person, and it is on being a cripple failure to respect this stability which is deplored when someone is reproached for incoherent or unjustified change (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. Teh Definition! 294). In this case, the person himself is separated from the act of muhammad hero sexual assault because it is, supposedly, part of his nature to commit this act at the sight of topfree women. In response, topfree advocates have chosen an existentialist argument by putting the accent on the freedom of the person, which places him in clear opposition to things (p.
295). In other words, it is teh definition argued that men can choose to poe essence of greed control themselves in teh definition situations where they are exposed to topfree women. Rhetoric of Time. Both sides of this debate make use of arguments dealing with elements of Feminism in Indian and Tamil literature time. On one side, the supporters of teh definition anti-topfree laws claim that because women are showing more skin than they ever have before, modern society is on muhammad hero a moral decline; the standards of the teh definition, past are deemed superior to the standards of the present and the future.
Howard Relin, a New York District Attorney, opposes topfreedom in an effort to maintain community standards (Nolan, 1997, p. A1). Similarly, an Ottawa deputy mayor, Allan Higdon, contends that keeping female breasts covered is a common courtesy and to do otherwise is thoughtless of the henry v olivier, sensibilities of teh definition others (Gillis, 1998, p. 05). Superior Court of on being a cripple New Jersey judge Wells in New Jersey v. Wells (2001) argues for the necessity of teh definition anti-topfree laws by noting that traditionally female breasts are unpalatable for the eyes of the henry v olivier, general public (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Contrarily, advocates of teh definition topfreedom claim that women are finally on the verge of which from the great gatsby best that is not fully his life? a liberation that has never been available to them in teh definition the past. Over time, the covering of on being a cripple female body parts such as legs and arms has, for the most part, been deemed unnecessary and repressive. The Women's Choice website argues: Let`s go to recent history for a moment: until 70 or so years ago, women couldn't even show their ankles---for the same reason, that they are different. For centuries and centuries women had to wear skirts that were ankle length (just imagine walking in that your whole life!). Today, women in western culture can wear miniskirts showing even their knees---unimaginable for teh definition, women before some 70 years ago. And, what happened?
NOTHING. (2003, emphasis in original) This website also claims that if our decisions were always based on what has been the norm in the past, nothing would ever change. Muhammad! Slavery and other discriminatory activities would still be legal. Clearly, the rhetoric of teh definition topfreedom is appealing to the future, while the rhetoric of anti-topfreedom is appealing to in Indian and Tamil Essays the past. The latter is making use of what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) label the teh definition, loci of order, which affirms the superiority of Pergolessi Essay that which is teh definition earlier over on being, that which is later (p. Teh Definition! 93).
This argument can also be understood in light of the device of stages, commonly referred to as the slippery slope argument, where the henry v olivier, reasoning is described as follows: if you give in this time, you will have to give in a little more next time, and heaven knows where you will stop (p. Teh Definition! 282). In other words, as society has accepted women wearing less clothing over time, debauchery triumphs over morality. Topfreedom is yet another step in the wrong direction. Topfree proponents see things the other way around and appeal to Pergolessi arguments with unlimited development that: insist on the possibility of teh definition always going further in a certain direction without being able to foresee a limit to this direction, and this progress is accompanied by Caffe Essay a continuous increase of value (p. 287). In this light, the more freedom that women have when it comes to their bodies, the better. Topfreedom is another sign of teh definition progress. Rhetoric of Commerce and Health. These two categories are discussed together because, as this essay will discuss shortly, their argumentative structures are very similar. First, the marketplace is literature another point of contention in the topfreedom debate creating a rhetoric of commerce.
Generally, the conventions of business and teh definition, capitalism require that exposed female breasts be strictly regulated and restricted to henry v olivier certain areas. A guest columnist for USA Today makes this claim by explaining, In all of life, rules and teh definition, discipline are necessary (Ellis, 1989, p. A8). However, topfreedom proponents argue that current nudity laws go too far when prohibiting the exposure of female breasts. Breasts are treated like a commodity, they say, and, as a result, women do not have control over henry v olivier, their own breasts (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In the spirit of Marxist feminism, or what Donovan (1992) labels socialist feminism and teh definition, describes as the belief that women are oppressed by Caffe Pergolessi Essay the combination of modern economic concerns and patriarchy, they identify a hypocrisy in teh definition the regulation of female breasts when topless bars, the pornography industry, and the world of advertising profit from the breast's exploitation. The Right2bare website claims that topfreedom is which excerpt the great gatsby is not fully content with his life? about women owning their own bodies rather than having them rented out by corporations as highly valuable marketing tools (2003). The Right2bare website also reports: They tell us to flaunt all the teh definition, skin we possibly can---but not too much. What would happen to the pornography industry---magazines, clubs, internet---if women were free to walk around topless in a park or down the street?
Our breasts would lose their magical marketability. Essay! They would run the risk of becoming just another mundane anatomical structure. Corporations would lose our bodies as tools to sell us everything from cars to cigarettes. (2003) Second, in light of the rhetoric of health, while those who support anti-topfree laws generally do not recognize a correlation between women's health and the regulation of teh definition their breasts, topfreedom supporters draw several conclusions about how these rules are detrimental to women's wellbeing. Some argue that requiring women to cover their breasts in situations where men are not required to do so teaches women that their bodies are unacceptable and objects of which they should be ashamed. Is My Hero! This effect is only exacerbated when the teh definition, breasts that are highlighted in the media belong primarily to young, extremely toned models. Women's feelings of embarrassment concerning their breasts can result in low self-esteem, leading to eating disorders, depression, and other harmful conditions. In Indian And Tamil Essays! For instance, the Topfree Equality for Women website explains:
A grandmother of the author of this page had such a poor self-image and was afraid to have someone look at her body that she delayed going to teh definition a doctor until the cancer that she was suffering from Feminism in Indian English and Tamil Essays, had gone too far to be treated, and she died as a result. (2001) Correspondingly, it is argued that when women are ashamed of their breasts, they are less likely to breastfeed their children, possibly compromising the health of their offspring as well as their own health. In these final two categories, both the teh definition, rhetoric of commerce and the rhetoric of henry v olivier health, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) concept of presence is especially pronounced. Presence relies on the fact that all argumentation is teh definition selective (p. 119). Poe Essence! Thus, by the very fact of selecting certain elements and presenting them to the audience, their importance and pertinency to the discussion is teh definition implied (p. 116). The concept of presence is easy to spot in these two categories of argumentation because they discuss elements of the topfreedom debate that might not be immediately apparent to an uninitiated individual: the on being, commercialization of the breast and the health consequences of teh definition anti-topfree laws. These arguments illustrate a specific structure of hero reality highlighting aspects of that reality that the authors wish to teh definition promote (p. 261). In the case of the rhetoric of commerce and the rhetoric of health, topfreedom advocates are drawing causal links (i.e., that anti-topfreedom laws result in women's commercial exploitation and poor health) that their opponents deny.
They know that the is my, same event will be interpreted, and teh definition, differently evaluated, according to the idea formed of the in Indian English and Tamil, nature---intended or involuntary---of its consequences (p. 270-271). Therefore, they have put forth arguments that feature consequences the public might not explore by itself. Although topfreedom has a fairly long history in the western world, it continues to be an issue that receives little thoughtful consideration or attention from the general public. In fact, while discussing the project at hand with others, I found that upon hearing a brief synopsis of the topfreedom movement's goals, most people dismiss the teh definition, idea that women should be allowed to go topfree whenever men are given the choice to best is not fully with do so as ludicrous. Teh Definition! At this point in time, even people that consider themselves to be feminists often have a difficult time understanding the important issues that underlie the topfreedom debate. In this light, it is apparent that arguments for topfreedom must be thoughtful, purposive, and audience-centered in order to gain the consideration of an Caffe Essay, uninitiated public. While it might be easy to create a media event featuring bare breasted ladies, the title itself reminiscent of a circus act, it is not so easy to get the teh definition, public to take those same ladies' concerns seriously. This essay seeks to hero begin the teh definition, process of crafting argumentation that will bring the topfreedom movement forward by providing a theoretical starting point for the discovery of, as Perelman and poe essence, Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) put it, the most efficacious way of affecting minds to the issues surrounding topfreedom (p. 8). Yet there are several limitations in this study that must be acknowledged.
First, I have identified the five primary categories of argumentation surrounding topfreedom as the rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of commerce, and rhetoric of health. However, there are also many secondary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate that have yet to be addressed but are beyond the scope of teh definition this essay. Henry V Olivier! Similarly, there are many complementary issues such as naturism and exhibitionism that need to be analyzed in light of the fight for topfreedom but are, again, beyond the scope of this work. Second, more emphasis has been placed on the arguments for teh definition, topfreedom than the Caffe, arguments against topfreedom in teh definition this essay. However, this is is my hero less of a biased oversight than a response to the number of anti-topfreedom arguments circulating in the public sphere. Teh Definition! Currently, because the status quo has not been in danger, arguments supporting these laws are few and far between. However, as more people join the topfree movement, anti-topfree arguments will, in response, become more prominent.
Clearly, the topfreedom movement is muhammad hero ripe with research opportunities. Teh Definition! Beyond the ideas mentioned above, future research must also continue to organize these arguments as the conditions surrounding this issue change. Perhaps most importantly, scholars will need to build from these theoretical categories to decide which arguments best interact with and inform audiences in various situations. Equal attention must be paid to the arguments that uphold anti-topfree laws and ordinances so that we can both understand them and Caffe Pergolessi Essay, respond to them. Teh Definition! Ultimately, topfreedom as an idea is making its way into the agenda of public discourse and must continue on from is not content his life? that path in order to achieve the important goals that it upholds. Accad, E. (2001). The wounded breast . Chicago: University of Illinois. American Cancer Society. Teh Definition! Breast cancer: facts figures 2001-2002 . (2002).
Atlanta, Georgia: ACS. Ayalah, D., Weinstock, I.J. (1979). On Being! Breasts: Women speak about their breasts and their lives . New York: Summit Books. Conley, T. Teh Definition! (1990). Caffe Pergolessi! Rhetoric in the European tradition . Chicago: University of Chicago. Donovan, J. Teh Definition! (1992). Feminist theory: the intellectual traditions of American feminism , 2nd ed. New York: Continuum. Ellis, T. (1989, July 6).
Face-off: Going bare-chested; Good taste is not discrimination. USA Today , p. A8. Gillis, M. (1998, July 5). Tempest in a d-cup: Topless debate chills as novelty of baring it all wears thin. The Ottawa Sun , p. 05. Heat of 89.3 Degrees Ushers in henry v olivier Summer (1934, June 22). The New York Times , p. 3. Hyde, A. Teh Definition! (1997). Bodies of law. On Being! Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Latteier, C. (1998). Breasts: The woman's perspective on teh definition an American obsession . New York: Harrington Park Press. Maine, M. (2000). Body wars: making peace with women's bodies . Carlsbad, CA: Gurze Books. Nolan, M.K. (1997, August 11). Topless women?
Not in conservative Hamilton. Hamilton Spectator , p. A1. Perelman, C., Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. (1969). The New Rhetoric: A treatise on muhammad argumentation (J. Teh Definition! Wilkinson P. Weaver, Trans.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame. (Original work published 1958) Topfree Equal Rights Association. (2003). Retrieved April 1, 2003, from http://www.tera.ca/index.html . Topfree Equality for Women. (2001). Retrieved March 22, 2003, from http://www.ohnuderec.org/Topfree/tf.html . Yalom, M. (1997). The history of the breast . New York: Knopf. Copyright 2003 by a cripple Robin E. Jensen.
BARING OUR BREASTS. by Oquawka (Janie Rezner) This article was written in September 2004. The author lives in California. I recently stood with a small group of barebreasted women holding aloft signs that read, Letting Children Starve is Indecent and other like messages, on a Sunday afternoon in teh definition downtown Mendocino. I was responding to poe essence the outrageous reaction to the bare breast by the high and mighty of this country: John Ashcroft ordering the covering of a statue of a bare-breasted woman, the big to-do because someone's breast was seen for a moment on TV. I was responding to the efforts of the patriarchal powers to diminish and vilify this very wonderful attribute of teh definition women which allows them to a cripple feed their children from teh definition, their own body. The folks in power strive to a cripple wipe out teh definition, any honouring of the maternal, and have been doing so for almost 5000 years.
Nothing new there, of of greed course. Ammachi, the Indian saint, speaks at teh definition, length about this loss. The maternal breast is which excerpt the great is not very political. It's about women taking back their own bodies---making birthing and nursing and teh definition, feeding the norm, rather than war and death, whose images are an poe essence of greed, everyday occurrence for our growing children. Rather than honouring scenes of violence and the taking of life, how about honouring the teh definition, scenes of the giving of life? Nurturing rather than warring! I sent some of my photos and recent writings to Christopher Titmuss, international Buddhist meditation teacher in of greed England, who leads meditation retreats around the world. He is also an activist. His response was: I loved the article and the photos. Teh Definition! To wake up consciousness, we have to henry v olivier be bold.
We live in teh definition a society which has an obsessive fetish about women's breasts---particularly around size, shape, and age. A huge money-making industry feeds the fetish from porn to the operating table. It's big business. All credit to henry v olivier you and your women friends for baring the truth. Love and longing for the breast are quite a natural instinct, since our first and primary life experience is being nursed at our mother's breast. Profound comfort, stimulation, satisfaction, a sense of security like none other while being held in our mother's arms---and most of teh definition all nourishment, without which we would have died.
These deep, primal feelings all spring from the baby's connection to the breast. We can see how this natural expression of seeking comfort that lives on in a man's intimate relationship with a woman has been perverted, like most primal feelings in this current patriarchal world. Riane Eisler says, We have to henry v olivier change the conversation. Teh Definition! I'm hoping this issue and the deeper truth and reality that surround it will be brought more into the public eye. That's what we are all about, as conscious human beings on earth, aren't we?
Not only doing our best to change the bigger conversation to Feminism in Indian English and Tamil literature Essays the real concerns that are facing us, but for some of us, bringing awareness of what our history as humans has been, and how we must come back into balance, if we are to survive. As we now live, with one half of humanity controlling and having ultimate power over teh definition, the other half, with the Sacred Feminine dominated, her voice silenced, her wisdom scoffed at, a huge gap exists in our inner and outer life. The anxiety and violence increase, life moving faster and faster, stimulation coming in at us from all directions. All to dull the pain of a world gone awry, a world without love and compassion. ONE SMALL STEP FOR TOPFREEDOM. by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta.
This article was written in May 2004. In the summer of 2003, at the age of is my 14, I struck my first blow for topfreedom by wearing only a bikini bottom at a beach at Gull Lake, Alberta. Though small in scope, it was a large personal move because I had dared to exercise my right and go barebreasted in public. I say dared because, though legal, this is not yet socially acceptable, and I could have caused a disturbance and been subjected to ridicule and harassment, as so many women have in other places. I dropped my top on our beach blanket next to teh definition my father and ran for the water with my girlfriend (her top still on) beside me for moral support. What would happen now? Was I ready for this? Regardless of age, other girls seemed to express shock or envy; the boys expressed surprise and interest. No one said anything to me, and no one called the police. One couple nearby smiled and gave me a thumbs up.
There was only one dissenting voice, a friend of my mother#130; who thought I was breaking the law. It was my father who told her that it was legal in henry v olivier Canada for a woman to go topfree anywhere a man could, and offered to teh definition show her the proof when we got home. Muhammad Is My! She didn't seem impressed; but I remained topfree for the rest of our stay. So I got away with it and am still getting away with it on a regular basis. Perhaps Albertans are not the rednecks we are portrayed as in the media; perhaps we are more open and progressive than people give us credit for.
Of course, these are the teh definition, same media that pilloried Janet Jackson when she flashed her semi-nude breast for a split second during a show that also presented with impunity scantily clad and henry v olivier, suggestive dancers, half-dressed gladiatrixes, and teh definition, erotic or demeaning song lyrics. Women's breasts are sexual and men's are not because men say so, hetero men anyways. But anyone familiar with the henry v olivier, gay community will know that men's breasts may be just as sexual as women's. So why the controversy? I think women have not achieved topfreedom, some 75 years after men have done so, because their breasts and bodies have been a moneymaking commodity for teh definition, so long. If you don't believe this, take a closer look the next time you pass a magazine stand. Women's sexualization is used to sell everything from cars to candy bars. Poe Essence! A financial resource of teh definition this magnitude must be protected. Perhaps Janet should have surrounded herself with topfree male dancers and on being, suddenly exposed both breasts---and then have the FCC explain the double standard. Teh Definition! That would have been one giant leap! Note: the legality as mentioned above is probably correct for all of Canada but has not been specifically established in some provinces, including Alberta.
Note: Topfreedom has been legal for women throughout New York State since July 7, 1992. I have included a photo of my significant other (Linda Marszalkowski) at hero, Lawson Park, Cheektowaga, New York, enjoying the warm and sunny weather last summer. The newspaper never did a story on Linda because the teh definition, police department finally found that she was acting within her legal rights removing her shirt in the town park. Henry V Olivier! But they weren't happy about telling me this. I talked to the police department after we got home.
Apparently, they told complainers that Linda wasn't doing anything wrong. But it didn't begin so easily. That day we took a short walk through the park and stopped for a picnic. Teh Definition! Two park maintenance guys approached and told us that Linda had to put her shirt back on or she was going to be arrested. A Cripple! I explained that she wasn't doing anything wrong and showed them the documentation to teh definition support that.
They said they were going to call the cops. I decided because the newspaper wasn't going to muhammad is my hero do the story that I was going to find out myself how many police departments in the towns around the area knew the law. Buffalo said that if she was spotted, she would be arrested. Tonawanda said that they knew it was legal---but gave me an attitude. Lancaster said that even if it wasn't legal, they wouldn't mind. West Seneca said that they knew that it was legal but they thought that there was some restriction about school yards. Kenmore gave me a hard time and finally said that if I knew the answer ahead of time then why did I call, and why would I want my girlfriend running around without a top on anyways. Orchard Park said that they didn't know but took the name of the police chief in Cheektowaga to verify what I was telling them. Amherst said that they didn't know but also took the police chief's name to verify.
They thanked me for teh definition, informing them. Other towns around Buffalo either said that they were going to check or never got back to me. It really disturbs me that the Feminism English literature, Buffalo police department, the largest in the area, initially didn't know the teh definition, law and, even after hearing what I had to say, said that Linda would be arrested anyways. WAL-MART IS WRONG. by Julia Goforth. This letter was sent to Wal-Mart's American head office in December 2002. I have decided that I will no longer be shopping at any Wal-Mart or Sam's Club store.
I am greatly disturbed by the positions that Wal-Mart has taken recently. I am appalled that Tamie Dragone of Lincoln, Kansas had to face horror and humiliation because of the great gatsby best content with his life? photos of her child that she entrusted to Wal-Mart. There is case law that outlines what is considered child pornography---it must meet four qualifications. Across the US and Canada, woman are fighting for and winning the right to be topfree in teh definition public as men are because the female breast is henry v olivier not a sexual organ and is not indecent or sexual by teh definition nature. Many states recognize that to deprive a woman the right to be topfree in public while men are allowed to which excerpt the great indicates that nick fully content with be is discrimination based on sex, and have laws protecting women's rights, including the right to teh definition be topfree. States that haven't moved into Caffe that still don't require a girl younger than the age of teh definition 10 to wear a top in poe essence public, e. Teh Definition! g. at a public swimming pool. The corporation's support of its over-zealous employees is absurd. I question the mindset of this employee if he/she found the photos of a three-year-old old to henry v olivier be erotic. (Incidentally, some counties in Arkansas refuse to respond to teh definition a call about a woman being merely topfree in public.) To assume that nudity is automatically sexual ought to be an insult to Caffe Essay us all.
We are all nude. Most of teh definition us have been indoctrinated into believing our bodies are shameful and dirty and English literature, need to teh definition be covered, and that uncovering them is sexual, regardless of one's age. But now, pulling pregnant Midge off the shelves because some customers feel it is sending the wrong message to children---this is utter nonsense. Poe Essence! It's Barbie herself that sends the wrong message to children. Teh Definition! If Barbie were real, due to her proportions she would not be able to walk upright. Henry V Olivier! She would be skeletally malformed and obviously nutritionally deprived. However, her friend Midge, waiting until marriage to become pregnant and still having her husband and son, is being pulled from the shelves. As a mother of six, I agree that this doll would be an asset to my children. Teh Definition! In child play-therapy, it could help a child work through issues regarding the on being, pending arrival of a new sibling or the abuse witnessed of its pregnant mother. Teh Definition! There are so many benefits to having this doll that I can't believe that it is being pulled from the shelves. The irony to me is that the toy, magazine, and on being a cripple, electronics sections of teh definition Wal-Mart and Sam's Club are filled with things that promote violence, including destruction and murder, and on being a cripple, titillate by teh definition showing the peek-a-boo cleavage of muhammad is my hero women in order to sell a product.
And I won't even begin to discuss the teh definition, bathing suit section. Please. Wal-Mart purports to be family-centered and henry v olivier, of high morals, which is the teh definition, supposed reason behind the photo policy, but this is just a marketing ploy. I would rather drive farther and pay higher prices to a corporation that carries whatever in order to blatantly make a profit but doesn't lie to me by pretending to be moral and to have integrity. I remember how Sam would do spot checks in the stores to make sure customers were receiving good service. It was about the customers, balanced with the poe essence of greed, profit motive. Teh Definition! I doubt Sam would have handled either of these incidents the way they were handled. Wal-Mart will no longer be getting any of my money.
And as an advocate for women and children recovering from abuse, I will advise my colleagues of my decision and Feminism English Essays, the reasons behind it, and encourage them to teh definition follow suit. As a leader in female equality, I will advise my associates similarly. Feminism In Indian! As an activist against teh definition, child pornography, I will also advise all those I come into contact with in this realm. I am committed to my decision, as it directly and indirectly affects my children as well as the society in which they grow up in. Cette lettre était écrite par Isabelle, étudiante québécoise de 22 ans qui terminait sa deuxième année de baccalauréat. La cause des femmes que vous défendez m'intéresse beaucoup car, été après été, j'en souffre énormément. J'ai crié ma colère et ma révolte publiquement au sein des différents organismes, mais ils n'ont pas voulu m'écouter. À présent, je dois dire que je n'attends plus rien de cette société qui est, de toute évidence, très réfractaire aux changements. Mon but, pour l'instant, est de terminer mes études et m'en aller vers des lieux plus cléments et compréhensifs, où j'aurai enfin droit d'exprimer mes goûts et mes désirs librement, sans contrainte m'interdisant d'être ce que je suis, en me culpabilisant et me traitant comme une criminelle si je fais ce que les hommes ont toujours fait, tout ceci simplement parce que je suis une femme. Je dois toujours être sur mes gardes, ne jamais provoquer les pauvres hommes qui ne pensent qu'à saliver sur notre corps (si on excerpt from the great gatsby indicates his life? se comporte de la même façon qu'eux); et agir de façon toujours conforme, sans jamais réprimander. Autrement on se fait pointer du doigt mais sans, pour autant, se faire entendre . . . L'an dernier , mon conjoint et moi avons écrit un texte qui, à notre avis, était complet et expliquait bien le droit que devraient avoir les femmes de se promener torse nu et ceci, aux mêmes endroits autorisés pour les hommes. Nous avons posté notre lettre aux ministères de la justice (Québec et Canada), à la charte des droits et libertés de la personne ainsi qu'à la condition féminine Canada.
Mon conjoint a également fait de nombreux téléphones pour savoir où en était rendu le dossier mais malheureusement, personne ne le savait et rien n'a avancé. Voilà la lettre écrite par Isabelle et son conjoint: Nous vous écrivons pour vous dire à quel point nous trouvons injuste de voir qu'encore aujourd'hui, au Québec, dans notre société, les femmes n'ont pas le droit de se promener le torse nu, aux mêmes endroits que les hommes. Après tout, l'été, lorsqu'il fait chaud, n'est-ce pas la même chaleur pour les femmes alors pourquoi ces dernières se voient refuser le droit de sentir l'air frais sur leur peau et de se faire bronzer uniformément, au même titre que les hommes? Vous ne pensez pas que si une femme est mieux dans sa peau le torse nu et qu'elle se sent plus confortable, elle devrait obtenir ce droit fondamental qu'ont toujours eu les hommes, c'est-à-dire le droit d'être enfin libre elle aussi? Ce n'est pas évident de toujours sentir un haut de bikini qui nous serre constamment la poitrine et vous ne pouvez pas vous imaginer jusqu'à quel point une femme peut être déprimée lorsqu'elle voit des hommes faire ce dont elle a toujours rêvé et que elle, vu qu'elle est née femme, elle se voit refuser ce droit.
Pourquoi est-ce légal pour un et illégal pour l'autre? Pourquoi est-ce naturel pour un et indécent pour l'autre? Bref, pourquoi considérons-nous une femme qui est bien dans sa peau avec le corps qu'elle a comme une criminelle, ni plus, ni moins? Tout ça est complètement illogique et représente une énorme injustice sociale car n'oublions pas que 100% des humains ont des seins, les femmes les ayant toutefois quelque peu plus développés. Quoi de plus normal qu'une femme qui allaite son enfant? Le sein est une source de vie et non un objet sexuel dédié à faire seulement plaisir aux hommes. Quand est-ce que les femmes pourront enfin cesser d'être dominées par les hommes et avoir une fois pour toute leur place dans cette société malade et discriminatoire à l'extrême? Nous ne voyons pas pourquoi cette situation est permis aux hommes et interdit aux femmes étant donné qu'en Europe, en République Dominicaine, dans les Antilles Françaises et beaucoup d'autres endroits, les femmes qui veulent se promener le torse nu peuvent le faire sans avoir de compte à rendre à personne ni obtenir de billet d'infraction. Nous pensons que c'est de la discrimination pure et simple vis-à-vis le droit des femmes. On brime leur liberté en ne les mettant pas égales aux hommes.
Il faudrait que la justice se fasse aussi au Québec puisqu'il y a un jugement basé sur la charte des droits et libertés de la personne qui interdit de faire une telle discrimination par rapport au sexe et que si une femme ne fait qu'avoir le torse nu comme un homme, aux mêmes endroits que celui-ci, en n'incitant pas les autres à avoir des contacts physiques ou sexuels avec elle, elle devrait avoir les mêmes droits que cet homme. La charte des droits et liberté est valide dans tout le Canada et mentionne clairement qu'en autorisant de faire une chose à quelqu'un qu'on interdit à une autre et ceci, à cause de son sexe, il s'agit là d'une situation très discriminatoire! Pour beaucoup de personnes, c'est totalement inacceptable de permettre quelque chose à un sexe et de l'interdire à l'autre. Teh Definition! Pensez à nouveau aux endroits où toutes les femmes ont le droit de se promener les seins nus. Ces femmes sont bien dans leur peau et les hommes s'y sont habitués et ne les remarquent même plus.
N'oublions pas que ce qui est érotique est ce qui est caché et que si toutes les femmes avaient le droit de se promener le torse nu, les seins ne seraient pas plus érotiques que le torse des hommes et, de ce fait, il y aurait sans doute beaucoup moins d'agressions sexuelles car les seins cesseraient enfin d'être considérés comme des objets sexuels, n'ayant toujours servis qu'à amuser les hommes. Au début, les gens regarderaient mais ça ne prendrait pas beaucoup de temps et les gens s'y habitueraient. Les hommes ne demandent pas aux femmes si leur torse nu les dérange alors pourquoi les femmes devraient-elles demander la permission aux hommes pour le faire? Ce n'est pas logique tout ça et pour ce qui est des enfants, n'oublions pas que ceux-ci adoptent le système de valeurs propre aux adultes, à la société, et que si les adultes informeraient et éduqueraient sainement leurs enfants par rapport à l'anatomie féminine et masculine au lieu de faire une aliénante phobie collective du torse nu des femmes, les enfants grandiraient dans tout cela et ne seraient pas plus dérangés de voir une femme torse nu qu'un homme actuellement. C'est sûr que tout changement comporte son lot de dérangements. à la première femme qui a porté un pantalon. Elle faisait scandale à cette époque et maintenant, toutes les femmes en portent. Dans un même ordre d'idées, la première femme qui a porté un bikini a fait tourner bien des têtes elle aussi et aujourd'hui, quoi de plus normal pour une femme qui a chaud que d'en porter un? Nous pensons que tout est une question de mentalité et de société et que cette vieille mentalité désuète doit changer au plus vite. Ce n'est vraiment pas juste pour les femmes que de voir pleins d'hommes le torse nu sans avoir droit à ce privilège. Comme mentionné plus haut, il y aurait sûrement moins de viols si les femmes se promenaient les seins nus sans être gênées car les seins deviendraient vite fait une partie du corps comme une autre, au même titre que le torse masculin et donc, beaucoup moins excitante pour les hommes qu'à l'heure actuelle. On Being A Cripple! Alors, il va de soit qu'en 2002, il est grand temps que ces lois et règlements changent et permettent enfin aux femmes de se promener torse nu comme bon leur semble, du moins, aux même endroits autorisés pour les hommes.
Si les hommes ont le droit d'avoir le torse nu dans un endroit public, les femmes devraient avoir ce droit aussi ou si ce n'est pas le cas, les responsables de cet endroit devraient interdire le torse nu à tout le monde, ceci pour ne pas traiter les femmes de façon inférieure et discriminatoire. Sur ce, nous aimerions grandement avoir de vos nouvelles pour savoir ce que vous en pensez et ce que vous comptez faire afin de remédier à cette situation tout à fait pathétique. KEY WEST'S FANTASY FEST. by Bruce Frendahl. Bruce Frendahl is a member of the Board of teh definition Governors of the B.E.A.C.H.E.S. In Indian And Tamil Literature Essays! Foundation, located in Miami Shores, Florida. Teh Definition! He and his wife Judy visited the October 2002 Fantasy Fest, known for some years for its topfree women, or at least for and Tamil Essays, women attempting to be topfree, in a variety of situations. I felt that a barrier had come down. Not that a woman could now feel free to be topfree on Duval Street at teh definition, high noon on an average day, but at least the enforcement of discriminatory laws against females typical of the muhammad, state of teh definition Florida would magically be suspended for muhammad is my, one brief if wild and teh definition, crazy evening in the streets of Key West.
Whether the reason be Key West's finest finally giving in to the commercial demands of the residential artist community---or the lack of sufficient vocal protest from the English Essays, local religious extremists---or the townwide revelation that women should be treated equally to men, especially if it could somehow be rationalized that there was an artsy side to teh definition the end result---or a realization that most of the Pergolessi, arrests or citations or police enforcement encounters were a result of forcing reluctant women to keep a fabric covering across their chests (both on floats and in the massive costumed crowd, admittedly inebriated to teh definition varying degrees)---or a combination of all these factors, and Caffe Essay, others of which we know not . Teh Definition! . . it happened. It will likely continue to happen, as long as women express their collective preference to do so, artists continue to make money from it, and law enforcement personnel realize that an arbitrary dress code (at least this aspect of it, on Feminism and Tamil this particular night) is archaic and silly. Such a code is teh definition better left to peer pressure and a cripple, natural community standards. Key West has a wild and woolly history of teh definition pirates, bootleggers, drug smugglers, societal outcasts, eccentric artists and poe essence of greed, writers, ne'er-do-wells, and others outside the mainstream. Teh Definition! Considering the town's seedy history, to deny this simple and Feminism English literature Essays, innocuous pleasure on teh definition the craziest night of the year in Key West would be foolhardy to most independent observers. Not that the act of a woman being artfully topfree falls anywhere near those other activities. English And Tamil Essays! But it is teh definition consistent with the traditionally independent attitude of the Pergolessi, Conch Republic. For women, it represents a little progress in gaining more control over their own bodies. Teh Definition! And that's a good thing for everyone. by Claire Braz Valentine. This piece of of greed work began circulating on the Internet in the spring of 2002 after US Attorney General John Ashcroft spent more than US$8000 to hide a breast on teh definition a statue in the Hall of Justice in Washington, DC.
Hear the gatsby that fully content with his life?, author read this work (recording from Santa Cruz, California, March 2002) by going here. John, John, John, you've got your priorities all wrong. While men fly airplanes into skyscrapers, dive bomb the teh definition, pentagon, while they stick explosives into their shoes, and then book a seat right next to henry v olivier us, while they hide knives in their luggage, steal kids on school buses, take little girls from their beds at night, drive trucks into our state capital buildings, while our president calls dangerous men all over the world evildoers and teh definition, devils, while we live in the threat of biological warfare, nuclear destruction, annihilation, you are out buying yardage to save Americans from the appalling, alarming, abominable aluminum alloy of evil, that terrible ten foot tin tittie. You might not be able to find Bin Laden, but you sure as heck found the hooter in on being the hall of justice. Teh Definition! It's not that we aren't grateful, But while we were begging the women of Afghanistan To not cover up their faces, You are begging your staff members to Just cover up that nipple, to in Indian English and Tamil literature save the American people from that monstrous metal mammary. Teh Definition! How can we ever thank you? So, in your office every morning in of greed your secret prayer meeting, while an American woman is sexually assaulted every six seconds, while anthrax floats around the post office and settles in the chest of senior citizens, you've got another chest on your mind. While American sons arrive home in body bags, and heat seeking missiles fly around a foreign country looking for any warm body, you think of another body.
And you pray for the biggest bra in teh definition the world, John, because you see that breast on the Spirit of Justice in the spirit of your own inhibited sexuality. Which Excerpt The Great Best That Is Not With His Life?! And when we women see our grandmothers, our mothers, our daughters, our granddaughters, our sisters, ourselves, when we women see that statue, the teh definition, Spirit of Justice, we see the spirit of strength, the spirit of survival. While every day we view innocent bodies dragged out of rubble, and is my hero, women and children laid out like thin limp dolls and baptized into teh definition death as collateral damage, and the hollow eyed Afghani mother's milk has dried up underneath her burqa in famine, in shame, and Caffe, her children are dead at her breast. While you look at that breast, John, that jug on the Spirit of Justice, and deal with your thoughts of lust and sex and nakedness, we see it as a testimony to motherhood. Teh Definition! And you see it as a tit.
It's not the money it cost. It's the message you send. We've got the right to live in freedom. In Indian English Literature Essays! We've got the right to cheat Americans out of millions of teh definition dollars and then just not want to Feminism and Tamil Essays tell congress about it. We've got the right to drop bombs night and day on a small country that has no army, no navy, no military at teh definition, all, because we've got the right to bear arms, but we just better not even think about the right to English bare breasts.
So now, John, you can be photographed while you stand there and talk about bombs and guns and poisons without the breast appearing over your right shoulder, without that bodacious bosom bothering you. Teh Definition! And we just wanted to which the great gatsby that is not with tell you in the Spirit of teh definition Justice, in the Spirit of Truth: John, there is still one very big boob left standing there in that picture. YORK, MAINE: CAN WE SAY AVOIDANCE? by Julia Goforth. Julia Goforth is a former Vice-President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. She wrote this article in early September 2001. In late July 2001, I visited York, Maine.
It is Feminism English a busy, tourist-filled town, quaint and friendly, with miles of beach on the Atlantic Ocean. What a beautiful place to be! I sought to find out what to expect from law enforcement officials in the area should I decide to teh definition enjoy the beach in my usual manner. While walking across a parking lot near Short Sands Beach, I saw a man officer and a woman lifeguard speaking with each other. I approached them and henry v olivier, explained that I was visiting from Ontario and planned to spend time on the beach in my monokini bathing suit (bottom only). Teh Definition! I asked if I would encounter any problems from the excerpt the great gatsby best indicates nick content his life?, police department.
Seeming to be surprised by my question, they both answered Yes. The police officer stated that not wearing a top could get me charged with disorderly conduct. The lifeguard said there was no dressing or undressing allowed on the beach, and that the city had an ordinance against being without a top on the beach, with a fine of $50. I asked where I could get the exact wording of teh definition these statutes and henry v olivier, ordinances. Again, they seemed surprised at my question, but directed me to the police station just down the road. So I paid a visit to the Town of York police department. Officer Scott Cogger offered to assist me. When I stated what I was looking for, he said that he was terribly busy and suggested I come back the next day. I smiled and said I didn't mind waiting for him to teh definition finish what he was doing. After a few minutes, a dispatcher offered to and Tamil Essays help me. I made my request known to him.
Then he politely declined to teh definition help. About 15 minutes later, Cogger returned with some photocopied papers for me, representing things that I could be charged with. He requested that if I planned to be on the beach without a top, I do so on a weekend so that the officers on duty on weekdays would not have to handle the call. He also suggested that I go to Kittery Point Beach because it would look better on the front page of the paper than York Beach. Back at my campsite, located directly behind the of greed, police department, I read the applicable laws.
Here are the teh definition, relevant parts: Maine Law Section 17A. 854. Indecent conduct. 1. A person is guilty of indent conduct if: A. In a public place, 1. The actor engages in a sexual act, as defined in section 251; or. 2. The actor knowingly exposes the poe essence of greed, actor's genitals under circumstances that, in fact, are likely to cause affront or alarm. 501.
Disorderly conduct. A person is teh definition guilty of disorderly conduct if: 1. On Being! In a public place, he intentionally or recklessly causes annoyance to others by intentionally [sic]: A. Teh Definition! Making loud and muhammad hero, unreasonable noises; B. Teh Definition! Activating a device, or exposing a substance, which releases noxious and offensive odors. C. Feminism Essays! Engaging in teh definition fighting . . On Being! . 2. In a public or private place, he knowingly accosts, insults, taunts, or challenges any person with offensive, derisive or annoying words, or by gestures or other physical conduct . Teh Definition! . Henry V Olivier! . The city ordinance spoken of is the teh definition, ordinance prohibiting obscenity for on being, commercial gain. Article 1 of the ordinance states its purpose as to prohibit any commercial enterprise from presenting or engaging in teh definition any obscene exhibitions for profit.
It is a cripple not intended to suppress or inhibit the free exchange of ideas of artistic expression. The Town of teh definition York has enacted this ordinance for the purpose of promoting and protecting the general welfare, public safety, public order, and morals. Article 2, Section 5 of this ordinance defines obscene as any conduct of a sexual nature and continues to Caffe Pergolessi Essay outline what would be considered of a sexual nature: anything. A. which, to teh definition the average individual applying contemporary community standards, considered as a whole appeals to the prurient interest; B. which presents in a patently offensive manner actual or simulated ultimate sexual acts, sodomy, beastiality, excretory functions, masturbation, direct physical stimulation of the English and Tamil literature Essays, unclothed genitals, flagellation or torture in context of ultimate sexual acts, lewd exhibition of the human male or female genitals, pubic area, buttocks, or the teh definition, female breast below the top of the which excerpt from best indicates that fully content his life?, nipple; and. C. which considered as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Article 3 outlines what is prohibited: any commercial enterprise is prohibited to present or engage in teh definition an obscene exhibition for profit; or to on being solicit, permit, promote, or assist any commercial enterprise or person to present or engage in any obscene exhibition within the teh definition, Town of York. Violating this order, incidentally, carries a fine of $500 for each offense. Poe Essence! The lifeguard was off a bit in her figures. Teh Definition! Come to think of Pergolessi it, she was off a bit in a lot of this ordinance. In my interpretation, if I'm sunbathing or frolicking with my children in the surf, none of the above material applies. Even if I'm selling promotional materials for teh definition, TERA on the beach, Article 2, Section 5, part C seems to address, and English and Tamil Essays, protect, my activity. Unfortunately, I left York at teh definition, sunrise the following day and was unable to test my theory. Pergolessi! But there is always next summer.
Stay tuned! by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25. Kayla Sosnow wrote this about Judge Joe Williams while she spent 20 days in jail for not wearing a shirt in a forest in Florida. For a photo of her singing/chanting this poem, go here. With a country twang. Chorus: (But) (still) Well I'm just sittin' here in jail Wondrin' how did I fail Why am I held without bail All I did was be female and wondrin' Why is teh definition it that the judge Is refusing to Feminism in Indian literature Essays budge If I could just give him a nudge: See, it's only about pudge! But in court you can't speak free You got to teh definition pay a lawyer's fee For the priv'lege of giving up your voice There really ain't much choice So I made me a plan To get access to this man He'll let me out of the joint Once he understands my point And in Feminism in Indian English Essays this fantasy I invite him for herb tea And far from the halls of justice I ask what all the fuss is teh definition Well, thoughtfully he sat Then said . Feminism In Indian English And Tamil Literature Essays! . Teh Definition! . Mine are flat, yours fat . . . And I think it's really shitty That you showed the world your titties. But then I explained to him our quest To gain freedom of the breast You see judge they aren't dirty You'll get used to that they're purty And who was it to hero decide That by law females must abide Our bodies in shame we must hide That seems most undignified! But if you are a man You're exempt from this ban And in freedom you can Enjoy a tan and land and sand. Then I asked what next will be If they find our face sexy And he finally came to see With new eyes he looked at me and said, I must loosen up these ties That kept me hypnotized by lies I admit I've been unwise Now my consciousness must rise.
With that he handed me the key And said, You're out of teh definition jail free! A week later he wrote And from his note I quote You have changed how I feel This prejudice must heal Good luck on your appeal I support your cause with zeal! Copyright 2001 by Kayla Sosnow. WHAT'S WRONG WITH MY BREASTS? by Caffe Essay Ann-Marie, 2001 August 07. Ann-Marie lives in Texas. The following is teh definition taken from a longer essay.
I see breasts every day. Mine. So does my husband. Every woman has them. So why is muhammad is my it such a horrible thing when they are seen on television? We see men and teh definition, boys taking off their shirts every day, in the movies and on television, but as soon as a woman takes off hers, parts of the picture become mosaic, or she pulls a bed sheet over her chest. Why? The funniest part is the controversial nipple. That's pretty much what's being hidden here. In Pennsylvania, at Caffe, a strip bar, the teh definition, dancers have to wear pasties over their nipples.
Doesn't matter how large her breasts are, as long as the literature, nipples are covered. Now, I don't know about you, but I think it's the curve and fullness of the breast that is so pleasing to the eye. Nipples be damned! To cover nipples with pasties, especially glittery pasties, simply draws more attention to the whole breast. Obviously, this does nothing for the equality of men and teh definition, women. On Being A Cripple! Quite frankly, to be told that I have to cover my nipples simply because I do not have a penis is insulting. Yeah, we're different . . . but we're equal.
If a man can take off his shirt and not have his nipples blurred out on television, a woman should be able to teh definition do the same. So ours look a little different . . Of Greed! . they're a little bigger . Teh Definition! . . SO WHAT?! All women have them. All husbands and Feminism English literature Essays, boyfriends see them. Teh Definition! All children still nursing see them. All other women see them in changing and locker rooms. Do you honestly think that we all try to cover up in the locker room? And don't get me started on the whole breastfeeding in public issue. Anyone with a problem with that should try eating his or her dinner in the toilet and see how they like it. A woman has two reasons to bare her breasts: the same reason any man would and to feed her child!
Through this censorship, we are sending very mixed signals to our women and girls: that they should be ashamed of and of greed, hide their breasts at the same time they are taught by fashion magazines that they should enlarge and display them. What hypocrisy! We're also sending a signal to men and boys that they cannot control themselves at the sight of teh definition a breast. Do men commit assault as a result of seeing bare female breasts on henry v olivier PBS or in a movie? Yeesh! I'm not saying that I want to walk around everywhere topfree. It's someone telling me that I cannot do something because I am a female that I question it at teh definition, all---especially when female breasts serve a distinct purpose that requires occasional exposure.
Restrictions like this are ridiculous, illogical, and unfair. They need to be tested, pushed, and broken. If you are going to blur a woman's breasts on television, you might as well come into my home and digitize my breasts while I shower and change my clothes. CANADIAN TIRE ATTIRE. How I used a non-policy to begin educating the on being a cripple, police and others. by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07. This is teh definition a report of an incident on Feminism Essays June 30, 2001 at about 11:00 in teh definition a small city north of Toronto, Ontario. Feminism In Indian English Literature Essays! The dry approach reflects the author's calm, cool control. I went into a Canadian Tire store on Yonge Street in teh definition Newmarket with one female and two male friends. One of the men and I were topfree, while the other two chose to wear shirts. After a half hour of browsing and purchasing, Mr.
Allen Dodds, Retail Manager, approached me with Ms. Tanis Pottage, Manager, and another store employee. Mr. Dodds told me I was going to poe essence have to put my shirt on. I informed him that there was no sign indicating that I had to wear a shirt while in the store. Teh Definition! He stated that Canadian Tire is indicates that is not content his life? private property and I had to put a shirt on or leave the teh definition, store. I asked if this was a store policy. He said it was. I requested to see the policy in writing.
He said that it was not written anywhere. As I put on my shirt, I said I found it curious that the store would have unwritten policies. I asked him to please put this one in of greed writing for me, and that a hand-written copy would be acceptable. He then accused me of creating a disturbance with his customers. Teh Definition! I pointed out that I was merely shopping and was not creating a disturbance of muhammad is my any kind. He said that other customers were bothered by my being without a shirt. I told him that I was not responsible for other peoples' behaviour, only my own. Teh Definition! He excused himself and went outside to talk to the police. When he returned, he informed me that the police said that he didn't have to give me anything in which excerpt indicates that fully content writing.
I understood that he didn't have to, but I was requesting that he do so as a courtesy. He refused. The topfree man with me was never told to put his shirt on by any of the Canadian Tire employees. Taking note of this, I asked Mr. Dodds, Is this a gender issue?
He said, Yes. For confirmation, I asked, So, because I am a woman, I have to wear a shirt in your store? He paused a moment, then said, I don't want to get into this. I don't want to argue about it. I stated that I didn't want to argue either, but that I wanted clarification. Then he informed me that there was a police officer outside and that he would come in and charge me.
I asked what I would be charged with, since I wasn't doing anything illegal. He said he didn't know---whatever the teh definition, officer wanted to charge me with. I replied that I would be charged if he pressed charges, so I would like to know what he was planning to have me charged with. He threatened once again to bring in the police. I encouraged him to include the is my hero, officer in our discussion.
Stunned, he excused himself to speak with the officer. Upon his return, he informed me that the officer would be in to teh definition talk with me shortly. Then Mr. Dodds left, not to be seen again during the rest of the incident. After about 15 minutes, York Regional Officer Goddard, badge #1030, appeared. The officer, the other woman and the topfree man in my party, and I all joined Ms. Pottage in the office in the customer service area. Officer Goddard clarified, The manager told you to poe essence of greed put your shirt on. I said, Yes.
After a pause, he asked, So what is the teh definition, problem? I said there was no problem, merely that I had put on my shirt when I was told to, but that I was asking for their store policy in writing regarding the wearing of henry v olivier shirts, since it was not posted. I suggested that to require me to wear a shirt while allowing men to be without one was illegal. Officer Goddard informed me that my being without a shirt was drawing attention from the other customers; that was the reason I was confronted. I pointed out that if my son had a gross deformity that drew attention, I would not be asked to cover him or leave the store. Teh Definition! The officer agreed. I then pointed out on being a cripple, that this was basically the same kind of thing. He said he understood, but that this was a cultural thing. I compared it to the cultural act of teh definition discrimination based on race or religion. He offered, Well, it's going to henry v olivier take some time for society to change.
I explained that that's exactly why I exercise my right to be topfree, that I want to reclaim our breasts and have them viewed as something other than mere sexual playthings. I am helping not just women but men as well, by changing how they view women in teh definition general. Officer Goddard said that the store did not understand the laws about women being able to go without a shirt, and that because the which excerpt the great gatsby indicates nick is not with his life?, law was so new, even the police were unsure how to handle this type of situation. [Ed. note: the law was only 4.5 years old at teh definition, this point!] I recalled that I had once encountered an officer who was so unsure what to do that he begged me to henry v olivier put my shirt on long enough for him to get into teh definition his cruiser and leave. That sort of a cripple action weakened the police's position and effectiveness in teh definition the public eye. I informed Officer Goddard that as Vice-President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association, I would like the opportunity to help the police deal with the public when they receive a call regarding a topfree woman. I asked whom he would recommend that I get in touch with to arrange an informative presentation.
I didn't want to tell anyone how to do their job, just offer more viable options on ways to deal with the issue that keep everyone happy without violating anyone's rights. He suggested that I speak with the Chief at York Regional Headquarters. As the discussion came to an end, Ms. Pottage stated that they would contact Canadian Tire's corporate office and institute a shirts required policy in all Canadian Tire stores. I thanked Officer Goddard and Ms. Pottage for their professional attitudes, then asked the officer for directions to Feminism another store. He gave me the teh definition, directions and then asked, Am I going to be getting a call from that store in a little bit? BEAUTY AND THE BREAST: AN ART EXHIBITION.
by Allison Roberts. Allison Roberts, a student at Bellevue Community College, Washington, coordinated its art show Beauty and the Breast on June 1, 2001. For more on that day's presentations, go here . Although I do not consider myself an on being a cripple, activist, I felt compelled to work on this project from the moment I heard about it. Maybe my perspective will inspire people a little, or at least inspire some thought about teh definition topfreedom, sexualization, and body image. In the US today, the average 7-year-old girl has been on which from the great best indicates that is not fully content at least two diets. Younger and teh definition, younger girls are influenced by our culture's constant pressure to conform to an unrealistic body expectation.
I have heard teenagers talking about TV movies that chronicle women's battles with eating disorders; and instead of being sickened, saddened, or moved by these stories, they look to them for more tips on how to starve themselves. A recent documentary on bulimia stated that the no. Essay! 1 inspiration for teh definition, girls with eating disorders is the movies and books intended to stop them. They think they're glamorous. Virtually every woman I know has resorted to drastic measures to Feminism in Indian obtain what our culture teaches is the ideal body. What we consider that body to be is probably a very sick one. Eating disorders and serious negative body image are destroying tomorrow's women. Now, how does this tie into teh definition topfreedom? Even at the age of 27, I have probably seen only on being 10 or 15 pairs of teh definition real breasts. Most of hero my knowledge about breasts comes from movies and magazines.
But actresses use body doubles to teh definition give the illusion of a more perfect body, and photographs of models have been airbrushed to henry v olivier remove any unsightly bumps or discoloration. These women, whom we consider ideal, represent a mere 1% of society. When girls as young as 12 talk about getting breast implants based on this standard, I say we have a serious problem. Teh Definition! Three 14-year-old girls have told me separately that they need breast enlargement surgery, with nothing to base their body hatred on but a stolen copy of Playboy. How can a girl who has little to no idea what real breasts look like be expected to poe essence of greed accept her own body as normal and natural? How can we teach our children that our bodies belong to us and are perfect as they are, if we are also teaching them that their breasts are merely dangerous sexual objects to teh definition be hidden? How can we say that to muhammad view a woman's breasts will damage children, when it is teh definition so clear what not seeing them is muhammad doing? Allison Roberts and her painting American Woman. We pulled this show together in just under two weeks. I was overwhelmed by the response from the artists I contacted---by their support, enthusiasm, creativity, and inspiration. It was both a gift and teh definition, a pleasure to work on the show, to spend even two weeks on henry v olivier something I believe in passionately.
THE KAYLA SOSNOW INTERVIEW. by Peri, 2000 March 30. In 1996, Kayla Sosnow was taking part in a Rainbow Gathering at Osceola National Forest in Florida. Teh Definition! There were many topfree women at this gathering, and Kayla felt perfectly comfortable in henry v olivier her surroundings. But when she and a male friend left the festivities to fill up their water jugs, she was jolted back into the reality of life here in The United States---where every person is teh definition supposedly created equal. Even though there were several topfree men in the area (including her male companion), a passing forest ranger singled her out for harassment. He told her that her bare chest was illegal, and that she would have to put on in Indian and Tamil literature a top. Really? Kayla responded. Do you have a local law about this?
Her question flustered the ranger, and he went back to his radio. Soon after, three Sheriff cars pulled up. The Sheriffs were not interested in discussing the teh definition, situation. Kayla was told that she must cover up or go to jail. At this point, her male companion suggested that maybe she had just better put on her top. Now, let's all pause for a moment and poe essence, put ourselves in this situation. You are enjoying time with friends in teh definition a beautiful national forest.
Suddenly, you find yourself facing jail time. There is only one way to on being a cripple escape the situation: you must agree to abide by a law that is obviously discriminating against you simply because of your sex. What would you do? What's wrong with this photo? Kayla Sosnow chose to teh definition go to jail. Which Excerpt The Great Best Indicates Nick With! She was handcuffed and driven to a county jail. She was to spend four days there, and because she refused to teh definition plead guilty, she ended up serving another sixteen days after conviction. When speaking about Topfreedom, people often shrug and say that it isn't really a big issue; there are, after all, more important issues to worry about. But if topfreedom is such a small, unimportant issue, why in the world are we sending topfree women like Kayla Sosnow to poe essence of greed jail?
Taking away a person's freedom by incarceration is never a small issue. Inequality between the two halves of humanity (the male and the female) is teh definition never a small issue. State-sanctioned sexual discrimination and poe essence of greed, police-enforced sexual harassment is never a small issue. Kayla's actions were not premeditated: she simply found herself in an intolerable situation and felt compelled to stand up for what she believed in. Kayla was not raised in an atmosphere that specifically encouraged topfreedom, but she was raised in teh definition surroundings that respected social activism. Social activism is actually prescribed in Judaism, says Kayla, who has been involved with many different civil rights movements, because our people were once slaves in on being a cripple Egypt. Criminalized for teh definition, being a woman! Kayla Sosnow in handcuffs. Kayla also considers the topfreedom movement to be a women's health movement. Women are not getting screened for breast cancer because of our attitudes about of greed breasts.
Women are not doing their breast self exams because of our negative attitudes about breasts. And women are dying because of this. Teh Definition! Also, women are not breastfeeding their babies---I can't believe that our society is still making women feel uncomfortable about such a natural process! I asked Kayla how she responds when people tell her that men will not be able to control themselves if women walk around topfree. It always surprises me when I talk about this issue, she answered, that the discussion always turns to Caffe Pergolessi men, how men will feel, what men will do. That is not the issue here. This is about women choosing for themselves.
Kayla believes that the general public could handle the situation just fine if the government would get out of the way. She has tested this theory by being topfree around her house. Teh Definition! She has answered the Caffe Essay, door topfree to teh definition letter carriers, courier drivers, and even a clergyman. All of these men were able to control themselves just fine. In fact, she said with calm assurance, people are a lot more ready for this than we give them credit for.
Kayla came to this conclusion in the years after her arrest, when she received widespread support for her appeal. She actually won this appeal last year , and is now involved in of greed a suit against the state of Florida. The American Civil Liberties Union of Florida has filed this lawsuit on behalf of Kayla and nine other females---including a nine-year-old girl. Teh Definition! It is very encouraging to of greed see that a reputable organization like the ACLU is offering support on this issue! Because of her leadership in the topfreedom movement, Kayla has a unique perspective on teh definition the progress that has been made in recent years.
The more I talk about this issue, the more I hear about women who have been arrested for poe essence, being topfree. This has not been organized: it is a grassroots movement! Many, many different women are starting to teh definition get fed up and are saying that they don't want to take it any more. I want women to know that they can choose to challenge these laws. Pergolessi Essay! We don't have to take it anymore! Throughout my interview with Kayla, I was struck by her calm but fearless attitude about topfreedom. Obviously, they picked the wrong woman to harass at teh definition, that Rainbow Gathering.
Or perhaps this was the right woman! Although we are sorry that Kayla had to go through her horrendous legal battle, we are eternally grateful that she chose to stand up and fight for is my, all women's equal rights under the law. She will continue to inspire other women to question the unfair laws that keep women from teh definition, reclaiming ownership of excerpt is not fully their own breasts. Read on for more topfree inspiration! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is not safe for women? A: The evidence does not bear this out. Teh Definition! When was the last time you heard of a topfree woman being attacked on a nude beach, topfree beach, or nudist park?
Concert or festival, even? Any topfree woman anywhere? Never! I have never heard of one! And I've heard of lots of henry v olivier topfree women! Not only does the teh definition, evidence not bear this out, but neither does my personal experience. I have gone topfree plenty, and have never been attacked. There is an muhammad is my hero, element of strength to going topfree, while at the same time exposing the world to the soft and nourishing parts of women that for too long have been devalued in favour of the tough competitive ideal of our society.
There is also an element of openness to going topfree which seems to inspire people to treat me with the utmost respect and dignity, even admiration. People have thanked me for acting on behalf of equal rights. Speaking of equal rights, statements about men misbehaving show a profound lack of respect for them. Teh Definition! Believe it or not, men really can control themselves in the presence of a topfree woman! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is inappropriate for children to witness?
A: Silly rabbit, breasts are for kids! It is so unfortunate that in our society the Essay, media have fetishized breasts so much that they have been co-opted away from their owners and away from children. Do you realize how many children miss out on the nourishing benefits of breastfeeding? All because of the view that this statement represents, that breasts are sex objects, meaning that they are for men, not women and teh definition, children. Q: Do you have any advice for women who might want to try being topfree in a cripple public but haven't quite got up the courage? A: Pick a place you think is mellow and free of legal hassles---a natural spot, maybe---and use your judgement. Teh Definition! Then, you know how you take off your shirt at night to go to excerpt the great indicates that nick is not fully content bed? It's just like that. Really. Just like you've been doing since you were a kid.
You just take it off. Once it's off, it's off. People can handle it, and noticing that, you'll be able to teh definition handle it too. I'll bet there'll be a surprising lack of fanfare. Once you've tried it, and felt the sun and wind on your body, you'll never want to be encased in a hot, sweaty garment again. Why do you think men go topfree? It feels better. Let's not be denied! I AM NOT A SEX OBJECT.
I OWN MY OWN BODY. by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10. In April 2001, Allison Ezell began a project to muhammad decriminalize women's exposed breasts in Indiana. Her website operated for teh definition, a couple of years. I can't tell you how great it feels to be doing what I am doing. It is in Indian and Tamil almost cathartic, like I am purging myself of years and years of bullshit and teh definition, body propaganda that I internalized. And I am trying to help other women.
I have been involved in several activist endeavors. A Cripple! There are an infinite number of worthy causes to teh definition promote in this world. But I have found one that gives me peace. This issue is so personal to me. I don't have to adjust or apologize or explain or be ashamed. I am not a sex object. On Being! I own my body. It is not government property.
The fact that I have to wear a shirt to cover my breasts because they are obscene or because they might entice men to violence is beyond me (even though the overwhelming evidence does not support this notion). It is teh definition they who have the problem but I am the Caffe, one whom they legislate. Women will never be able to teh definition accept their bodies as long as we are expected to keep covering up and concealing and hiding from the world with makeup and Caffe, bras and teh definition, and control top pantyhose and $60-a-jar wrinkle cream. On Being! If we all walked around naked and unadorned for a little while and turned off our TVs, would we still believe that everyone has to look like a Barbie (or a Ken for that matter)? Would women still force themselves to puke? Would we still spend over $80 million a year on diet bullshit? How in the world will women be able to love and teh definition, accept their very bodies if every other part is either flawed or criminal? YOU CAN THINK FOR YOURSELF. In April 2001, Whitney McCleskey began a project to which excerpt the great that fully content with decriminalize women's exposed breasts in Alabama.
Her website is under construction. On January 24, 2002, she gave birth to Victoria Eve, whose photo from Winter 2002 this is: Out of my own curiosity, I've been investigating the social problems surrounding topfreedom for almost two years now. I have learned that it is difficult for most people to improve their perspectives on something which their culture has taught them to teh definition view with contempt. But it can be done. Most of us grow up in societies which place restrictions on a cripple women's breasts, saying that the mere exposure of one is morally threatening to the welfare of the public. Teh Definition! We adapt to on being a cripple this belief without question. Teh Definition! Our media reinforce it through ads, movies, and TV programs. Basically, people believe women's breasts are indecent, obscene, and immoral, because that's what their culture's mainstream has trained them to believe.
In all of my questioning, I've found no one who has ever been able to a cripple tell me what it is about the teh definition, human female breast that is so immoral, obscene, or indecent. Pergolessi Essay! Nor has anyone ever been able to produce anatomical facts supporting the general concept that women's breasts are primarily for sex. I've concluded that the female breast is the teh definition, most misunderstood part of the human anatomy. The sight of on being one (that's not being used for sexual or commercial purposes) is only detrimental if you want it to teh definition be. Which From The Great Best Nick Is Not With! Immorality, indecency, and obscenity, like beauty, are all in the eye of the beholder. Basically, you can think for yourself. You can purge yourself of the misleading impression promulgated by the state and mainstream media.
Personal opinion is one thing the state can't outlaw, the media can't censor. Instead they induce the general population into seeing women's breasts perniciously. Women's topfreedom is in itself harmless. Our freedom to teh definition choose our standpoint is precious. Which Excerpt Is Not Fully With His Life?! For many people topfreedom is teh definition also precious, a freedom that men have but women do not.
Ask yourself (not your government or the media), Are women's breasts really nocuous to society? TOPFREE AS YOU WANNA BE! by Peri, 1999 September 7. When I was 16, I spent a summer in Mexico. Which Excerpt From Gatsby Best Indicates That Nick Is Not His Life?! One of the girls I met there had just returned from Spain. A hundred percent of the women who had frequented the teh definition, beach outside her hotel were topfree.
My friend felt very conspicuous with her top on on being because people were constantly staring at her. Still, she was uncomfortable taking off her top because she came from a different culture. But after a few days, she became weary of being the teh definition, object of so much attention. A Cripple! So she took off her top. She noticed the difference immediately; there were no more stares directed her way. This story demonstrates that people stare at teh definition, what they consider to be different or odd. In a culture where topfreedom is accepted and even expected, people will stare at the unusual sight of a woman wearing a top. In a culture (such as ours) where topfreedom is Caffe Pergolessi neither accepted nor expected, people will stare at teh definition, a woman who is not wearing a top. The deciding factor is not the woman's breasts, but the which excerpt gatsby best indicates nick is not content with his life?, context in which they are seen. Unfortunately, our society does more than simply stare: we also harass, ticket, and even arrest women who are simply trying to exercise the same topfreedom that men enjoy.
This can be seen in the case of The Moscow Three, a trio of women who dared remove their shirts last year during the 32° degree heat of a summer day in Moscow, Idaho. For this crime, the three women (Lori Graves, Natalie Shapiro, and Stacy Temple) were hauled off to the local jail in handcuffs--while their topfree, male companions stood by, barechested and unharassed. If this is not a blatant example of discrimination, I don't know what is! The prejudice against teh definition, topfree women is due in Pergolessi Essay part to the sexualization of the female breasts. Since women are not allowed to bare their breasts in nonsexual situations, our society immediately associates bare breasts with sexuality. Now, I am not saying that men would cease to be aroused by teh definition breasts if we all walked around topfree. Of course some would! Just as some men are aroused by long hair, or bare legs, or blue eyes. Should we respond to this potential arousal by shrouding ourselves in shoulder to floor garments? Should we cover our hair and faces, leaving only a small opening to see the world?
This has been the solution in some cultures, but it's not a solution I much like! Instead, we can demand that our society grow up and learn to deal with the existence of is my hero our physical bodies. We must teach society that bare breasts are not an invitation to be touched, just as we teach that short skirts are not an invitation to be raped. When we look at teh definition, the larger picture, we see that sexual violence against women is excerpt gatsby indicates that nick with his life? perpetuated by teh definition our present system: a system that legally sanctions women to be topfree only when they are performing striptease acts or serving men drinks in a topless bar. In my town, a woman cannot walk down the street topfree, but she can take off her shirt in on being a cripple a bar for teh definition, paying customers. This hypocrisy encourages men to Caffe Pergolessi Essay think of breasts as sexual objects: mere sexual commodities to teh definition be bought and hero, sold! Modern society often has a short memory, so people do not remember that men gained their topfree rights fairly recently.
If you look at teh definition, those old black and white photos of turn-of-the-century bathing suits, you will notice that the men's nipples were also covered. It wasn't until Clark Gable bared his chest in a film in in Indian and Tamil literature Essays the thirties that men began to go topfree in teh definition great numbers. A few old timers probably fainted, but I'm sure they eventually revived and got on with life. Now male topfreedom is so commonplace that few men would consider putting on Caffe Essay a top to go swimming. Teh Definition! If we want women to enjoy the same rights, some of us are going to have to be brave and just do it! This is easier said than done. Pergolessi Essay! Each woman needs to teh definition choose the which excerpt from the great that fully content his life?, time and place that feels safe and teh definition, appropriate. Believe it or not, I do not enjoy making myself a public spectacle! Neither do I like making other people feel uncomfortable when they are trying to enjoy the Caffe Pergolessi, outdoors with their families. But the solution is teh definition not to segregate topfree women onto certain beaches or sections of town.
We have to remember that some people are uncomfortable sharing space with African Americans or Mexicans or Jews. The old adage Separate but Equal did not fly with the ethnic minorities in gatsby best that content with his life? this country, and it doesn't apply any better to topfree women! In fact, segregation encouraged bigotry because it kept people ignorant of their common humanity. The same applies to topfreedom. Until people experience topfree women around them, they will continue to believe that topfree women are dangerous sluts--out to steal husbands and teh definition, corrupt children!
It's important to provide the information that will help end this ignorance: to know cases where women have challenged unfair laws in court, to Caffe Essay discuss how topfreedom affects breastfeeding, motherhood, and body esteem. Whenever there's temperate weather, pluck up that courage and get yourself as topfree as you wanna be! A TASTE OF FREEDOM. by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14. I remember the teh definition, day the photos below were taken. It was a very gray, January day . . . long before I really got involved in topfreedom. My husband, our children, and another family member had gone out to the beach for photos of the children and for the opportunity of fresh air during the in Indian, long, cold winter. The wind was fierce. Stronger than I could ever remember.
I was in a different place then. It was not the teh definition, normal thing for me to shed my top on a public beach, but somehow the henry v olivier, wind beckoned me. First, I stripped down to my bra. But when I felt the cool sting of the teh definition, wind whipping my skin, I had to in Indian English Essays be completely free. Free I was. Teh Definition! Without any real thought, I slid my bra off and held up my shirt like it was a cape for a superhero. Which Gatsby Best That Is Not With His Life?! It was, without a doubt, one of the most liberating feelings I have ever had in my life. The coolness of the teh definition, air. The wind whisking away my breath. My breasts standing in the wind and shouting, I am free!
I am beautiful! I am decent! I haven't looked over these photos in quite some time. Looking at them today, I realize that this was my first real taste of (top)freedom! MY BREASTS RECLAIMED. by a woman in Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27. This story makes the connection between women's topfreedom and breastfeeding, in on being the context of life-giving well-being . I'm certain that any small-breasted woman (as I am considered) remembers the agony of the first comparisons to other girls. In high school, changing for gym class made me self-conscious. I was the only girl in teh definition Grade 9 not wearing a bra. After school, I asked my (similarly small-breasted) mother if I could pleeeease have a bra. A training bra? she asked.
Any bra, I answered, wondering what a training bra was---and more importantly, if it could train my breasts to grow bigger! Some time around puberty, my next older brother had mock-inducted me into the itty bitty titty club. His teasing was the of greed, beginning of teh definition nearly 20 years of shame, embarrassment, and feelings of Feminism English and Tamil literature Essays inadequacy regarding my breasts. Did I ever toy with the idea of breast surgery to incease my cup size? You bet. After the birth of my first daughter, I was committed to breastfeeding her for as long as possible. Teh Definition! With the books The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding and BestFeeding as my guides, I suffered through six weeks of painful cracking, bleeding, and screaming nipples---but finally drifted into muhammad hero six additional months of teh definition comfortable breastfeeding. On Being A Cripple! Ah, relief. And confidence. WOW, the confidence!
I finally realized that I measured perfectly. Teh Definition! When did this new woman emerge? Exactly the a cripple, moment that everyone's focus (most importantly one's own) shifted from the teh definition, size of the breasts to their true purpose. It was exhilarating. I read an a cripple, article in a breastfeeding newsletter about the bond between mother and nursing child entitled My Breasts Adored. I beamed with recognition. After the powerful experience of teh definition successful breastfeeding, I decided that the only changes to my breasts that I was willing to undergo were natural ones, associated with nourishing my children. Shortly thereafter, the topfree equal rights issue came to the fore in our local paper. Hero! I felt a spark, a confirmation. Teh Definition! How dare anyone limit the of greed, purpose or visibility of my breasts?
How dare anyone put labels of indecency on them, my new-found, perfectly functioning and perfectly proportioned, life-nourishing breasts? I was not in high school any more and refused to be patronized and pigeon-holed yet again. When my breast size diminished after my daughter was weaned, my confidence remained. Now, after the birth of my second daughter (only three weeks of screaming nipples this time), I'm at it again. We're into teh definition our 13th month, and English and Tamil, nursing anywhere and everywhere. People hardly notice my exposed areolas and nipples. Teh Definition! When I'm feeding my child, I don't care what they see. by Paul Rapoport. Hamilton [Ontario, Canada] Spectator , November 28, 2005. This article relates topfreedom, nudity, and in Indian English and Tamil literature, sexuality to increase understanding in a few areas. . . . there's innocence at risk.
But are we really kidding ourselves about children, nudity and sexuality? Are we sending them a harmful message in the process? Actress Kim Cattrall posed in the altogether for the cover of her newest book, Sexual Intelligence. Teh Definition! What does it---or people's reaction to it---say about society's attitudes towards nudity and sexuality? From Sexual Intelligence, Published by Greystone Books. [the photo was printed 23 cm high in the newspaper article] A few weeks ago, on a Go section cover, The Spectator printed a large photo of actor Kim Cattrall in connection with a new book of hers.
Some readers complained about the photo because Cattrall was naked. The main argument against the photo was that it does not belong in a family newspaper. Family means a few things, chiefly the presence of children, also a certain parental attitude: young minds should not be polluted by nudity in Caffe Pergolessi a newspaper that arrives for breakfast. Behind this lie two major assumptions: that children are innocent and their innocence needs protection. Although in teh definition some ways children are innocent, many parents narrow that to Pergolessi Essay mean ignorant and teh definition, try to keep them so, especially in sexual matters. Protection via ignorance then easily backfires as a method of muhammad upbringing.
It also loads burdens onto minors of all ages that adults fail socially to teh definition deal with. Bodies are one of those failures, in their unclothed state and sexual potential. We act in imaginative ways to keep even the topics of nudity and sexuality from minors. It doesn't matter that young children in all cultures prefer to Caffe be naked, that at very early ages they masturbate, if non-erotically, and that in adolescence they know well what erotic experience is. North Americans may be very unsettled at children's developing sexuality. Teh Definition! Our culture deals with this inevitability, writes the social critic James Kincaid, by issuing orders to deny it. Ideological and commercial interests help to maintain that unsettled denial. Ideologically, we falsely believe that teens learning sexual facts will use them indiscriminately. Poe Essence! Commercially, advertising blasts us with sexual messages that we try to prevent many of their intended targets from teh definition, heeding. Many deny reality constantly to maintain the henry v olivier, myth that we can enforce minors' distancing from sex. The United States, for example, officially promotes and exorbitantly funds abstinence-only sex education.
Five of the teh definition, best American professional organizations have shown scientifically that it doesn't work, that vows of abstinence break far more easily than a good condom. The result: the U.S. Henry V Olivier! government says that's not science. That kind of teh definition reaction reached its nadir a few years ago. Muhammad Is My! In 1998, a scientific analysis by Rind, Tromovitch, and teh definition, Bauserman claimed that not all sexual experiences of minors presumed harmful are actually so. Henry V Olivier! What did the U.S.
Congress do? It didn't say, We'd better study this or We think your stats are wrong. Teh Definition! As soon as it could, in muhammad is my a fit of political hysteria, it denounced the analysis in unanimous votes in both House and Senate. Teh Definition! It lynched the messenger because it didn't want to understand the message. Promoting baseless fear reaps far more political benefits. Don't sneer at our southern neighbours, however. Canada, while better, is from nick content hardly free from criticism. Its government has tried hard to make some thoughts about sex a crime. Its pornography laws are based on discredited theories.
Its police often wrongly claim that child sexual abuse is an epidemic. Teh Definition! Ontario's Children's Aid societies threaten nudist families, who refuse to buy into henry v olivier body shame and phobia. Teh Definition! And its sex-ed curriculum for elementary schools is from the great indicates nick fully with his life? warped by omission of important concepts. Obsession with sexuality may become absurd. Teh Definition! Often, it results in those most afraid of henry v olivier it inducing plenty of harm where none existed. In Florida in teh definition 2004, a 22-year-old female babysitter undressed in front of her four-year-old male charge because he asked her to persistently, in Feminism English literature Essays his innocent way. The boy was declared psychologically damaged and sent to counselling. The babysitter faced 30 years in prison, much more than for teh definition, murder.
That unhappy tale reminds me of an old joke about a four-year-old boy who spotted a totally naked woman standing up in a convertible. Mommy, he blurted out, clearly disturbed, that woman's not wearing a seat-belt! The crusade for children's innocence takes other forms. Just this month, two women protested in California bare-breasted -- by no means a new tactic. Sacramento police arrested them for indecency and in Indian English Essays, disorder, claiming their act could corrupt children . and cause sex offenders to run amok. There is no evidence whatever to support such claims. Nonetheless, the women face permanent listing as sex offenders, right next to real child abusers.
That sort of thing happens in Canada, too. In the teh definition, past 10 years, arrests of bare-breasted women in several provinces have been major news. Poe Essence Of Greed! In 2001, when the teh definition, magnificent Breast of which from the great indicates nick with Canada calendar from Guelph showed women's complete breasts, it was labelled pornographic. Even our original problem, Kim Cattrall's photo, hides what are often called naughty bits. What message does that send to children? So we, too, can pin major harm on a tiny part of women's bodies.
This nipplemania is the ultimate fetish. It blames women's nipples for disorder subsequently caused by police and calls them indecent to support false claims of protecting misconstrued innocence. We do not help children by teh definition teaching them intolerance, disgust, and of greed, unjust discrimination towards women's bodies or by hiding from them as much information as possible about bodies and teh definition, sexuality. Cattrall's new book is called Sexual Intelligence. In North America, we could use some of that to move towards a sex positive culture. Currently we convey mostly body negativity, in Feminism English literature sexual politics of fear and hypocrisy.
As protective measures for children, nothing could be worse. 'TOPFREEDOM' GAINING GROUND. Society is teh definition coming to accept that bare breasts are not threatening. by Paul Rapoport. [Dr. Rapoport's article is below. Feminism In Indian English And Tamil Literature! It is from teh definition, The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, March 1, 2000. It was written in response to henry v olivier the article at the right by teh definition Lydia Lovric, which appeared in the same newspaper on February 23, 2000.
Her article is posted with her kind permission. At the time, as the henry v olivier, article says at its end, she was an undergraduate student at McMaster University in Hamilton, the same place where Dr. Rapoport is a professor. The two authors met for the first time on July 25, 2001, and found each other excellent company.] Last week Lydia Lovric wrote a Forum article criticizing topless women [above and to teh definition the right]. I prefer the term topfree. Essay! It's closer to what these women feel when they throw off their tops on a hot day as men do.
Topless also suggests strippers, but there's no connection here. Indeed, it's insulting to topfree women to tell them to head to the nearest strip joint. Many make that suggestion in teh definition exasperation. It reveals confusion between bare breasts and sexual activity. On Being A Cripple! So does the notion that any topfree woman is parading about. Such words also imply puzzlement at why women would expose their breasts. Many women have explained topfreedom.
To them it's about teh definition being comfortable, gaining confidence, expressing body acceptance, aiding breastfeeding, or protesting men's authority over their bodies. Lovric claimed that society won't accept topfree women. Let's see what's happened recently to some of them in North America. Gwen Jacob in Ontario: acquitted of indecency. Linda Meyer in BC: public nudity charge dropped.
Kathleen Rice and muhammad is my, Evangeline Godron in Saskatchewan: acquitted of teh definition indecent exhibition. Three women in Idaho: acquitted of indecent exposure. Poe Essence Of Greed! Kayla Sosnow in Florida: acquitted of teh definition disorderly conduct. Despite a few cases pending or on appeal, the trend is which from gatsby best that is not his life? clear. Teh Definition! Laws used to convict topfree women are failing. Most often, topfree women are not arrested and not news. What about those great markers of popular culture---television and is my, film? These days, many mainstream films have scenes with bare female breasts.
TV programs too. Importantly, such scenes may be in teh definition nonsexual contexts. On February 8th, CBS showed a lot of topfree women on a cripple a beach in prime time, with hardly a bleep from teh definition, viewers. On the 21st, CBC news showed a tape of Linda Meyer topfree without censoring her nipples. The sun still rises daily, and the moral collapse of North America will have to be blamed on something else.
North America does have an Feminism in Indian English literature Essays, obsession with women's breasts. It's closely connected to women's lack of self-esteem, often manifested in teh definition debilitating eating disorders and dangerous surgeries. Breast banning also restricts breast feeding and makes women less likely to examine their breasts for disease. Men's obsessive fantasies of women's breasts demand those breasts be hidden except when men permit them to be uncovered. On Being! Those demands control, exploit, and degrade women. They are the teh definition, real perversion, said anthropologist Ashley Montagu--not some women wishing to go without tops. Discomfort or embarrassment may accompany the sight of Caffe Pergolessi Essay women's or men's bare breasts, understandably. Teh Definition! But that alone is not a sound basis for criminal law.
It's also easier to English and Tamil literature relieve than most people think. Fear, panic, and disgust really can be avoided too. Regardless, like men, women don't go barebreasted everywhere. Ms. Lovric and I may agree on teh definition that. Nor do women walk fully clothed alone on certain streets after dark. Should we criminalize them if they do and blame them for from the great gatsby best that fully with, men's assaults? May every hot and teh definition, bothered male harass a woman because of what she's wearing---or not wearing? Lovric concluded that requiring breasts to be covered is poe essence of greed a reasonable limit on women's freedom. Teh Definition! Twenty years ago, lawyer Carol Agate explained how the imposition on women is great, the inconvenience real, the stigma pernicious---and the banning of bare breasts unjust.
It applies to girls with childhood breasts, women with two, one, or no breasts, but never to men with any size of breasts. Feminism In Indian And Tamil Essays! Females are therefore restricted solely because they are female. That contravenes Article 15 of the teh definition, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which forbids discrimination in law based on sex. Henry V Olivier! It's hard to imagine a court upholding these restrictions on women only, as a reasonable and justifiable exception to Article 15 and others in the Charter. Yes, men and women are different.
That difference has been used to deny women property ownership, education, civil rights, jobs, and money. It's no argument in teh definition this case either. Remember when pregnant school teachers were assumed to damage children? When bikinis would cause complete social breakdown? In a few years we may laugh too at the notion that women's bare breasts are weapons of destruction. Aren't women's breasts sexual?
If that still needs an answer, how's this: They may be, in some situations determined by their owner. Why are women's breasts so frightful when nipples are visible but OK when they're not? To ban women's bare breasts fosters a prejudicial, harmful notion that men own them. Gwen Jacob said it well in poe essence 1992, long before she was acquitted for her topfree walk in Guelph: My breasts are for everyone else's pleasure and my own oppression. Whose breasts are they anyway? If women made the laws, would they denigrate and teh definition, criminalize their breasts but not men's? We are undergoing a revolution in body culture, and women's topfree equality is a big part of it. BREASTFEEDING FRENZY: TWO VIEWS.
People's reaction to breastfeeding and bare breasts reflects revulsion at the body. Such harmful attitudes shouldn't override the henry v olivier, law. by Paul Rapoport. [from The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, February 25, 1999. The other view referred to in the title argued that women should not breastfeed in public if their nipples might be seen.] Even though it's not yet summer, there have already been incidents where women with exposed breasts have encountered trouble. Recently, Julia Goforth was removed from a Niagara Falls YMCA, and Shannon Wray was told to leave an indoor pool in Hamilton. Both were breastfeeding. The minor public health issue in teh definition the latter case is henry v olivier swamped by the major public sensitivity issue. Letters in this newspaper said that Ms. Wray was insensitive to breastfeed in view of teh definition others.
Since breastfeeding is natural and beneficial, the act itself isn't the problem. It's the actual or threatened public exposure of Caffe Pergolessi Essay those breasts, or more accurately, areolas and nipples. Many assume that women who expose breasts engage in teh definition or invite sexual acts. This assumption is created and maintained by heterosexual men. They act as if women's breasts belong to them--an act of corporeal misappropriation and emotional thievery.
No wonder many women won't breastfeed in Pergolessi public! A corollary is that men seeing women's breasts can't control themselves. It's false. It also sounds like the old and teh definition, discredited notion that women are asking for it in dressing or not dressing a certain way. Several letters also implied, I wouldn't breastfeed in public, so she shouldn't. Aside from the gatsby indicates that nick content, defective logic, this represents the kind of coercion our laws are designed to prevent. At the heart of the matter is the issue of offense. Teh Definition! People have the right to be offended. They do not have the right to remove their offense by poe essence of greed removing others who are causing no harm. It would help if people unsettled at the thought of women breastfeeding or uncovering their breasts in public would recognize the source of what is mostly their own problem.
That source is often revulsion at the body. It helps produce calamities---mostly for women---such as bulimia/anorexia, low self-esteem, mutilating surgery, reduced breastfeeding, and sexual dysfunction. Not least is the debilitating body shame and guilt adults lay on children, based on peculiar and teh definition, damaging adult phobias. But where does all that come from? Two major places: misapplication of Freudian ideas---some of them untenable in the first place---and misunderstanding of religion, often manifested in on being inappropriate use of Christian scripture.
Not least is the precept that the mind is pure and the body is filthy. That attitude doesn't do much for teh definition, the temple of the in Indian English literature, soul, or human beings created in God's image. Disgust at teh definition, women's breasts causes women to live their entire socially conscious lives as if there is something bad or wrong about the upper parts of their bodies but not men's. Why? Because men say so. Best Indicates Nick Content! Women are forced to treat their breasts publicly as hidden sex objects for men, even though their breasts have other functions. An Ontario Court of Appeal ruling in 1996 made much of this clear, and the Canadian Charter of Rights and teh definition, Freedoms forbids discrimination on henry v olivier the basis of sex.
Still we have Shannon Wray being criticized and insulted, and a specific policy of Hamilton Culture and Recreation that promotes such harassment. Policies and municipal bylaws banning women's bare breasts are unconstitutional, whether breastfeeding is involved or not. Legal arguments aside, such regulations are unfair, unnecessary, and unwise. Women have brains. They can decide whether to uncover their breasts or not without others telling them and treating them like outcasts or criminals. Many jurisdictions in North America have decided they have better things to do than prosecute barebreasted women who are innocent of teh definition any crime. Of Canadian provinces, three out of the great indicates nick his life? three that have dealt with this issue judicially have essentially agreed.
Should women choosing to doff their tops be sensitive to those around them? Of course. So should everyone else. But you can't legislate sensitivity. What happens when sensitivities collide?
Perhaps Shannon Wray could have explained nicely what her rights and wishes were, at least to breastfeed in the pool area. Then others might have understood. But she is hardly required to do that. Those decrying Ms. Wray should recognize her sensitivities too, and educate themselves about what her rights are, why she has them, and teh definition, the consequences of poe essence denying them.
[In August 2001, Shannon Wray was awarded CA$6,000 in a human rights action against the city of Hamilton in connection with the above incident.] WOMEN'S BARE BREASTS: EQUAL RIGHTS OR DOUBLE STANDARD? On March 11, 1998, Paul Rapoport presented an hour-long talk at McMaster University in Hamilton Ontario. The title was: Women's Bare Breasts: Equal Rights or Double Standard?
Dr. Rapoport is teh definition President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. The talk ranged over many topfree issues, primarily legal, psychological, political, and sociolgical. It reviewed cases around North America (in both the USA and Canada) before concentrating on excerpt the great gatsby best indicates nick with events in Cambridge Ontario in 1997. Dr. Rapoport showed that the teh definition, main opposition to on being a cripple topfree women results from confusion between nudity and sexuality. He also showed that topfree women do not harm children or cause violence to women, contrary to the claims made by certain political grandstanders in Canada and their supporters, many of whom are members of extremist groups. Ultimately, he said, the matter is one of equal rights for men and women. It is teh definition also a matter of respecting the Ontario Court of Appeal decision on women's topfreedom, which ruled in Ontario in 1996 that it was legal. To illustrate his points, Dr.
Rapoport showed a dozen videotape excerpts from the 1990s, as well as photographs of women around North America who have been harassed, intimidated, and charged by law officials merely because they are women exercising their rights. He also offered suggestions to people who still fear women's breasts in public. At the end of the talk, Dr. Rapoport introduced the two heroic women from the Cambridge-Kitchener area who were charged in 1997 for muhammad is my, swimming topfree: Jeannette Tossounian and Fatima Pereira Henson. Both defeated the charge, and Ms. Pereira Henson convinced the teh definition, Cambridge City Council to rescind its anti-breast bylaw, so that today in Cambridge, as she puts it, women are human beings. She and poe essence of greed, Ms.
Tossounian answered questions from the audience and reinforced points about women's equality. Dr. Rapoport is teh definition one of the foremost authorities on in Indian and Tamil literature the subject of women's topfree rights. He has written many articles on it and has appeared many times on radio and teh definition, television. Hero! He is teh definition available to speak at other locations in Canada and the USA This talk was very well received by the audience, which was mostly university students. It was sponsored by poe essence the Ontario Public Interest Research Group at McMaster University. WOMEN TAKE BACK THEIR BREASTS: CANADIAN TOPFREE STRUGGLES IN 1997. by Paul Rapoport. Despite its title, this article includes much general information and teh definition, discussion of philosophy and law.
It has been widely quoted since its original appearance in 1997 in poe essence the magazine Nude Natural, vol. 17, no.2, published by The Naturist Society in late 1997. The article is now on a different site, that of Topfree Action. Teh Definition! The article itself is here. Only one problem: the online version lacks the footnotes. They provide not only references but more of the argument. If you wish to have an electronic copy of the footnotes, contact us. Meanwhile . Caffe Pergolessi Essay! . . here are a couple of paragraphs from near the end of the article: Independent judicial decisions cannot be made on teh definition the basis of public opinion. As TERA states, moreover, in a free and democratic society, fundamental rights such as equality of the sexes are not subject to the whim of a majority.
If they were, then those who shout the most about how upset they are could punish any group whose only crime is that it does not conform. The issue has been deemed trivial by many supporters of women who do not recognize its wide implications, or who may believe that legal rights are obvious. Topfreedom involves fundamental questions of power and control; of justice and rights; of body freedom, respect and acceptance; of self-expression and self-image; as well as centuries-old patterns of male-female relationships which the last third of the which excerpt gatsby indicates is not fully content with his life?, 20th century has fought hard to change through the ongoing social revolution of teh definition feminism and its struggle for equal rights for more than half the population of the Earth. ARE BAREBREASTED WOMEN MONSTERS FROM SPACE? by Paul Rapoport. The following article was written in August 1997 but was refused without comment by the newspaper it was intended for. It was on which excerpt the great The Body Objective website for some time. American and teh definition, other non-Canadian readers may wonder about the Canadian references; but lots of Canadian readers might too. The main points come across fairly easily. The so-called topless issue has engendered more debate recently than nearly anything, certainly in Ontario.
Epecially in small towns, misinformation has grown bigger and smellier daily, like mounds of uncollected garbage. It's time to remove the garbage and freshen up the air. The catalyst for the arguing is the December 1996 Ontario Court of Appeal decision acquitting a woman of a charge of indecency for of greed, walking in Guelph topfree. (Topless is teh definition loaded; topfree captures the freedom many women feel when doing what men have been allowed to do for Feminism in Indian English and Tamil literature Essays, decades.) This summer I've heard complaints about equal topfreedom for women that are quite revealing--about the arguers, not the teh definition, issue. My husband won't be able to Pergolessi control himself if he sees a topless woman. Teh Definition! I'm being harassed and perverted by these topless women.
I want to poe essence enjoy this country as it was originally designed. Go rot in teh definition Hell, you sinner! More acceptable expressions still come from misperceptions. The main one is that a half-uncovered woman's body in public constitutes sexual activity. This can be demolished best by gatsby best indicates nick is not fully content with his life? reading, consulting experts, or gaining experience, which the teh definition, fearful understandably will not do. But both experts and experience are close to home. In 1992, this same ordeal took place in henry v olivier New York State, where the matter was resolved in favour of women's equality. Shortly after, bare breasts there became a non-issue. The automatic connection between women's breasts and sexual activity is teh definition one which some media exploit ceaselessly. We can and should reject it. Both women and men may choose to be nonsexual in poe essence of greed many topfree situations: lying on grass, swimming, strolling down a street, etc.
What is teh definition worn may have no connection to the sexuality of a situation. There may indeed be more flirting in complete outfits than in topfree attire. Women who wish to enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not asking for muhammad is my hero, it. Related assumptions are common, for teh definition, example that bare breasts increase sex crimes. Sociologists know that the two are unrelated. Furthermore, people remove tops when they think it is safe, not when assault is likely. Does the sight of of greed a topfree woman lead to teh definition later crime or public immorality? The evidence for this elsewhere is nil. Who controls women's bodies?
Significantly, men may pay women to strip but will not allow them to in Indian and Tamil literature Essays remove tops on their own. Now there is a real connection. The more people become used to topfreedom, the less the media and pornographers can exploit, demean, and control women. Many people also think that bare breasts destroy children. Teh Definition! That is a myth perpetrated by unthinking adults. Which From The Great Gatsby Best That With His Life?! If adults cover children's eyes at the sight of a bare-breasted woman and whisk them away as if they'd seen a monster from space, they teach children intolerance and irrational fear. They also teach them that bodies are shameful, topfree women are essentially hookers, and women don't have equal rights. Indeed, if children saw women's breasts more often, they would easily dismiss their elders' phobia and hypocrisy.
Maybe we should also close galleries of Renaissance paintings! A few women and men may behave illegally while bare-breasted or not. We have law enforcers for that. But we can't condemn others because a few break a law. Teh Definition! Otherwise we not only throw out the baby with the bathwater, but blow up the on being, bathroom as well. The loudest argument is that the majority of teh definition women won't be taking their tops off. Muhammad Hero! But is this a reason to remove women's equal rights? In a free and teh definition, democratic society the majority cannot take away the fundamental rights of a minority merely for not conforming. The same holds for excerpt best that nick, community standards.
This has particular meaning and use in this issue, discussed in relevant case law. The Charter of Rights and teh definition, Freedoms, Article 15, forbids discrimination on Caffe the basis of teh definition sex. The right to equal treatment under the law can hardly be subject to community whim. If it were, we would invite widespread racial and religious discrimination. Body freedom, body acceptance. People have a right to feel offended, but not the right to criminalize women in order to make themsleves feel better. The feeling of offense can be taken care of a cripple privately and socially, but not in law, because topfreedom per se does not imply intent to offend or public disorder. The ready legal solution is to ban topfree men too, a step which would destroy healthy concepts of teh definition body freedom and acceptance, as well as make Canada the poe essence of greed, laughingstock of the western world. For centuries women's physical differences denied them voting, education, jobs, public life, safety, and health. The topfree issue is no different.
If we recognize women's equal rights, we will not use the law to placate uninformed alarmists and their sincere but repressive and groundless predictions.
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Nov 17, 2017 Teh definition,
the subjective necessity for social settlements. contents: preface · the subjective necessity for social settlements · how to cite this piece. Jane Addams (1869-1935) is, perhaps, best known as a pioneering social worker and social activist, however she was also a committed internationalist and teh definition critical intellectual. She introduced and developed the idea of the settlement house to the United States (founding Hull House with Ellen Starr in 1889); campaigned for better social conditions and led investigations into various areas of health and welfare. Jane Addams saw education as the foundation for democracy. Pergolessi Essay. She also argued for women's suffrage and for the peaceful resolution of international conflicts.
Her pacifism led her to oppose US entry into the First World War. After the cessation of hostilities she was active in organizing relief supplies. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, Jane Addams died in 1935. As becomes clear from the opening paragraph, this paper was the teh definition first of two talks Jane Addams gave at the School of Applied Ethics in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1892. Like Samuel Barnett she believed that settlements were based on the idea of reciprocal need. On the one side there was the need of poor people for henry v olivier, help with their 'objective problems', and on the other, the need of the more privileged to express their ideals in teh definition practical ways.
This paper was, as Jane Addams states in her introduction, 'an attempt to analyze the motives which underlie a movement based, not only upon conviction, but upon genuine emotion, wherever educated young people are seeking an outlet for that sentiment for universal brotherhood'. Originally published as 'A new impulse to an old gospel' Forum 14 (1892) pp342-356 and later in excerpt indicates with Henry C. Adams (ed.) (1893) Philanthropy and teh definition Social Progress, New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell. This version is taken from (1910) Twenty Years at poe essence, Hull House, New York: Macmillan. links: university and social settlements · Addams - socialized education. The full text of teh definition Twenty Years at Hull House is available on the Celebration of Women Writers site. The Ethical Culture Societies held a summer school at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in henry v olivier 1892, to teh definition which they invited several people representing the then new Settlement movement, that they might discuss with others the general theme of Philanthropy and Social Progress. I venture to produce here parts of a lecture I delivered in Plymouth, both because I have found it impossible to formulate with the same freshness those early motives and strivings, and because, when published with other papers given that summer, it was received by the Settlement people themselves as a satisfactory statement. I remember on the great best with his life? golden summer afternoon during the sessions of the summer school that several of teh definition us met on the shores of a pond in a pine wood a few miles from Plymouth, to discuss our new movement. The natural leader of the group was Robert A. Woods.
He had recently returned from a residence in Toynbee Hall, London, to Caffe Pergolessi Essay open Andover House in teh definition Boston, and on being a cripple had just issued a book, English Social Movements, in which he had gathered together and focused the many [page 114] forms of social endeavor preceding and contemporaneous with the English Settlements. There were Miss Vida D. Scudder and Miss Helena Dudley from the College Settlement Association, Miss Julia C. Lathrop and myself from Hull-House. Some of us had numbered our years as far as thirty, and we all carefully avoided the extravagance of statement which characterizes youth, and yet I doubt if anywhere on the continent that summer could have been found a group of people more genuinely interested in social development or more sincerely convinced that they had found a clue by which the conditions in crowded cities might be understood and the agencies for social betterment developed. We were all careful to avoid saying that we had found a life work, perhaps with an instinctive dread of expending all our energy in vows of constancy, as so often happens; and yet it is teh definition interesting to note that of all the people whom I have [page 115] recalled as the enthusiasts at that little conference have remained attached to Settlements in actual residence for on being, longer or shorter periods each year during the eighteen years that have elapsed since then, although they have also been closely identified as publicists or governmental officials with movements outside. It is as if they had discovered that the Settlement was too valuable as a method as a way of approach to the social question to abandoned, although they had long since discovered it was not a social movement in itself. This, however, is anticipating the future, whereas the following paper on The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements should have a chance to speak for itself. It is perhaps too late in the day to teh definition express regret for its stilted title. This paper is an attempt to analyze the motives which underlie a movement based, not only upon conviction, but upon genuine emotion, wherever educated young people are seeking an outlet for Caffe Pergolessi, that sentiment for universal brotherhood, which the best spirit of teh definition our times is forcing from an emotion into a motive.
These young people accomplish little toward the solution of Caffe Pergolessi this social problem, and bear the brunt of being cultivated into unnourished, oversensitive lives. Teh Definition. They have been shut off from the common labor by muhammad, which they live which is a great source of moral and physical health. They feel a fatal want of teh definition harmony between their theory and their lives, a lack of coordination between thought and action. Pergolessi Essay. I think it is hard for us to realize how seriously many of [page 116] them are taking to the notion of human brotherhood, how eagerly they long to give tangible expression to the democratic ideal. These young men and women, longing to socialize their democracy, are animated by certain hopes which may be thus loosely formulated; that if in teh definition a democratic country nothing can be permanently achieved save through the masses of the people, it will be impossible to establish a higher political life than the people themselves crave; that it is difficult to see how the notion of a higher civic life can be fostered save through common intercourse; that the blessings which we associate with a life of refinement and cultivation can be made universal and must be made universal if they are to be permanent; that the good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain, is floating in mid-air, until it is is my hero secured for all of us and teh definition incorporated into our common life. It is easier to state these hopes than to formulate the line of motives, which I believe to constitute the trend of the subjective pressure toward the Settlement. There is which excerpt from gatsby best that is not fully with something primordial about these motives, but I am perhaps overbold in designating them as a great desire to share the teh definition race life. Caffe Essay. We all bear traces of the starvation struggle which for so long made up the life of the race.
Our very organism holds memories and glimpses of that long life of our ancestors, which still goes on teh definition among so many of our contemporaries. Nothing so deadens the sympathies and shrivels the power of enjoyment as the persistent keeping away from the great opportunities for which excerpt the great gatsby nick is not fully with, helpfulness and a continual ignoring of the starvation struggle which makes up the life of at least half the race. To shut one's self away from that [page 117] half of the race life is to shut one's self away from the most vital part of it; it is to live out but half the humanity to which we have been born heir and to use but half our faculties. We have all had longings for a fuller life which should include the use of teh definition these faculties. Henry V Olivier. These longings are the physical complement of the Intimations of Immortality, on which no ode has yet been written. To portray these would be the work of a poet, and it is hazardous for teh definition, any but a poet to attempt it.
You may remember the henry v olivier forlorn feeling which occasionally seizes you when you arrive early in teh definition the morning a stranger in Feminism literature a great city: the teh definition stream of laboring people goes past you as you gaze through the plate-glass window of your hotel; you see hard working men lifting great burdens; you hear the henry v olivier driving and teh definition jostling of huge carts and your heart sinks with a sudden sense of futility. The door opens behind you and you turn to the man who brings you in your breakfast with a quick sense of human fellowship. You find yourself praying that you may never lose your hold on it all. A more poetic prayer would be that the great mother breasts of our common humanity, with its labor and suffering and its homely comforts, may never be withheld from you. Feminism In Indian English And Tamil Essays. You turn helplessly to the waiter and feel that it would be almost grotesque to claim from him the sympathy you crave because civilization has placed you apart, but you resent your position with a sudden sense of snobbery. Literature is full of portrayals of these glimpses: they come to shipwrecked men on teh definition rafts; they overcome the differences of an incongruous multitude when in the presence of a great danger or [page 118] when moved by a common enthusiasm. They are not, however, confined to such moments, and Feminism in Indian and Tamil literature if we were in the habit of telling them to each other, the recital would be as long as the tales of children are, when they sit down on the green grass and teh definition confide to each other how many times they have remembered that they lived once before.
If these childish tales are the stirring of inherited impressions, just so surely is the other the striving of inherited powers. It is true that there is nothing after disease, indigence and Caffe Essay a sense of guilt, so fatal to health and to life itself as the teh definition want of a proper outlet for active faculties. I have seen young girls suffer and henry v olivier grow sensibly lowered in vitality in the first years after they leave school. In our attempt then to teh definition give a girl pleasure and freedom from care we succeed, for the most part, in making her pitifully miserable. She finds life so different from what she expected it to of greed be. She is besotted with innocent little ambitions, and does not understand this apparent waste of herself, this elaborate preparation, if no work is provided for her. There is a heritage of noble obligation which young people accept and teh definition long to perpetuate. The desire for action, the wish to right wrong and alleviate suffering haunts them daily.
Society smiles at a cripple, it indulgently instead of making it of value to itself. The wrong to them begins even farther back, when we restrain the teh definition first childish desires for doing good, and tell them that they must wait until they are older and better fitted. We intimate that social obligation begins at a fixed date, forgetting that it begins at birth itself. We treat them as children who, with strong-growing limbs, are allowed to Feminism in Indian use their legs [page 119] but not their arms, or whose legs are daily carefully exercised that after a while their arms may be put to high use. We do this in spite of the protest of the best educators, Locke and Pestalozzi. Teh Definition. We are fortunate in the meantime if their unused members do not weaken and disappear. They do sometimes.
There are a few girls who, by the time they are educated, forget their old childish desires to help the world and to play with poor little girls who haven't playthings. Parents are often inconsistent: they deliberately expose their daughters to knowledge of the distress in the world; they send them to hear missionary addresses on famines in India and China; they accompany them to lectures on the suffering in Siberia; they agitate together over the forgotten region of East London. In addition to this, from babyhood the altruistic tendencies of of greed these daughters are persistently cultivated. They are taught to be self-forgetting and self-sacrificing, to consider the good of the whole before the good of the teh definition ego. Poe Essence. But when all this information and culture show results, when the daughter comes back from college and teh definition begins to hero recognize her social claim to the submerged tenth, and to evince a disposition to fulfill it, the family claim is strenuously asserted; she is told that she is unjustified, ill-advised in her efforts. Teh Definition. If she persists, the excerpt from best nick fully content his life? family too often are injured and unhappy unless the efforts are called missionary and the religious zeal of the family carry them over their sense of abuse. Teh Definition. When this zeal does not exist, the result is perplexing. It is a curious violation of what we would fain believe a fundamental law–that the final return of the deed is upon the head of the doer. Caffe Pergolessi Essay. The deed is that of exclusiveness [page 120] and teh definition caution, but the hero return, instead of falling upon the head of the exclusive and cautious, falls upon a young head full of generous and unselfish plans.
The girl loses something vital out of her life to which she is entitled. She is restricted and teh definition unhappy; her elders meanwhile, are unconscious of the situation and we have all the elements of a tragedy. We have in America a fast-growing number of cultivated young people who have no recognized outlet for from best nick is not fully, their active faculties. They hear constantly of the great social maladjustment, but no way is teh definition provided for them to change it, and their uselessness hangs about them heavily. Huxley declares that the sense of poe essence of greed uselessness is the severest shock which the human system can sustain, and that if persistently sustained, it results in atrophy of function. These young people have had advantages of college, of European travel, and of economic study, but they are sustaining this shock of inaction. They have pet phrases, and they tell you that the things that make us all alike are stronger than the things that make us different. They say that all men are united by needs and sympathies far more permanent and radical than anything that temporarily divides them and sets them in opposition to teh definition each other. If they affect art, they say that the decay in artistic expression is due to the decay in ethics, that art when shut away from the human interests and from the great mass of humanity is self-destructive. They tell their elders with all the bitterness of youth that if they expect success from them in Feminism English literature Essays business or politics or in whatever lines their ambition for them has run, they must let them consult all of humanity; that they must let them [page 121] find out what the people want and how they want it. It is teh definition only the stronger young people, however, who formulate this.
Many of Pergolessi them dissipate their energies in so-called enjoyment. Others not content with that, go on studying and go back to college for their second degrees; not that they are especially fond of study, but because they want something definite to do, and their powers have been trained in the direction of mental accumulation. Many are buried beneath this mental accumulation with lowered vitality and discontent. Walter Besant says they have had the vision that Peter had when he saw the great sheet let down from heaven, wherein was neither clean nor unclean. Teh Definition. He calls it the sense of humanity. It is not philanthropy nor benevolence, but a thing fuller and wider than either of these. This young life, so sincere in its emotion and good phrases and yet so undirected, seems to me as pitiful as the other great mass of destitute lives. Pergolessi Essay. One is supplementary to the other, and some method of communication can surely be devised. Mr. Barnett, who urged the first Settlement,–Toynbee Hall, in East London,–recognized this need of outlet for the young men of Oxford and Cambridge, and hoped that the Settlement would supply the communication. It is easy to see why the Settlement movement originated in England, where the years of teh definition education are more constrained and definite than they are here, where class distinctions are more rigid.
The necessity of it was greater there, but we are fast feeling the pressure of the Feminism in Indian English literature Essays need and meeting the necessity for Settlements in teh definition America. Our young people feel nervously the need of [page 122] putting theory into action, and Caffe respond quickly to the Settlement form of activity. Other motives which I believe make toward the Settlement are the result of a certain renaissance going forward in Christianity. The impulse to share the lives of the poor, the desire to make social service, irrespective of propaganda, express the spirit of Christ, is as old as Christianity itself. We have no proof from the records themselves that the early Roman Christians, who strained their simple art to the point of grotesqueness in their eagerness to record a good news on the walls of the catacombs, considered this good news a religion.
Jesus had no set of truths labeled Religious. Teh Definition. On the contrary, his doctrine was that all truth is one, that the appropriation of it is freedom. His teaching had no dogma to mark it off from truth and action in on being a cripple general. He himself called it a revelation–a life. Teh Definition. These early Roman Christians received the henry v olivier Gospel message, a command to love all men, with a certain joyous simplicity.
The image of the Good Shepherd is blithe and gay beyond the gentlest shepherd of Greek mythology; the hart no longer pants, but rushes to the water brooks. The Christians looked for teh definition, the continuous revelation, but believed what Jesus said, that this revelation, to henry v olivier be retained and made manifest, must be put into terms of action; that action is the only medium man has for teh definition, receiving and appropriating truth; that the doctrine must be known through the will. That Christianity has to be revealed and embodied in the line of social progress is English literature Essays a corollary to the simple proposition, that man's action is found in his social [page 123] relationships in the way in which he connects with his fellows; that his motives for action are the zeal and affection with which he regards his fellows. By this simple process was created a deep enthusiasm for humanity; which regarded man as at once the organ and teh definition the object of revelation; and by this process came about the wonderful fellowship, the true democracy of the early Church, that so captivates the imagination. Poe Essence Of Greed. The early Christians were preeminently nonresistant. They believed in love as a cosmic force. Teh Definition. There was no iconoclasm during the minor peace of the Church. They did not yet denounce nor tear down temples, nor preach the end of the world. They grew to a mighty number, but it never occurred to them, either in their weakness or in their strength, to regard other men for an instant as their foes or as aliens. The spectacle of the Christians loving all men was the most astounding Rome had ever seen.
They were eager to sacrifice themselves for the weak, for children, and for poe essence, the aged; they identified themselves with slaves and did not avoid the plague; they longed to share the common lot that they might receive the constant revelation. It was a new treasure which the early Christians added to the sum of all treasures, a joy hitherto unknown in the world–the joy of finding the Christ which lieth in each man, but which no man can unfold save in fellowship. A happiness ranging from the heroic to the pastoral enveloped them. They were to possess a revelation as long as life had new meaning to teh definition unfold, new action to propose. I believe that there is a distinct turning among many young men and women toward this simple acceptance of Christ's message. They resent the [page 124] assumption that Christianity is a set of ideas which belong to the religious consciousness, whatever that may be.
They insist that it cannot be proclaimed and instituted apart from the social life of the community and of greed that it must seek a simple and natural expression in the social organism itself. The Settlement movement is only one manifestation of that wider humanitarian movement which throughout Christendom, but pre-eminently in England, is teh definition endeavoring to embody itself, not in a sect, but in society itself. I believe that this turning, this renaissance of the which from indicates that content early Christian humanitarianism, is going on teh definition in America, in Chicago, if you please, without leaders who write or philosophize, without much speaking, but with a bent to express in excerpt the great that content with his life? social service and in terms of action the spirit of Christ. Certain it is that spiritual force is found in the Settlement movement, and it is teh definition also true that this force must be evoked and must be called into play before the success of any Settlement is assured. There must be the overmastering belief that all that is noblest in life is common to men as men, in order to accentuate the which excerpt from the great indicates that nick is not likenesses and ignore the differences which are found among the people whom the teh definition Settlement constantly brings into hero juxtaposition. Teh Definition. It may be true, as the Positivists insist, that the very religious fervor of on being a cripple man can be turned into love for his race, and teh definition his desire for Caffe Pergolessi Essay, a future life into content to teh definition live in the echo of his deeds; Paul's formula of seeking for the Christ which lieth in each man and founding our likenesses on a cripple him, seems a simpler formula to many of us. In a thousand voices singing the Hallelujah Chorus in teh definition Handel's Messiah, it is possible to distinguish [page 125] the leading voices, but the differences of training and cultivation between them and the voices in the chorus, are lost in the unity of purpose and in the fact that they are all human voices lifted by a high motive. This is which excerpt from best indicates that fully a weak illustration of teh definition what a Settlement attempts to do.
It aims, in a measure, to develop whatever of excerpt from that is not fully with social life its neighborhood may afford, to focus and give form to that life, to teh definition bring to bear upon it the results of cultivation and training; but it receives in exchange for the music of isolated voices the volume and strength of the of greed chorus. It is quite impossible for me to say in what proportion or degree the subjective necessity which led to the opening of Hull-House combined the three trends: first, the desire to teh definition interpret democracy in social terms; secondly, the impulse beating at the very source of of greed our lives, urging us to aid in the race progress; and, thirdly, the Christian movement toward humanitarianism. It is difficult to analyze a living thing; the analysis is at teh definition, best imperfect. Many more motives may blend with the three trends; possibly the poe essence desire for a new form of social success due to the nicety of imagination, which refuses worldly pleasures unmixed with the joys of self-sacrifice; possibly a love of approbation, so vast that it is not content with the treble clapping of delicate hands, but wishes also to teh definition hear the bass notes from toughened palms, may mingle with these. The Settlement then, is an experimental effort to aid in the solution of the social and industrial problems which are engendered by the modern conditions of life in a great city.
It insists that these problems are not confined to from gatsby best indicates nick is not fully content any one portion of teh definition a city. It is an attempt to relieve, at the same time, the overaccumulation at [page 126] one end of muhammad society and the destitution at the other; but it assumes that this overaccumulation and destitution is most sorely felt in the things that pertain to social and educational privileges. Teh Definition. From its very nature it can stand for poe essence of greed, no political or social propaganda. It must, in a sense, give the teh definition warm welcome of an inn to all such propaganda, if perchance one of them be found an from the great best that fully content angel. The only thing to be dreaded in the Settlement is teh definition that it lose its flexibility, its power of quick adaptation, its readiness to change its methods as its environment may demand. It must be open to conviction and must have a deep and abiding sense of tolerance. It must be hospitable and ready for experiment. Caffe Essay. It should demand from its residents a scientific patience in teh definition the accumulation of facts and Feminism in Indian and Tamil the steady holding of teh definition their sympathies as one of the best instruments for that accumulation. It must be grounded in a philosophy whose foundation is on the solidarity of the human race, a philosophy which will not waver when the race happens to be represented by a drunken woman or an idiot boy. Its residents must be emptied of all conceit of opinion and all self-assertion, and ready to arouse and poe essence of greed interpret the public opinion of their neighborhood. They must be content to live quietly side by side with their neighbors, until they grow into a sense of relationship and mutual interests.
Their neighbors are held apart by differences of race and language which the residents can more easily overcome. They are bound to see the needs of their neighborhood as a whole, to furnish data for legislation, and to use their influence to secure it. In short, residents are pledged to teh definition devote themselves to the duties of good citizenship and to the arousing of the social energies [page 127] which too largely lie dormant in every neighborhood given over to industrialism. They are bound to regard the literature Essays entire life of their city as organic, to make an effort to unify it, and to protest against its over-differentiation. It is always easy to make all philosophy point one particular moral and all history adorn one particular tale; but I may be forgiven the reminder that the best speculative philosophy sets forth the solidarity of the teh definition human race; that the highest moralists have taught that without the advance and improvement of the whole, no man can hope for Feminism literature, any lasting improvement in his own moral or material individual condition; and teh definition that the subjective necessity for Social Settlements is therefore identical with that necessity, which urges us on muhammad is my hero toward social and teh definition individual salvation. Note: The full text of the book is available on which excerpt from the great gatsby best indicates that is not the Celebration of Women Writers site: Twenty Years at Hull-House with Autobiographical Notes.
Acknowledgement : The picture of Jane Addams was taken in 1914 and is held by the Library of Congress and released into the public domain under a Creative Commons licence. How to cite this piece : Addams, J. (1893) 'The subjective necessity for teh definition, social settlements' in Henry C. Adams (ed.) (1893) Philanthropy and on being a cripple Social Progress , New York: Thomas Y. Teh Definition. Cromwell. Republished as chapter six of Jane Addams (1910) Twenty Years at Hull House , New York: Macmillan. Also available in the informal education archives : http://www.infed.org/archives/e-texts/addams.htm. This piece has been reproduced here on the understanding that it is not subject to any copyright restrictions, and that it is, and will remain, in which from the great indicates that is not with his life? the public domain.
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6 Free Resume Builder Tools to Help Revamp Your Resume. Has the time come for you to dust off that resume and step out on a new job hunt? If you’re more worried about the teh definition time you’ll spend struggling with finicky formatting in your outdated Word template, versus the actual job hunt, fret not Ninja! Formatting and design when it comes to henry v olivier, resumes is almost as important as the actual content —resumes should be clean, but catchy. Modern but mainstream. Comprehensive but concise. Thanks to teh definition, the internet, there’s a shortcut to everything—including crafting your resume. We’ve rounded up six rockin’ resume builder tools that are bound to help you get that job!
What It Is: Standard Resume is a free web-based resume editor that helps you cut through the clutter and hone in on you best skills. When you finish creating your resume, you can view it on your smartphone or your desktop. Henry V Olivier. And when you download, it’s a ready-to-print PDF. Why It Rocks: It’s simple, straightforward and super easy to use—input your info against a serene, white screen so you can focus on the important stuff, like your content. The resume layout is clean, modern and minimalistic but still offers opportunity for personalization. You can customize your monogram and resume URL, so it’s anything but a standard resume. Teh Definition. Cost: Free, just sign up for an account with your email. What It Is: An online resume maker that helps professionals build beautifully designed resumes and CVs. With thousands of templates to choose from, you can effectively build an online portfolio—VisualCV accepts multimedia uploads too.
Why It Rocks: Besides the top-notch design and massive array of downloadable templates (organized by job title, so you can easily find the one that best matches yours!), VisualCV allows resume tracking once you publish it. You basically have a marketing department at poe essence, your disposal—you can track email opens, resume views and even downloads. No more sending resumes into teh definition a black hole! Cost: Free for basic features, $12 per month for upgraded features like access to all CV and web designs and advanced tracking. What It Is: Is there anyone out there who doesn’t know what Canva is by now? Why It Rocks: Think about how much fun you’ve had creating presentations and graphics with Canva—now that same kind of fun can be had when revamping your resume. The selection of free templates is varied enough to please many kinds of Caffe Essay, personal styles, so the teh definition toughest choice will be choosing just one design. What It Is: Enhancv web-based platform that uses a step-by-step process to help you craft a resume that accurately reflects your best strengths, talents and experience. Why It Rocks: Instead of focusing on is my your job duties, it helps you create a performance-based resume with pop-up tips and teh definition, examples. Pergolessi. The resume format has even been optimized for ATS and teh definition, includes personal sections so you can show off more than your skills. Caffe Essay. What It Is: The Resume Builder by Qwilr is a clean, simple website that helps you create a nifty resume website.
Why It Rocks: Great for our Ninja creatives, this tool can whip up something that’s impressive and interactive—in a matter of teh definition, minutes. Just enter your information and select one of the templates (elegant or creative), and before you know it, you’ll have your own compelling resume website. Which From The Great Best Indicates That Is Not. What It Is: Ineedaresume is a web tool that guides you through resume building step-by-step. Just enter your details, choose a layout and teh definition, download, all within mere minutes. Why It Rocks: This tool has a more traditional template resume—but brings it into the 21st century with updated fonts. Not only that, but the Caffe Pergolessi tool completely streamlines the resume creation process, so you don’t have to wrestle with formatting that’s fussy. There you have it—six resume builder tools that will save you the stress that comes with revamping your resume. Even if you’re happy in your current situation, it’s always good to teh definition, have a current resume on hand. Who knows, you might even learn a few surprising things about yourself (like how robust your skill set really is!).
What resume builder tool are you most interested in using and Caffe Pergolessi, why? Let us know in teh definition a comment below! Jennee is henry v olivier a content writer who covers careers, personal growth, lifestyle and teh definition, digital marketing. A former Office Ninja herself, she’s conquered her fair share of bootstrapped projects for the sake of operational efficiency—let’s just say, she understands what “get it done” means.When she isn’t writing, she’s refilling her cup of Pergolessi, tea (Earl Grey only), trying to teh definition, keep up with her preschool daughter and Feminism in Indian English Essays, watching her favorite Shondaland shows. OfficeNinjas gives recognition to the administrative role by supporting and growing a community of executive assistants, office managers, and operations pros. Teh Definition. OfficeNinjas brings these “Ninjas” tech resources, educational content, vetted vendor recommendations, and modern in-person events.
Some good tools on this list, but I think also the new startup https://novoresume.com/ could be mentioned on the list. It has an on being a cripple, overall better user experience, clean design and teh definition, it#8217;s also for free. Poe Essence Of Greed. Thanks for sharing Marie! These are great. Can#8217;t wait to try some of them out. Even if you are not looking it never hurts to have an teh definition, updated resume.
Let us know which ones you try, Leticia! Agree that is on being a cripple always in your best interest to teh definition, keep your resume updated. Poe Essence. Have fun with these! Signup to have #NinjaLife resources delivered to your inbox every week. Tense Week at Work? Here’s How to Simmer Down the Office Stress. Teh Definition. A Guide to Beating Stress for Anxious Office Ninjas. Is My. How to Reveal Your Unique Leadership Style #038; Lead with Confidence.
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1503 1507. Learn more here. This document has been published in the Federal Register . A Cripple! Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for teh definition the official electronic format. Rural Utilities Service, USDA. The Rural Utilities Service (RUS or Agency) is publishing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of rural persons in their service territory.
This final rule amends RUS regulations on General and Pre-Loan Policies and Procedures Common to Electric Loans and Guarantees, which were codified on December 20, 1993. The final rule also includes conforming amendments to which gatsby that nick content with additional RUS regulations. Under Section 2 of the Rural Electrification Act (RE Act), RUS is teh definition, authorized to assist electric borrowers in implementing Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems. The scope of this regulation falls within the authority of the Act. This final rule is effective February 3, 2014. Start Further Info. Gerard Moore, USDA-Rural Utilities Service, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Stop 1569, Washington, DC 20250-1569, telephone (202) 205-9692 or email to firstname.lastname@example.org. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information.
The Rural Utilities Service (RUS or Agency) is publishing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for henry v olivier the benefit of rural persons in their service territory. Teh Definition! This final rule is designed to in Indian English and Tamil literature Essays supplement the policies contained in 7 CFR part 1710, GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES, which were finalized in teh definition, December 1993. Under Section 2(a) of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. Best Indicates That Nick Is Not Fully His Life?! 902(a)), the Secretary of Agriculture is explicitly “authorized and teh definition, empowered to make loans in the several States and Territories of the United States . . . for Caffe Essay the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems.” Section 6101 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Farm Bill) inserted the teh definition words “and energy efficiency” into this provision. In order to is my hero implement this new focus of the program, RUS amends 7 CFR part 1710 by adding a new Subpart H entitled “Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.” (EECLP). In fiscal year 2014 the teh definition Rural Utilities Service will make $250 million available to Pergolessi support energy efficiency as indicated in the President's climate change action plan. In future years, the amount of funding made available will be based on the performance of the program. The goals of an eligible Energy Efficiency project eligible for teh definition funding under this program and henry v olivier, Subpart H include: (1) Increasing energy efficiency at the end user level; (2) modifying electric load such that there is teh definition, a reduction in overall system demand; (3) effecting a more efficient use of existing electric distribution, transmission and generation facilities; (4) attracting new businesses and creating jobs in rural communities by investing in energy efficiency; and (5) encouraging the henry v olivier use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side management or the teh definition reduction of conventional fossil fuel use within the service territory.
Although not a goal, RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of muhammad is my hero, green house gases with energy efficiency improvements. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program may include loans supporting energy efficiency activities undertaken by teh definition, the utility itself, the in Indian English and Tamil literature finance of energy efficiency projects undertaken by others, and investments made by the utility to accomplish their obligations under utility energy services contracts. It is important to teh definition distinguish that there are potentially two different types of loans associated with this regulation. RUS will loan funds to a utility for an energy efficiency program. Pergolessi Essay! The utility, in teh definition, turn, may choose to relend these funds to their consumers (ultimate recipient) for henry v olivier energy efficiency improvements in industrial, commercial, or residential applications.
The utility may also use the funds to complete energy efficiency activities on their own property. The anticipated transfers during the first year of the program will be the funding availability of teh definition, $250 million. RUS expects this to increase over poe essence of greed the life of the program. The new Subpart H for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program can have several economic impacts. The benefits include: (1) The value of purchased energy saved; (2) the value of corresponding avoided generation, transmission and/or distribution; and (3) savings in energy bills.
The final loan program is estimated to teh definition have administrative costs to the applicant and federal government, at about $740,000 total for applicants, and about $1.7 million for henry v olivier the Federal government. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program will impose administrative costs on applicants and the Federal government. Quantitative estimates of these costs have been made and are presented below. Estimates of costs for applicants: the twenty expected applications are broken down into teh definition, two sectionsapplications and reporting. Table 2 summarizes the estimated costs. Table 2Estimate Burden to Applicants. All entities seeking financial assistance under this program must submit certain information to the Agency in order to apply for a loan. The total estimated cost for applying is approximately $593,356, calculated by multiplying the number of applicants (20) by the labor hours associated with the additional burden (823.20) by an estimated $45 per hour for labor. See OPM's Web site at http://www.opm.gov/#8203; Start Printed Page 73357 policy-data-oversight/#8203;pay-leave/#8203;salaries-wages/#8203; All applicants that are awarded funds must submit reports to the Agency to provide information on indicates nick fully with their performance.
The total estimated cost for reporting is approximately $148,338, calculated by the number of applicants (20) by teh definition, labor cost ($45) by hours per year (164.82). Estimates of costs to the Federal government were made based on the activities that the Federal government would incur to implement the rule and the length of time each activity required. A cost of $48.35 per hour was used in making these cost estimates. Table 3Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Burden Cost to the Federal Government. The following paragraphs summarize the activities and costs to poe essence of greed be incurred by teh definition, the Federal government for this program. RUS is responsible for reviewing and approving applications. As part of this process, RUS will acknowledge receipt of applications and inform the applicants whether their application was selected for funding. The estimated cost for these application activities is henry v olivier, approximately $1,585,880. RUS is responsible for teh definition reviewing various reports, including, but not limited to, project management plan, energy efficiency work plan, quality control plan, etc.
The estimated cost for of greed reviewing these reports annually is approximately $125,710. This final rule has been reviewed under Executive Order (EO) 12866, “Regulatory Planning and Review,” 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993), and has been determined to be “economically significant” by the Office of Management and Budget. The EO defines an economically significant regulatory action as one that is likely to result in teh definition, a rule that may have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect, in a material way, the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal governments or communities. As required by OMB circular A-4 the regulatory impact analysis will be published along with this rule on Caffe Essay regulations.gov.
The agency has also reviewed this regulation pursuant to teh definition EO 13563, issued on which excerpt from the great best is not fully content with his life? January 18, 2011 (76 FR 3281, Jan. Teh Definition! 21, 2011). EO 13563 is supplemental to excerpt the great gatsby best that with his life? and explicitly reaffirms the principles, structures, and definitions governing regulatory review established in EO 12866. To the extent permitted by law, agencies are required by EO 13563 to: (1) Propose or adopt a regulation only upon teh definition, a reasoned determination that its benefits justify its costs (recognizing that some benefits and costs are difficult to quantify); (2) tailor regulations to impose the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining regulatory objectives, taking into account, among other things, and to the extent practicable, the Caffe Pergolessi costs of cumulative regulations; (3) select, in choosing among alternative regulatory approaches, those approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety, and teh definition, other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity); (4) to the extent feasible, specify performance objectives, rather than specifying the is my hero behavior or manner of compliance that regulated entities must adopt; and (5) identify and assess available alternatives to direct regulation, including providing economic incentives to encourage the teh definition desired behavior, such as user fees or marketable permits, or providing information upon which choices can be made by the public. The Agency conducted a cost-benefit analysis to fulfill the requirements of EO 12866 and 13563. In this analysis, the Agency identifies potential benefits and costs of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program to borrowers, and in Indian Essays, RUS. The analysis contains quantitative estimates of the burden to the public and the Federal government and qualitative descriptions of the expected economic, environmental, and energy impacts associated with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.
This analysis will be made publicly available in the docket. RUS will only make loans for these purposes to electric utility systems. RUS anticipates that borrowers under this subpart will be generation and transmission (GT) borrowers or their distribution members or unaffiliated distribution borrowers who are current on their loan payments and in compliance with their loan documents. Teh Definition! This program is held to the same high standards and regulatory requirements as the existing RUS electric loan program. RUS also anticipates that the which from the great gatsby nick fully with his life? energy efficiency improvements installation work may be contracted by either the utility or the Ultimate Recipient, or performed directly by employees of the borrower, at the discretion of the utility designing the energy efficiency program. Teh Definition! In all cases, the eligible borrower is expected to hold title to the receivables funded by the RUS loan. It is estimated that approximately 20 loans will be submitted annually. English Literature Essays! Considering applicants are existing RUS borrowers, it is anticipated that all 20 loans would be awarded. The administrative cost to the Applicant and the Federal government to apply, award and maintain these loans is $2.458 million. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.
The program described by this rule is an teh definition, eligible purpose/subsidiary program of the Electrification Loans and Feminism and Tamil literature, Loan Guarantee program as listed in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Programs under number 10.850, Rural Start Printed Page 73358 Electrification Loans and Loan Guarantees. The Catalog is teh definition, available on the Internet at http://www.cfda.gov. This final rule is excluded from the scope of Executive Order 12372, Intergovernmental Consultation, which may require consultation with State and which from the great gatsby that is not fully his life?, local officials. See the final rule related notice entitled, “Department Programs and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372” (50 FR 47034). In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of teh definition, 1995 (44 U.S.C. chapter 35), the information collection for this program has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB Control Number 0572-0032.
The Agency is committed to the E-Government Act, which requires Government agencies in general to Caffe Pergolessi Essay provide the public the option of submitting information or transacting business electronically to the maximum extent possible. National Environmental Policy Act Review. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Agency has prepared and teh definition, published a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for this loan program activity as part of this rulemaking process. The PEA was published on Feminism literature Essays February 6, 2013 in the Federal Register at 78 FR 8444, and teh definition, prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the henry v olivier Council on Environmental Quality's (CEQ) regulations for implementing NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500-1508), and RUS' NEPA implementing regulations, Environmental Policies and Procedures (7 CFR part 1794).
A Notice of teh definition, Finding of No Significant Impact was published on Friday August 16, 2013 in the Federal Register at VOL. 78, NO. On Being A Cripple! 159. Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification. It has been determined the teh definition Regulatory Flexibility Act is not applicable to this rule since the Feminism English and Tamil Essays RUS is not required by 5 U.S.C. 551 et seq. or any other provision of law to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking with respect to the subject matter of this rule.
This rule contains no Federal mandates (under the regulatory provisions of teh definition, title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995) for henry v olivier state, local, and tribal governments or for the private sector. Therefore, this rule is teh definition, not subject to the requirements of section 202 and Caffe, 205 of the teh definition Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. This rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. The Agency has determined that this rule meets the henry v olivier applicable standards in Section 3 of the Executive Order. In addition, all state and local laws and regulations that are in conflict with this rule will be preempted, no retroactive effort will be given to teh definition this rule, and, in accordance with section 212(e) of the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6912(e)), administrative appeals procedures, if any, must be exhausted before any action against of greed, the Department or its agencies may be initiated. The policies contained in this rule do not have any substantial direct effect on state and local governments, on the relationship between the national government and the state and local governments, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the teh definition various levels of government. Feminism In Indian English Literature! Nor does this rule impose substantial direct compliance costs on state and teh definition, local governments. Therefore, consultation with the muhammad is my states is not required.
Executive Order 13175, Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments. This Executive Order imposes requirements on the development of regulatory policies that have tribal implications or preempt tribal laws. Between October 2010 and January 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) hosted seven regional regulation Tribal consultation sessions to teh definition gain input by elected Tribal officials or their designees concerning the impact of this rule (and other 2008 Farm Bill changes) on Tribal governments, communities, and individuals. No comments specific to this rule were received through that process. If a Tribe determines that this rule has implications of which Rural Development is which excerpt from the great best that nick fully his life?, not aware or would like further information regarding the consultation process, please contact Rural Development's Native American Coordinator at (720) 544-2911 or AIAN@wdc.usda.gov. This rulemaking amends 7 CFR part 1710 by adding a new Subpart H entitled “Energy Efficiency and teh definition, Conservation Loan Program.” Under Section 2(a) of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C.
902(a)), the Secretary of Feminism in Indian and Tamil Essays, Agriculture is explicitly “authorized and empowered to make loans in the several States and Territories of the United States . Teh Definition! . . for henry v olivier the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and teh definition, conservation programs, and on-grid and muhammad hero, off-grid renewable energy systems.” As noted, Section 6101 of the teh definition 2008 Farm Bill inserted the words “energy efficiency” into this provision, which was originally added as an amendment to muhammad hero the RE Act by the Rural Electrification Loan Restructuring Act of teh definition, 1993 (“RELRA”) (Pub. L. On Being A Cripple! 103-129 sec. 2(c)(1)(B)). Teh Definition!  RUS has experience with implementing programs that promote energy conservation, and which gatsby that nick is not fully with his life?, RELRA explicitly recognized that energy conservation is part of the Agency's mission. Starting in 1980, for teh definition example, RUS developed an hero, Energy Resources Conservation Program by issuing RUS Bulletin 20-23, Section 12, “Extensions for Energy Resources Conservation Loans”, dated December 8, 1980. Teh Definition!  This Bulletin interpreted the Administrator of RUS's discretion under the RE Act to extend the time for payments, and this became the foundation for the “ERC Loan Program.” At that time, RUS did not make ERC Loan Program loans directly. It operated the ERC Loan Program by entering into henry v olivier, agreements with its borrowers to defer amortization of their loans in order for teh definition the borrowers to fund energy conservation improvements. The borrowers, generally electric cooperatives, made loans to their members out of the henry v olivier cash flow resulting from the teh definition deferments they received from RUS on their own loans. Even though RUS did not make the henry v olivier ERC loans itself, the teh definition Agency provided financial assistance to muhammad is my rural Consumers by teh definition, using the electric cooperatives as intermediaries. Congress subsequently amended Section 12 of the RE Act in henry v olivier, 1990 and Start Printed Page 73359 again in 2008.
In 1990, Congress expanded Section 12 to enable deferments such that borrowers could provide financing to local businesses, with the intent of stimulating rural economic development. In 2008, Congress expanded Section 12 of the RE Act to authorize energy efficiency and teh definition, use audits and to Pergolessi install energy efficiency measures or devices to reduce demand on teh definition electric systems. The recent grant of additional authority in Section 2(a) of the RE Act to make loans and on being a cripple, guarantees for energy efficiency, as contrasted with the Section 12 authority to merely defer payments on direct loans, has become increasingly significant as the percentage of the RUS portfolio represented by direct loans continues to amortize. In recent times the Agency delivers nearly all of its electric program assistance in the form of loan guarantees. As a guarantor, RUS does not have the same discretion to defer payments that it does when it is the lender. Consequently, RUS has determined that it is teh definition, now necessary and appropriate to finalize a loan program for this RE Act purpose. “The RE Act, 7 U.S.C. Is My! 904, commits to the discretion of the Administrator the making of teh definition, loans for rural electrification. . . .” Alabama Power Co. v. Ala. Elec. Is My! Coop., 394 F.2d 672 at 675 (CA 5) cert. denied 393 U.S. 1000 (1968). “REA is the teh definition administrative agency charged by Congress with responsibility for facilitating rural electrification.
REA was intended by Congress to determine the appropriate course of conduct to accomplish the legislative purpose.” Public Utility District No. 1 of Franklin County v. Big Bend Electric Cooperative, Inc., 618 F.2d 601 at 603 (CA 9 1980). By broadly adding “energy efficiency” in the 2008 Farm Bill as a legislative purpose for the RE Act loans, Congress left it to the Administrator's discretion to Essay fashion the appropriate method to teh definition accomplish this purpose. Drawing on more than three decades of experience in using electric cooperatives as local intermediaries to accomplish RE Act objectives at the Consumer level, RUS will deliver this energy efficiency program by drawing upon its favorable past successes and using its electric borrowers as intermediaries. RUS will only make loans for eligible purposes to electric utility systems . An eligible borrower means a utility system that has direct or indirect responsibility for providing retail electric service to persons in a rural area. This definition includes existing borrowers and utilities who meet current RUS borrower requirements. RUS anticipates that borrowers under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program will be generation and transmission (GT) borrowers, their distribution members, or unaffiliated distribution borrowers who are current on their RUS loan payments and in compliance with those loan documents. RUS anticipates that the Energy Efficiency (EE) improvements installation work may be contracted by either the utility, the which the great gatsby best fully content Ultimate Recipient, or performed directly by employees of the borrower. In all cases, the Eligible Borrower will hold title to teh definition the receivables funded by the RUS loan. RUS is authorized by Caffe Pergolessi, the RE Act to make loans to implement Demand side management (DSM), EE Programs and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems. Teh Definition! Energy efficiency in this regulation is of greed, defined as the teh definition degree a system or component performs its designated function with minimum consumption of on being a cripple, resources.
Renewable energy systems have a specific role in this regulation. Renewable generation can be used as load modifiers, which can increase the teh definition efficiency of energy consumption from the of greed utilities perspective and are effective at decreasing energy used by decreasing load. Renewable energy and conservation savings associated with this regulation are from the utilities perspective, though the energy savings could be realized by both the Consumer and utility, depending on the type of project, as the utility is the RUS borrower and is culpable for teh definition repayment of the loan. Energy efficiency under this final regulation may accomplish either DSM, energy conservation, or both. The goals of an eligible EE Program under Subpart H may include one or more of the following: (1) Increase energy efficiency at the end user level; (2) modify electric load such that there is a reduction in henry v olivier, overall system demand; (3) effect a more efficient use of existing electric distribution, transmission and generation facilities; (4) attract new businesses and create jobs in teh definition, rural communities; and (5) encourage the use of renewable energy fuels. There are three primary differences between the existing energy resource conservation program codified in 7 CFR part 1721 subpart B (ERC program) and the EECLP final regulation in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart H. First, the existing ERC program is limited to direct loan principal deferments and is not available for RUS guaranteed loans. Second, the list of eligible loan purposes for this program is more expansive than the ERC program and, where applicable, emphasizes that the assets in question must be characterized as an integral part of the Consumer's real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable state law. Lastly, the term of financing available under Subpart H is longer than the term allowed for principal deferments under the ERC loan program. Rural electric cooperatives are proponents of Feminism in Indian English, energy efficiency measures. According to the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association: 73 percent of these co-ops plan on significantly expanding existing efficiency programs in the next two years: 70 percent of co-ops offer financial incentives to promote greater energy efficiency: 96 percent of co-ops have some form of teh definition, energy efficiency program in place, co-ops are responsible for nearly 25 percent of is my, residential peak load management capacity, and cooperatives have 10 percent of retail electricity sales but are responsible for teh definition 20 percent of actual peak demand reduction.
Representatives from rural electric cooperatives have commented that access to low interest funds can be the difference between success and failure for an energy efficiency program. Eligible EE Programs can be comprised of a variety of activities, performed by either the of greed utility or third parties. Teh Definition! This final rule sets forth the policies and procedures related to hero eligible EE Programs where the RUS will finance: (1) Energy efficiency activities undertaken by the utility itself; (2) loans made by the utility to teh definition finance energy efficiency projects undertaken by poe essence, others; and teh definition, (3) investments made by the utility to accomplish their obligations under utility energy services contracts. The types of activities that are eligible for Caffe Pergolessi Essay RUS financing under Subpart H include but are not limited to: (1) Energy audits; (2) community awareness and teh definition, outreach programs; (3) services, materials and equipment provided by a qualified local contractor to improve energy efficiency at the Consumer level; and (4) energy efficiency loans made by the utility to poe essence of greed its customers. Teh Definition! RUS is allowing fuel switching as an on being a cripple, eligible activity under this regulation. Teh Definition! A description of EE Programs that qualify for RUS financing can be found in § 1710.405. Eligible investments are listed in § 1710.406. Finally, eligible borrowers are defined in § 1710.404.
Some programs designed by utilities may have the utility initially owning an English literature Essays, asset even though it is located on a Consumer's premise and the asset is later conveyed to the Consumer after it is paid for teh definition or a predetermined time period has elapsed. Where this is the case, RUS is proposing that the application include an additional or Start Printed Page 73360 revised Schedule C to the RUS mortgage listing these assets as Excepted Property under the RUS mortgage, so as to poe essence preclude the assets being captured under the after acquired clause that is standard in teh definition, the RUS mortgage codified in 7 CFR part 1718. It is the poe essence of greed intent of RUS that a release of lien need not be executed by the Agency for the utility to convey to the Consumer clear title to these assets when this Schedule C is teh definition, recorded. This final rulemaking recognizes that energy may take a variety of forms, not just electricity. The criteria to be met by henry v olivier, eligible programs include energy efficiency as measured by British Thermal Unit (Btu) input relative to Btu output, in order to facilitate the teh definition widest and greatest contribution by the rural utility in the great gatsby that nick is not with, optimizing the energy consumption profile of its service territory. This rulemaking also provides that an eligible program must demonstrate that the teh definition financial strength of the electric utility is on being a cripple, not harmed by EE Program activities funded under Subpart H.
An important distinction between eligible energy efficiency assets to be financed under this new Subpart H and other energy efficiency activities is that the assets located at a Consumer's premises, whether or not title is to be held by the utility must, for teh definition the most part, be considered an integral part of the in Indian literature real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable State law in order to teh definition be financed pursuant to an eligible program under Subpart H. Eligible programs shall provide that the Feminism in Indian English and Tamil literature Essays utility will recoup all or part of the costs from specific ratepayers on teh definition whose behalf an investment has been made. Recoupment may take the form of Caffe Pergolessi Essay, Consumer loan repayment or a dedicated tariff. An eligible program reviewed under Subpart H must show that the payment terms and loan term offered to teh definition the Consumer are generally correlated with the expected life of the applicable assets. An eligible program must also offer an on being, undertaking that funds, collected from ratepayers, in excess of the current amortization requirements for the RUS loan will be redeployed for EE Program purposes or used to prepay the RUS loan. These prepayments are in addition to scheduled principal and interest debt service payments. Applications for program financings under Subpart H must fully describe a Business Plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.407. The Agency recognizes that energy efficiency investments that reduce energy consumption at teh definition, the Consumer premises (for instance those that affect the power factor) may prompt a need for investments at the system level to sustain the on being a cripple reliability and stability of the grid. Teh Definition! The business plan called for in Subpart H must identify the related system investment to be identified as part of the henry v olivier EE Program, but these system level investments would be reflected in the utility's construction work plan and financed as part of a traditional loan application. It is not required that an eligible program fund energy audits performed at Consumer premises. However, if the teh definition utility proposes to Feminism in Indian English and Tamil Essays provide audits; Subpart H requires that the teh definition program must also include a provision for assisting Consumers in Feminism in Indian and Tamil literature, implementing changes suggested in aggregate to be cost effective by the audit.
A program that funds energy audits without providing assistance for implementing audit recommendations included in the audit would not be an eligible program under Subpart H. Teh Definition! Only those activities that are cost effective in aggregate are eligible to be funded under Subpart H. The list of eligible investments and on being, activities that a qualified plan may incorporate is not intended to teh definition be exhaustive. The intent is to facilitate flexibility for the utility's EE Program consistent with the resources and henry v olivier, Consumer profiles in its service territory. This lending program is designed for utility-designed and directed EE Programs. As such it anticipates that eligible loan purposes will include program administrative and other soft costs, such as marketing expenses, where not more than five percent of the loan budget may be used for teh definition these purposes. A utility's program may include acting as an intermediary lender, where the utility uses RUS financing to excerpt from gatsby that is not content his life? make Consumer loans to finance these investments on the Consumers' premises. Where this is the case, Subpart H requires the borrower to teh definition have a maximum interest rate to the ultimate consumer at 1.5 percent above the RUS loan cost to the borrower unless an exception is granted by the Administrator. Exceptions will be made on poe essence a case-by-case basis to ensure repayment of the government's loan. We will not accept an exception if the loan is teh definition, feasible at 1.5 percent. This rate must be discussed in the applicant's business plan. The process for poe essence applying for teh definition EECLP loans is intended to the great that content with largely conform to the Agency's existing process for loans relating to other eligible purposes.
Accordingly, the requirements discussed throughout 7 CFR part 1710 apply equally to EECLP loans unless otherwise stated after giving effect to teh definition the conforming amendments incorporated in this rulemaking. A Cripple! Expenditures by the utility will be reimbursed by the Agency after the fact pursuant to an inventory of work orders system as is teh definition, typical for henry v olivier our existing loan process. The analytical material needed to support an EECLP loan is different from what is needed to analyze a generation or transmission loan. Accordingly, Subpart H elaborates on what is needed for RUS to approve an EE Program and loans to execute the program. Teh Definition! EE Program activity will be captured under a separate energy efficiency work plan. Energy efficiency investments will not be listed on the traditional construction work plan that applies to on being a cripple utility assets financed by RUS. As with other loans made pursuant to 7 CFR part 1710, a borrower's Environmental Report (ER) is expected to accompany the energy efficiency work plan associated with the loan request. The ER is in accordance with 7 CFR part 1794. Part 1794 contains the policies and procedures of the Rural Utilities Service for implementing the teh definition requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act.
In the case of an hero, EECLP loan, this ER will be expected to reference the PEA completed by the Agency for EECLP loans, and identify any investments and their potential environmental impacts proposed in the work plan that were not analyzed in teh definition, the PEA. This new Subpart H is not intended to be duplicative of requirements otherwise prescribed in part 1710, but rather, supplemental. Poe Essence Of Greed! It identifies requirements that are unique to loans made under the proposed Subpart H to teh definition finance EE Programs. It prescribes requirements for which from gatsby that nick is not fully content our direct borrowers. Our direct borrowers will then act as intermediary lenders to teh definition accomplish the investments outlined in an approved EE program.
Where there is an express conflict with requirements elsewhere in on being, part 1710, the provisions of Subpart H would apply, but otherwise Subpart H is teh definition, not intended to supplant the applicability of the rest of part 1710 or other applicable parts in the Code of Federal Regulations. In implementing Subpart H, as required for all of part 1710, RUS will work with Department of Energy (DOE), following the requirements set out by of greed, the Rural Electrification Act of 1936, Section 16 that states: “the Secretary in making or guaranteeing loans for the construction, operations, or enlargement of generating plants or electric transmission lines or systems shall consider such general criteria consistent with the provisions of this Act as may Start Printed Page 73361 be published by the Secretary of Energy.” Summary of Major Changes in Response to Comments on the Rule. The agency published a Proposed rulemaking on teh definition July 26, 2012, at 77 FR 43723. In Indian English And Tamil Essays! RUS received 63 comments on the proposed Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.
The sixty three commenters consisted of industry representatives that included: Electric cooperatives, such as South Carolina Electric and Gas company; nonprofit energy efficiency supporters, such as the teh definition E3 coalition and the Sierra Club; and envelope organizations that represent RUS borrowers, such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Sixty two of the sixty three letters were extremely supportive of the regulation, and applauded RUS for Essay proposing the program. The opposing letter stated that it was against all Federal programs. Major changes in response to these comments, include the teh definition following items: 1. Removed restrictions on the size of load modifiers. 2. Hero! Adjusted soft cost limitations from 4 percent to 5 percent. 3. Teh Definition! Limit Consumer interest rate to 1.5 percent above the cost of the loan to the borrower. 4. Decreased the complexity of the loan program by eliminating performance thresholds. 5. Defined certified energy auditor. 6. In Indian Literature! Added fuel switching as an eligible purpose. 7. Clarified the teh definition definition of muhammad is my hero, eligible borrowers to include former and new RUS borrowers that meet RUS standards specified in regulation and statute.
8. Changed the cost effectiveness requirements, extending requirements to 10 years or equipment useful life on teh definition an aggregate basis. 9. Henry V Olivier! Removed the teh definition Net Utility Plant language. 10. Allowed some pre-retrofitting as an is my hero, eligible activity. A summary of the comments and RUS's response are as follows:
Small Scale Renewable Energy Projects. Comment: There were 17 comments addressing the small scale renewable energy limitation of “nameplate generation capacity that is less than the 50 percent of the average anticipated electrical load associated with the end user.” Of the 17 comments, only 4 wanted to teh definition decrease or eliminate small scale renewables, on the basis that small scale renewables tend to not be cost effective. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program regulation has been edited, and will no longer have any restrictions on small scale renewable energy projects. All activities will be eligible, however, state mandates, laws, and cooperative bylaws will override this regulation. Soft Costs Associated With a Borrower's Loan.
Comment: Seven comments requested that RUS not limit the “administrative” costs associated with the of greed loan. The current regulation limits administrative costs to 4 percent. Response: RUS acknowledges that there is a cost to our borrowers to start-up and maintain an energy efficiency program, and has agreed to teh definition increase the “administrative” cost limitation to henry v olivier 5 percent in the final regulation. However, RUS must protect the Electric Program loan portfolio, and increasing the teh definition rate any higher may impair the productivity of the is my hero program, and subsequently the subsidy rate. Teh Definition! Also, cooperatives may have the opportunity to rate-base certain energy efficiency costs. The Rate Borrowers Can Charge to gatsby indicates that nick is not fully the Ultimate Consumer Above the Treasury Based Interest Rate. Comment: RUS requested comments on the appropriate markup borrowers could charge above the Treasury-based interest rate. Twenty-one comments were received. The majority of comments stated that markups must be between 5 and 10 percent, with numerous comments stating that RUS should not specify a cap to make the program economical to the borrower.
Response: Borrowers are limited to interest rates 1.5 percent above the cost of their RUS loan. Exceptions will be given on a case-by-case basis that must be clearly articulated in the business plan such as unavoidable program level costs. Teh Definition! We will not accept an exception if the loan is feasible at 1.5 percent.This information, combined with all the other additional information, will allow RUS to determine the feasibility of the loan. Decrease the Complexity of the Loan Program. Comment: RUS received seven comments stating that the current program requirements were too complicated and burdensome. Which Best Is Not Content With His Life?! Requiring an environmental plan, business plan, quality assurance plan, performance thresholds, return on investment demonstrations, additional supporting documents, and teh definition, load forecasting before and Pergolessi, after improvements was too extensive, and would limit borrower's interest in the program.
Response: RUS has simplified the regulation to decrease the Energy Efficiency and teh definition, Conservation Loan Program's complexity and burden. Performance thresholds have been removed, the of greed cost effectiveness definition has been modified, and teh definition, procedures edited to keep the program simple and straight forward. Comment: Six comments were submitted, asking RUS to clarify the definition of Caffe Essay, certified energy auditor. Response: RUS has clarified the teh definition definition, allowing a borrower to use an auditor certified under state, local, or federal standards. Identifying the Appropriate Performance Thresholds. Comment: Twenty comments were received on what were the appropriate performance thresholds for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. Feminism In Indian English! Seven comments supported the teh definition language in the proposed rule, stating “existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from Energy Star, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), or other voluntary consensus standards,” 2 comments recommended limiting the thresholds to Energy Star or Energy Efficiency Ratio, and the remaining 9 comments recommended that RUS fund all market proven energy products that reduce the Consumer's annual Btu. Response: RUS clarified that borrowers are encouraged to use existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from ENERGY STAR, FEMP, ANSI, or other voluntary consensus standards rather than performance thresholds to give Borrowers greater latitude. Comment: Twelve comments strongly supported fuel switching.
Fuel switching is essential for some borrowers to a cripple handle peak demand. Response: RUS has modified the teh definition regulation to allow fuel switching. Many of the 12 comments in support of fuel switching were associations that represent over muhammad 1,000 electric cooperatives and teh definition, millions of hero, households, including NW Energy Coalition, Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Utility Geothermal Working Group, Iowa Environmental Council, The Mountain Association for Community Economic Development, and teh definition, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Start Printed Page 73362. The $250 Million Funding Limitation. Comment: Sixteen comments were received, all in which best indicates nick content with, strong support of teh definition, removing the $250 million limitation.
Response: The $250 million was an a cripple, estimate of what the Agency believed would be the demand for the program. Teh Definition! Public comment indicates more interest in the program than the on being a cripple proposed rule's $250 million per year limitation. In fiscal year 2014, the teh definition Rural Utilities Service will make $250 million available to support energy efficiency as indicated in Caffe, the Presidents climate change action plan. In future years, the amount of funding made available will be based on the performance of the program. Additionally, to be consistent, the energy efficiency program should compete equally with other eligible loan purposes. Comment: One comment was submitted proposing a preferred lender program that borrowers could qualify for if they had a loan total of less than $2 million. Standards would be set for basic, preapproved weatherization practices and be made available to teh definition any eligible borrower.
Standard benefit levels would be assigned to those practices and Essay, applied when determining benefits. There would not be a requirement for energy audits or post tests. This would cut the cost of teh definition, program delivery while maintaining well established and known benefits for of greed the members. The cooperatives that wish to participate at a higher loan level would have to comply with the standards established in teh definition, the proposed regulations. Response: RUS believes that preferred lending criteria is not needed in the regulation. RUS will use current authorities to streamline the application process.
Former RUS Borrowers and Their Eligibility for henry v olivier the Loan Program. Comment: Four comments were submitted supporting allowance of former RUS borrowers to return to the program. Response: The regulation has been modified to teh definition clarify that past borrowers are eligible for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program, in accordance with the statute and any other regulation relating to from is not fully content new or returning borrowers. The Cost Effective Requirement in teh definition, Section 1710.405. Comment: Nine comments were received, eight requesting a payback period that was longer than the current 5 years stated in the regulation. One comment requested that the payback period be less than the life of the product. Response: The regulation has been modified to more precisely define cost effectiveness and increase the payback to 10 years, except in cases where the useful life of the technology on an aggregate basis can be demonstrated to be longer than the 10 year period.
RUS will evaluate the useful life assumption on a case-by-case basis. Financial Institutions and Pergolessi, Cooperative Relending. Comment: Four comments were received requesting RUS to add language in the regulation that defines who RUS borrowers can work with as intermediaries. Response: RUS will not add any additional language. Business cases will be reviewed to determine the viability of the teh definition loan.
Existing regulation language does not deter borrowers from establishing partnerships with other organizations to help implement their energy efficiency programs. Comment: Three comments were received asking RUS to remove the provisions of § 1710.409(d (1)). The commenters believed that the section could seriously limit transmission borrowers who did not own generation. Response: RUS has removed the section. Initially the regulation language anticipated borrowers would own electric generating plants.
Public comments from statewide electric cooperative associations and distribution cooperatives interested in the loan program indicated that they would be excluded from the energy efficiency program with 1710.409(d(1)). These current borrowers are not generation and transmission organizations and therefore do not own electric generation plants. Caffe Pergolessi Essay! The language has been removed to allow them to participate. Comment: Four comments asked RUS to remove §§ 1710.406(d), 1017.407(g), and 1710.408(i). Each of those sections state borrowers shall follow a bulletin or other publication to be identified later. They claim that the teh definition proposed provision violates the Administrative Procedures Act by purporting to establish as regulatory obligations purely administrative determinations to be made later without notice and henry v olivier, comment rulemaking. Response: The proposed rule required borrowers to follow requirements in teh definition, yet to be developed bulletins. A Cripple! The final regulation has been changed from “shall” to “are strongly encouraged to.” Please see the following regulatory language “(g) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to teh definition follow a bulletin or such other publication as RUS deems appropriate that contains and describes best practices for energy efficiency business plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and revise it from time to time or eliminate it as RUS deems it necessary. “ Requiring all Electric Borrowers To Participate in which gatsby indicates that nick content with his life?, This Program.
Comment: Three comments asked if all current borrowers would be required to participate in the Energy Efficiency Loan Program. One of the teh definition two comments stated that RUS must require all borrowers to participate in this loan program and have active energy efficiency programs. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program allows for energy efficiency improvements as an henry v olivier, eligible purpose and will be reviewed and teh definition, approved as other eligible purposes within the henry v olivier statute and the regulation. RUS does not believe it to be appropriate to require Borrowers to participate in teh definition, this program. Comment: Two comments questioned the need for load forecasting, one comment stated that their current energy efficiency and conservation loan program is made up of only 30-40 members, not affecting the on being forecast at teh definition, all. Response: Load Forecasting is an important accountability component of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. If the energy efficiency program has negligible effect on the Load Forecast then that information should be stated in the discussion within the Load Forecast. No changes were made to the regulation. Comment: One comment stated that there were very few qualified energy managers and professional engineers in rural areas that are available to Feminism English literature conduct the requirements of teh definition, a program evaluation, and questioned who would have to bear the cost of the evaluation. Response: RUS recognizes that there will be additional expenses associated with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. The borrowers may pass along those costs to the Ultimate Recipient, but it needs to be explained in Essay, the submitted work plan.
Start Printed Page 73363. Loan Advances on a Reimbursement Basis. Comment: Two comments questioned how funds would be distributed. They were not supportive of funding projects on a reimbursable basis. Response: All of RUS's programs are run on a reimbursable basis, though the regulation currently states that startup capital of teh definition, up to 5 percent may be made available for an energy efficiency plan. No changes will be made to our current funding model. Making Post-Installment Evaluations Publically Available. Comment: Two comments requested that all post-installment evaluation and a cripple, verification requirements be made available to the public.
Response: RUS acknowledges the importance of transparency, but also must weigh the teh definition privacy of our borrowers. We will provide information to the public in conformity with the Caffe Essay Freedom of Information Act. Comment: One comment reiterated the importance of using qualified contractors to install energy efficiency and conservation activities. Response: RUS is a strong supporter of using qualified contractors and will require borrowers to state the types of contractors that will be used, if any, in a borrower's quality assurance plan. Comment: One comment stated that borrowers should be able to aggregate their various energy efficiency programs to bring them up to scale, decreasing the total workload. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program will hold each borrower accountable. Though borrowers can work with each other to decrease costs, each borrower will be individually held responsible for providing the required level of information and oversight. Comment: One comment stated that the regulation should not specifically call out ground source heat pumps, as the teh definition technology is advancing quickly.
Response: Ground source heat pumps are just one eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. Though mentioned in Caffe Pergolessi, the regulation as an teh definition, example, we are neither promoting nor discouraging their use. Offer Technical Assistance to Utilities. Comment: One comment requested RUS provide technical assistance to on being a cripple utilities to design, administer, and evaluate their energy efficiency loan program. Response: RUS will work closely with the teh definition borrower, answering any questions they may have on their business plan, quality assurance plan, etc. Encourage Peer-to-Peer Networking Through Webinars. Comment: Six comments requested RUS set up regular webinars, phone conferences and an on-line peer-exchange Web site for participating borrowers. Response: RUS supports the exchange of ideas and will facilitate cross communication when possible, but RUS does not have the Caffe resources to teh definition commit to this on a large scale.
RUS will partner with other federal agencies to support broader peer-to-peer exchange. The Definition of Energy Efficiency and Conservation measures. Comment: One comment requested that we add the following language to muhammad the energy efficiency and conservation measures definition, “which may also include the onsite generation of electricity from waste heat resources. ” Response: RUS believes the teh definition definition is inclusive, and the additional language is unnecessary. Comment: Eight comments stated that RUS stress the importance of using on-bill repayment as an effective financing method for energy efficiencies. Response: RUS recognizes that on-bill financing is one way for a borrower to poe essence of greed be repaid for their activities, however the borrower will have the ultimate decision on how they will recover their expenses.
Their method of choice will be articulated in their business plan. Additional Language Clarifying That Borrowers Cannot Exclude Renters. Comment: Five comments requested that RUS add language to the regulation requiring utilities to identify approaches that would ensure the equitable treatment by all types of consumers, and explicitly include low-income in both single-family and teh definition, multi-family buildings. Response: RUS sympathizes with the comment's concern, however we believe § 1710.122 on Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination located in the overarching Electric Program regulation, fulfills the needs specified by henry v olivier, the comments. Pre-Retrofits Should Be Allowed as Program Costs. Comment: Four comments stated that pre-retrofit activities that need to take place to make a house structurally sound before weatherization activities can take place, be an eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation loan program. Response: RUS added language to allow limited pre-retrofits as an teh definition, eligible loan activity. The Department of Energy has established that many opportunities for energy efficiency upgrades exist in low income housing. Often the residential building envelope needs infrastructure improvements to be able to accept energy efficiency upgrades. For example, the floor of a residential building may need structural repairs before efficient insulation can be installed.
This would reduce the in Indian overall energy requirement for teh definition the structure. Loan Loss Reserves and Credit Enhancements Should Be Allowed as Program Costs. Comment: Four comments stated that RUS allow borrowers to create loan loss reserve funds to allow utilities to attract investors and muhammad, leverage private capital, as an eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation loan program. Response: RUS is statutorily required to fund energy efficiency and conservation activities. Additional activities are outside the teh definition agency's authority and would require amendments. Additional Language Supporting a Diverse Workforce. Comment: One comment requested that RUS add language to require borrowers to use local and henry v olivier, under-represented businesses when implementing their energy efficiency program. Response: A borrower must prove that their energy efficiency program is cost effective; specifying who a borrower must work with is teh definition, beyond the scope of Subpart H. Comment: Seven comments requested that RUS clarify “due diligence” to muhammad hero confirm that ability to teh definition repay a loan or participate in a program does not have to include a credit check, but rather rely on utility bill payment history.
Response: The borrower is held accountable for paying off the of greed loan, and needs to determine eligible Consumers. Their method of choice will be articulated in teh definition, their business plan. Comment: One comment requested clarification on § 1710.255(b), which requires that all facilities being improved be included in the energy Start Printed Page 73364 efficiency work plan, to state that this section only applies to utility-owned properties. Response: RUS believes the Energy Efficiency Work Plan (EEWP) must also itemize Consumer upgrades in aggregate. Clarifying Demand Side Management. Comment: Three comments requested that RUS specifically state that switches for water heaters and air conditioning units be eligible under Demand side management, or at a minimum clearly state energy efficiency in the definition. Response: RUS believes the excerpt from the great best his life? definition is inclusive, and the additional language is unnecessary. Redefine Energy Efficiency and Conservation Measures.
Comment: Two comments requested that RUS change the sentence “ultimate goal is the reduction of utility energy needs” to teh definition “ultimate goal is the reduction of all forms of consumer energy needs (based on annual Btu consumption). Response: RUS believes the current definition fits the ultimate goal, to reduce utility energy needs, Consumer energy needs is too limiting as utilities are also eligible to finance energy efficiency activities in Pergolessi Essay, their facilities. Comment: Two comments requested that the teh definition words “power quality equipment” be added. Response: RUS believes the henry v olivier definition is inclusive, and teh definition, the additional language is Pergolessi, unnecessary. Comment: Two comments requested that RUS remove fuel cells as an eligible activity and investment. Response: Fuel cells can be used in energy efficiency and teh definition, conservation activities and will keep the in Indian and Tamil literature activity in the regulation.
They can act as load modifiers; load modifiers are already identified as an eligible purpose for loan funds. Comment: Two comments requested that RUS make changes to § 1710.406 (a)(1). The proposed rule states that eligible program activities and teh definition, investments “shall be designed to improve energy efficiency or MANAGED demand on the customer side of the meter. While demand improvements are a primary goal of the in Indian English literature rule, demand improvement can be accomplished through managed or passive improvements on the customer side of the teh definition meter. Consequently the word ‘managed' should be removed from the text and replaced with the word “reduce” and the word “peak” should be added before “demand.” The new text should state “shall be designed to improve energy efficiency or reduce peak demand on Caffe Pergolessi Essay the customer side of the meter. Response: RUS agrees with the language request and has incorporated it into this final rule. Comment: One comment requests additional clarification in teh definition, the background section on a cripple what the rate will be for borrowers. Response: This section has been revised for other reasons, the issue is moot. Comment: One comment requests the section be modified to remove insured, and revise the teh definition language to be “a) Purpose and amount. With the exception of muhammad is my, minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in a RUS approved borrower's construction work plan (CWP), EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, that have also received written Environmental Clearance and/or Approval from RUS prior to the start of construction, and follow RUS' contract and bidding procedures as set forth in teh definition, 7 CFR part 1726 if applicable.
Loan fund advances can be requested in is my, an amount up to the actual cost incurred less any contribution in aid of teh definition, construction. Response: RUS accepts the following language change: “a) Purpose and amount. Hero! With the exception of teh definition, minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in a RUS approved borrower's EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, that have also received written Environmental Clearance and/or Approval from RUS prior to the start of construction, and follow RUS' contract and bidding procedures as set forth in henry v olivier, 7 CFR part 1726 if applicable. Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount up to the actual cost incurred less any contribution in aid of construction. Comment: One comment asked if the Energy Efficiency loan program would override state or federal Law. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program does not override any statutory state or federal laws. Comment: One comment requested that RUS change the loan program, and loan directly to consumers, bypassing the electric companies.
Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program does not statutorily allow us this discretion. Natural Gas Expansion and teh definition, Explicit Support of Water Heaters. Comment: Two comments requested RUS explicitly support a given technology or fuel. Henry V Olivier! One comment requested that RUS create a broader regulation that clearly articulates the teh definition importance of natural gas. One comment requested that RUS explicitly include installation of solar thermal, gas, and gatsby indicates is not fully with, electric-resistance water heaters as an eligible use of program funds. Response: RUS does not support one technology or fuel source. No changes will be made to the regulation. Appropriate Performance Thresholds for Water Heaters. Comment: One comment requested that RUS set explicit energy efficiency thresholds for water heaters. Response: RUS will not list specific threshold levels in this regulation.
Rather, we have clarified that borrowers are encouraged to use existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from: Energy Star, FEMP, ANSI, or other voluntary consensus standards. Focus on Utility Programs That Support Customer Investments in teh definition, Energy Efficiency. Comment: One comment asked RUS to a cripple establish requirements and guidelines that will ensure program funds are substantially devoted to support utility programs designed to teh definition support efficiency investments in customer homes, buildings, and Caffe Pergolessi Essay, facilities. Response: RUS believes our regulation supports these investments, as well as investments in decreasing a utility's total energy use. No additional language was added. Leverage Other Federal Programs With the Energy Efficiency Program. Comment: One comment asked RUS to explore leveraging options with USDA's Rural Housing Service, Federal Housing Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Federal Housing Finance Authority. Response: RUS supports program collaboration, and teh definition, will continue to work with our Federal partners, but no additional language will be included in poe essence, the regulation. Start Printed Page 73365. Consider Combined Heat and teh definition, Power Projects as Eligible Measures.
Comment: One comment asked RUS to of greed explicitly state combined heat and power projects are an eligible energy conservation activity under the regulation. Response: RUS believes our regulation provides enough flexibility to teh definition allow these forms of activities, without specifying every eligible activity in the regulation. Comment: One comment requested RUS change the henry v olivier definition of fuel switching to teh definition “the temporary use of non-electric energy sources as a method to muhammad limit electric peak loads during limited time periods. Teh Definition! The term fuel switching does not include the permanent replacement of equipment that uses one energy source with equipment that uses a different energy source.” Response: RUS clarified the definition of “fuel switching.' Comment: One comment asked RUS to adopt data collection procedures to henry v olivier track program financials and measure performance. Response: RUS has and will continue to collect data on loan activities, monitoring and teh definition, tracking performance measures.
No additional language needs to be added to the regulation. Comment: One comment requested RUS target supplementing existing and planned energy efficiency programs and budgets, not replacing the programs. Response: RUS believes our current language will support existing and promote new energy efficiency programs. Start List of Subjects. For reasons set forth in the preamble, the Agency amends 7 CFR chapter XVII as follows: PART 1710GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES. 1. The authority citation for part 1710 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 2. In § 1710.2(a) revise the definition of “Demand side management” and add a definition of “Eligible Energy Efficiency Programs” in which excerpt that is not his life?, alphabetical order to teh definition read as follows:
End Amendment Part. Demand side management (DSM) means the deliberate planning and/or implementation of Feminism and Tamil Essays, activities to influence Consumer use of electricity provided by a distribution borrower to produce beneficial modifications to the system load profile. Beneficial modifications to the system load profile ordinarily improve load factor or otherwise help in utilizing electric system resources to best advantage consistent with acceptable standards of service and lowest system cost. Load profile modifications are characterized as peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting, strategic conservation, strategic load growth, and flexible load profile. (See, for example, publications of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, especially “Demand-Side Management Glossary” EPRI TR-101158, Project 1940-25, Final Report, October 1992.) DSM includes energy conservation programs. Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programs (Eligible EE Program) means an teh definition, energy efficiency and poe essence, conservation program that meets the requirements of Subpart H of teh definition, this part. Subpart CLoan Purposes and Basic Policies.
3. Essay! In § 1710.100, amend the first sentence by teh definition, adding the words “efficiency and” before “energy conservation”. End Amendment Part. 4. In § 1710.101, amend the second sentence of paragraph (b) by of greed, adding the word “direct” before “loans to individual consumers”. End Amendment Part. 5. Amend § 1710.102 as follows: End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part.
a. Amend the teh definition first sentence of paragraph (a) by excerpt from the great gatsby best indicates fully, adding “energy efficiency and” before “energy conservation”; and. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. b. Teh Definition! Amend the first sentence of paragraph (b) by adding “energy efficiency and” before “energy conservation”. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 6. Amend § 1710.106 by poe essence of greed, adding paragraph (a)(6) and revising paragraphs (c)(1) and (d) to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (6) Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programs pursuant to Subpart H of this part. (1) Electric facilities, equipment, appliances, or wiring located inside the teh definition premises of the Consumer, except for assets financed pursuant to an Eligible EE Program, and qualifying items included in a loan for Demand side management or energy resource conservation programs, or renewable energy systems. (d) A distribution borrower may request a loan period of henry v olivier, up to 4 years. Except in the case of loans for new generating and associated transmission facilities, a power supply borrower may request a loan period of not more than 4 years for transmission and substation facilities and improvements or replacements of generation facilities. The loan period for new generating facilities and DSM activities will be determined on a case-by-case basis. The Administrator may approve a loan period shorter than the period requested by teh definition, the borrower, if in the Administrator's sole discretion, a loan made for the longer period would fail to meet RUS requirements for loan feasibility and poe essence, loan security set forth in teh definition, §§ 1710.112 and 1710.113, respectively. 7. In § 1710.109 amend the first sentence of paragraph (a) by adding the words “energy efficiency and conservation program work plan,” after “construction work plan”. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 8. Essay! Amend § 1710.115 by adding paragraph (c) to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (c) The term for loans made to finance Eligible EE Programs will be determined in accordance with § 1710.408 of this part. 9. Teh Definition! In § 1710.120 add the words “energy efficiency and conservation program work plans,” after “construction work plans,”. End Amendment Part. Subpart DBasic Requirements for Loan Approval. 10.
Amend § 1710.152 by adding paragraph (e) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (e) EE Program work plan (EEWP). In the case of a loan application to finance an Eligible Energy Efficient Program, an EE Program work plan shall be prepared in lieu of a traditional CWP required pursuant to paragraph (b) of muhammad is my hero, this section. The requirements for teh definition an EEWP are set forth in § 1710.255 and in subpart H of this part. 11.
Amend § 1710.202 by adding paragraph (d) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (d) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) through (c) of English and Tamil Essays, this section, a power supply borrower that has an outstanding loan for teh definition an Eligible EE Program is required to Essay maintain an approved load forecast and an approved load forecast work plan on an ongoing basis. 12. Amend § 1710.203 by adding paragraph (f) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (f) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, a distribution borrower that has an outstanding loan for an Eligible EE Program is required to maintain an approved load forecast and an approved load forecast work plan on an ongoing basis.
13. In § 1710.205 amend paragraph (b)(5) by adding the words “and energy efficiency and conservation program” after “demand side management”. End Amendment Part. Subpart FConstruction Work Plans and Related Studies. 14. Teh Definition! Add § 1710.255 to subpart F to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (a) All energy efficiency borrowers must maintain a current EEWP approved by their board of directors covering in aggregate all new construction, improvements, replacements, and retirements of a cripple, energy efficiency related equipment and teh definition, activities; (b) An energy efficiency borrower's EEWP shall cover a period of between 2 and 4 years, and include all facilities to be constructed or improved which are eligible for RUS financing, whether or not RUS financial assistance will be sought or be available for which from the great best indicates that nick content with his life? certain facilities. The construction period covered by an EEWP in support of a loan application shall not be shorter than the loan period requested for teh definition financing of the facilities; (c) The borrower's EEWP may only include facilities, equipment and other activities that have been approved by RUS as a part of an Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program pursuant to subpart H of this part; (d) The borrower's EEWP must be consistent with the documentation provided as part of the on being current RUS approved EE Program as outlined in § 1710.410(c); and. (e) The borrower's EEWP must include an estimated schedule for the implementation of included projects. Subpart GLong Range Financial Forecasts.
15. Teh Definition! Amend § 1710.300 by poe essence, redesignating paragraphs (d)(3) through (5) as paragraphs (d)(4) through (6) respectively; and adding a new paragraph (d)(3) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (3) RUS-approved EE Program work plan; 16. In § 1710.302 amend paragraph (d)(5) by teh definition, removing the of greed reference “§ 1710.300(d)(5)” and adding in its place “§ 1710.300(d)(6)”. End Amendment Part. Subpart IApplication Requirements and Procedures for Loans. 17a. In subpart I, redesignate §§ 1710.400 through 1710.407 as §§ 1710.500 through 1710.507, respectively.
End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 17b. Add Subpart H consisting of teh definition, §§ 1710.400 through 1710.499, to muhammad hero read as follows: End Amendment Part. Subpart HEnergy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. (a) This subpart establishes policies and requirements that apply to teh definition loans and loan guarantees to finance Energy Efficiency and Conservation programs (EE Programs) undertaken by an eligible utility system to finance Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation, or on-grid and in Indian English and Tamil Essays, off-grid renewable energy system programs that will result in the better management of their system load growth, a more beneficial load profile, or greater optimization of the use of teh definition, alternative energy resources in in Indian English and Tamil, their service territory. These programs may be considered an essential utility service. (b)(1) The goals of an eligible Energy Efficiency project eligible for funding under this program and Subpart H include: (i) Increasing energy efficiency at the end user level; (ii) Modifying electric load such that there is a reduction in overall system demand; (iii) Effecting a more efficient use of existing electric distribution, transmission and generation facilities; Start Printed Page 73367. (iv) Attracting new businesses and teh definition, creating jobs in rural communities by investing in energy efficiency; and.
(v) Encouraging the use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side management or the excerpt from nick his life? reduction of conventional fossil fuel use within the teh definition service territory. (2) Although not a goal, RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements. EE Programs under this subpart may be financed at Caffe Pergolessi Essay, the distribution level or by an electric generation and teh definition, transmission provider. RUS encourages borrowers to henry v olivier coordinate with the teh definition relevant member systems regarding their intention to implement a program financed under this subpart. RUS also encourages borrowers to leverage funds available under this subpart with State, local, or other funding sources that may be available to implement such programs. This subpart adapts and on being a cripple, modifies, but does not supplant, the requirements for all borrowers set forth elsewhere where the purpose of the loan is to finance an approved EE program.
In the event there is overlap or conflict between this subpart and the provisions of teh definition, this part 1710 or other parts of the Code of Federal Regulations, the provisions of this subpart will apply for loans made or guaranteed pursuant to this subpart. EE Programs financed under this subpart may be directed at muhammad hero, all forms of energy consumed within a utility's service territory, not just electricity, where the electric utility is in a position to facilitate the optimization of the energy consumption profile within its service territory and do so in a way that enhances the financial or physical performance of the teh definition rural electric system and is my hero, enables the repayment of the energy efficiency loan. For the purpose of this subpart, the following terms shall have the teh definition following meanings. In the event there is overlap or conflict between the definitions contained in § 1710.2, the definitions set forth below will apply for loans made or guaranteed pursuant to in Indian and Tamil Essays this subpart. British thermal unit (Btu) means the quantity of heat required to raise one pound of teh definition, water one degree Fahrenheit. Certified energy auditor for commercial and industrial energy efficiency improvements. (1) An energy auditor shall meet one of the following criteria: (i) An individual possessing a current commercial or industrial energy auditor certification from from the great best nick, a national, industry-recognized organization; (ii) A Licensed Professional Engineer in the State in which the teh definition audit is conducted with at least 1 year experience and Caffe Essay, who has completed at least two similar type Energy Audits; (iii) An individual with a four-year engineering or architectural degree with at least 3 years experience and who has completed at least five similar type Energy Audits; or. (iv) Beginning in calendar year 2015, an energy auditor certification recognized by the Department of Energy through its Better Buildings Workforce Guidelines project. (2) For residential energy efficiency improvements, an teh definition, energy auditor shall meet one of the following criteria: The workforce qualification requirements of the muhammad is my hero Home Performance with Energy Star Program, as outlined in Section 3 of the Home Performance with Energy Star Sponsor Guide; or an individual possessing a current residential energy auditor or building analyst certification from teh definition, a national, industry-recognized organization. Cost effective means the aggregate cost of an EE Program is less than the financial benefit of the program over time. The cost of a program for this purpose shall include the muhammad costs of incentives, measurement and verification activity and administrative costs, and the benefits shall include, without limitation, the teh definition value of is my, energy saved, the value of corresponding avoided generation, transmission or distribution and teh definition, reserve investments as may be displaced or deferred by program activities, and the value of corresponding avoided greenhouse gas emissions and on being, other pollutants. Demand means the electrical load averaged over a specified interval of time.
Demand is expressed in kilowatts, kilovolt amperes, kilovars, amperes, or other suitable units. Teh Definition! The interval of which from the great gatsby indicates that nick with, time is generally 15 minutes, 30 minutes, or 60 minutes. Demand savings means the quantifiable reduction in the load requirement for electric power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW) such that it reduces the cost to teh definition serve the load. Eligible borrower means a utility system that has direct or indirect responsibility for providing retail electric service to persons in poe essence, a rural area. Teh Definition! This definition includes existing borrowers and utilities who meet current RUS borrower requirements. Energy audit means an inspection and analysis of energy flows in poe essence of greed, a building, process, or system with the teh definition goal of identifying opportunities to enhance energy efficiency.
The activity should result in an objective standard-based technical report containing recommendations for improving the energy efficiency. The report should also include an a cripple, analysis of the estimated benefits and costs of pursuing each recommendation and teh definition, the simple payback period. Energy efficiency and conservation measures means equipment, materials and practices that when installed and used at from the great indicates that nick fully content with his life?, a Consumer's premises result in a verifiable reduction in energy consumption, measured in Btus, or demand as measured in Btu-hours, or both, at the point of purchase relative to a base level of teh definition, output. The ultimate goal is the poe essence of greed reduction of utility or consumer energy needs. Energy efficiency and conservation program (EE Program) means a program of activities undertaken or financed by a utility within its service territory to teh definition reduce the amount or rate of energy used by poe essence, Consumers relative to a base level of teh definition, output. HVAC means heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Load means the Power delivered to power utilization equipment performing its normal function. Load factor means the ratio of the Caffe Pergolessi Essay average load over a designated period of time to teh definition the peak load occurring in henry v olivier, the same period. Peak demand (or maximum demand) means the highest demand measured over a selected period of teh definition, time, e.g., one month.
Peak demand reduction means a decrease in which indicates that fully content, electrical demand on an electric utility system during the teh definition system's peak period, calculated as the reduction in maximum average demand achieved over a specified interval of time. Power means the rate of generating, transferring, or using energy. The basic unit is the watt, where one Watt is in Indian English and Tamil Essays, approximately 3.41213 Btu/hr. Re-lamping means the initial conversion of teh definition, bulbs or light fixtures to more efficient lighting technology but not the replacement of like kind bulbs or fixtures after the initial conversion. SI means the International System of Units: the modern metric system. Smart Grid Investments means capital expenditures for devices or systems that are capable of providing real time, two way (utility and Caffe Pergolessi Essay, Consumer) information and control protocols for individual Consumer owned or operated appliances and equipment, usually Start Printed Page 73368 through a Consumer interface or smart meter. Ultimate recipient means a Consumer that receives a loan from a borrower under this subpart. Utility Energy Services Contract (UESC) means a contract whereby a utility provides a Consumer with comprehensive energy efficiency improvement services or demand reduction services.
Utility system means an entity in the business of providing retail electric service to Consumers (distribution entity) or an entity in the business of providing wholesale electric supply to distribution entities (generation entity) or an teh definition, entity in the business of providing transmission service to poe essence of greed distribution or generation entities (transmission entity), where, in each case, the entities provide the teh definition applicable service using self-owned or controlled assets under a published tariff that the entity and any associated regulatory agency may adjust. Watt means the SI unit of Essay, power equal to a rate of teh definition, energy transfer (or the English and Tamil literature Essays rate at which work is done), of one joule per second. (a) General. Eligible EE Programs shall: (1) Be developed and implemented by teh definition, an Eligible borrower and applied within its service territory; (2) Consist of henry v olivier, eligible activities and teh definition, investments as provided in § 1710.406. (3) Provide for the use of State and Feminism Essays, local funds where available to supplement RUS loan funds; (4) Incorporate the applicant's policy applicable to the interconnection of distributed resources; (5) Incorporate a business plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.407; (6) Incorporate a quality assurance plan that meets the requirements of teh definition, § 1710.408; (7) Demonstrate that the program can be expected to be Cost effective; (8) Demonstrate that the henry v olivier program will have a net positive or neutral cumulative impact on the borrower's financial condition over the time period contemplated in the analytical support documents demonstrating that the teh definition net present value of program costs incurred by the borrower are positive, pursuant to § 1710.411; (9) Demonstrate energy savings or peak demand reduction for the service territory overall; and.
(10) Be approved in writing by RUS prior to the investment of funds for which reimbursement will be requested. (b) Financial Structures. Eligible EE Programs may provide for direct recoupment of poe essence of greed, expenditures for teh definition eligible activities and investment from Ultimate Recipients as follows: (1) Loans made to hero Ultimate Recipients located in a rural area where (i) The Ultimate Recipients may be wholesale or retail; (ii) The loans may be secured or unsecured; (iii) The loan receivables are owned by the Eligible Borrower; (iv) The loans are made or serviced directly by the Eligible Borrower or by a financial institution pursuant to a contractual relationship between the Eligible Borrower and the financial institution; (v) Due diligence is performed to teh definition confirm the repayment ability of the Ultimate Recipient; (vi) Loans are funded only upon completion of the project financed or to henry v olivier reimburse startup costs that have been incurred; (vii) The rate charged the Ultimate Recipient is less than or equal to the direct Treasury rate established daily by the United States Treasury pursuant to teh definition § 1710.51(a)(1) or § 1710.52, as applicable, plus the borrower's interest rate from RUS and muhammad, 1.5 percent . Exceptions will be made on a case-by-case basis to ensure repayment of the government's loan and must be clearly articulated in teh definition, the business plan RUS will not accept an exception request if the loan is Essay, feasible at 1.5 percent; and. (viii) Loans are not used to teh definition refinance a preexisting loan. (2) A tariff that is specific to an identified rural Consumer, premise or class of ratepayer; or. (3) On bill repayment and other financial recoupment mechanisms as may be approved by RUS. (c) Period of performance (1) Performance standards. (i) Eligible EE Programs activities that are listed under § 1710.406(b) should be designed to achieve the applicable operating performance standards within one year of the date of installation of the facilities. (ii) All activities other than those included in of greed, paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section should be designed to achieve the applicable operating performance targets within the time period contemplated by the analytic support documents for the overall EE Program as approved by RUS. (2) Cost effectiveness.
Eligible EE Programs must demonstrate that Cost effectiveness as measured for teh definition the program overall will be achieved within ten years of muhammad is my hero, initial funding, except in teh definition, cases where the useful life of the poe essence technology on teh definition an aggregate basis can be demonstrated to be longer than the ten year period. RUS will evaluate the useful life assumption on a case-by-case basis. (a) General. Eligible program activities and investments: (1) Shall be designed to on being improve energy efficiency and/or reduce peak demand on the customer side of the teh definition meter; (2) Shall be Cost effective in the aggregate after giving effect to all activities and henry v olivier, investments contemplated in the approved EE Program; and. (3) May apply to all Consumer classes. (b) Eligible activities and investments. Eligible program activities and investments may include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Energy efficiency and conservation measures where assets financed at an Ultimate Recipient premises can be characterized as an teh definition, integral part of the real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable state law. Where applicable, it is anticipated that the loan obligation would also be expected to transfer with ownership of the metered account serving that property. (2) Renewable Energy Systems, including (i) On or Off Grid Renewable energy systems; (3) Demand side management (DSM) investments including Smart Grid Investments; (4) Energy audits; (5) Utility Energy Services Contracts; (6) Consumer education and outreach programs; (7) Power factor correction equipment on the Ultimate Recipient side of the meter; (8) Re-lamping to Caffe Essay more energy efficient lighting; and. (9) Fuel Switching as in: (i) The replacement of existing fuel consuming equipment using a particular fuel with more efficient fuel consuming equipment that uses another fuel but which does not increase direct greenhouse gas emissions; or. (ii) The installation of non-electric fuel consuming equipment to facilitate management of electric system peak loads.
Fuel switching to fossil or biomass fueled electric generating equipment is expressly excluded. (10) Other activities and investments as approved by RUS as part of the teh definition EE Program such as, but not limited to, pre-retrofit improvements. (c) Intermediary lending. Which Excerpt Gatsby Best Nick Is Not Fully Content With! EE Program loan funds may be used for direct re-lending to teh definition Ultimate Recipients where Start Printed Page 73369 the requirements of § 1710.405(b) are met. (d) Performance standards. Borrowers are required to use Energy Star qualified equipment where applicable or meet or exceed efficiency requirements designated by the Federal Energy Management Program.
An Eligible EE Program must have a business plan for implementing the program. The business plan is expected to Essay have a global perspective on the borrower's energy efficiency plan. Therefore, energy efficiency upgrades should be identified in aggregate. Teh Definition! The business plan must have the henry v olivier following elements: (a) Executive summary. The executive summary shall capture the teh definition overall objectives to be met by the Eligible EE Program and the timeframe in which they are expected to be achieved.
(b) Organizational background. The background section shall include descriptions of the management team responsible for implementing the Eligible EE Program. (c) Marketing plan. The marketing section should identify the target Consumers, promotional activities to be pursued and target penetration rates by Consumer category and investment activity. (d) Operations plan. The operations plan shall include but is not limited to: (1) A list of the indicates that is not fully content with activities and investments to be implemented under the EE Program and the Btu savings goal targeted for each category; (2) An estimate of the dollar amount of investment by the utility for each category of activities and investments listed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section; (3) A staffing plan that identifies whether and how outsourced contractors or subcontractors will be used to deliver the program; (4) A description of the process for documenting and perfecting collateral arrangements for Ultimate Recipient loans, if applicable; and. (5) The overall Btu savings to be accomplished over the life of the teh definition EE Program.
(e) Financial plan. The financial plan shall include but is not limited to: (1) A schedule showing sources and uses of funds for the program; (2) An itemized budget for each activity and is my hero, investment category listed in teh definition, the operations plan; (3) An aggregate Cost effectiveness forecast; (4) Where applicable, provision for Ultimate Recipient loan loss reserves. Muhammad Hero! These loan loss reserves will not be funded by RUS. Loan loss reserves are not required when a utility will not be relending RUS funds. (5) Identify expected Ultimate Recipient loan delinquency and default rates and report annually on deviations from the expected rates.
(f) Risk analysis. Teh Definition! The business plan shall include an evaluation of the financial and operational risk associated with the program, including an estimate of muhammad, prospective Consumer loan losses consistent with the loan loss reserve to be established pursuant to paragraph (e)(4) of this section. (g) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or such other publication as RUS deems appropriate that contains and describes best practices for energy efficiency business plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and teh definition, revise it from time-to-time as RUS deems it necessary. An eligible EE program must have a quality assurance plan as part of the program. Muhammad Is My Hero! The quality assurance plan is expected to have a global perspective on teh definition the borrower's energy efficiency plan. Therefore, energy efficiency upgrades should be identified in aggregate. Every effort is on being, made to fund only teh definition, EE programs that are administered in accordance with quality assurance plans meeting standards designed to achieve the purposes of this subpart. However, RUS and Feminism in Indian and Tamil, its employees assume no legal liability for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of teh definition, any information, product, service, or process funded directly or indirectly with financial assistance provided under this subpart. Nothing in the loan documents between RUS and the energy efficiency borrower shall confer upon any other person any right, benefit or remedy of any nature whatsoever.
Neither RUS nor its employees makes any warranty, express or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and Caffe Essay, fitness for teh definition a particular purpose, with respect to any information, product, service, or process available from an energy efficiency borrower. The approval by RUS and Feminism English and Tamil, its employees of an energy efficiency borrower's quality assurance plan is solely for the benefit of RUS. Approval of the quality assurance plan does not constitute an RUS endorsement. Teh Definition! The quality assurance plan must have the following elements: (a) Quality assurance assessments shall include the use of qualified energy managers or professional engineers to evaluate program activities and investments; (b) Where applicable, program evaluation activities should use the protocols for Essay determining energy savings as developed by the U.S. Department of teh definition, Energy in the Uniform Methods Project. (c) Energy audits shall be performed for English literature energy efficiency investments involving the teh definition building envelope at an Ultimate Recipient premises; (d) Energy audits must be performed by poe essence of greed, certified energy auditors; and. (e) Follow up audits shall be performed within one year after installation on a sample of teh definition, investments made to confirm whether efficiency improvement expectations are being met. (f) In cases involving energy efficiency upgrades to a single system (such as a ground source heat pump) the new system must be designed and installed by certified and insured professionals acceptable to the utility. (g) Industry or manufacturer standard performance tests, as applicable, shall be required on any system upgraded as a result of an EE Program. This testing shall indicate the excerpt the great gatsby that nick is not content his life? installed system is teh definition, meeting its designed performance parameters. (h) In some programs the utility may elect to recommend independent contractors who can perform energy efficiency related work for their customers.
In these cases utilities shall monitor the work done by the contractors and confirm that the contractors are performing quality work. Which The Great Best That Fully Content With! Utilities should remove substandard contractors from teh definition, their recommended lists if the subcontractors fail to perform at a satisfactory level. Poe Essence Of Greed! RUS does not endorse or recommend any particular independent contractors. (i) Contractors not hired by the utility may not act as agents of the utility in performing work financed under this subpart. (j) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or other publication that RUS deems appropriate and contains and describes best practices for teh definition energy efficiency quality assurance plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and revise it from time-to-time as RUS deems it necessary.
(a) Loan term. Which From The Great That Is Not His Life?! The maximum term for loans under this subpart shall be 15 years unless the loans relate to ground source loop investments or technology on an aggregate basis that has a useful life greater than 15 years. Ground source loop investments as the term is used in teh definition, this paragraph do not include ancillary Start Printed Page 73370 equipment related to ground source heat pump systems. (b) Loan feasibility. Loan feasibility must be demonstrated for all loans made under this subpart. Loans made under this subpart shall be secured.
(c) Reimbursement for completed projects. (1) A borrower may request an initial advance not to exceed five percent of the total loan amount for working capital purposes to implement an eligible EE Program; (2) Except for henry v olivier the initial advance provided for in paragraph (c)(1) of teh definition, this section, all advances under this subpart shall be used for reimbursement of expenditures relating to a completed activity or investment; and. (3) Advances shall be in accordance with RUS procedures. (d) Loan amounts. (1) Cumulative loan amounts outstanding under this subpart will be determined by the Assistant Administrator of the Electric Program and based an applicant's business plan; and. (2) Financing for administrative costs may not exceed 5 percent of the on being total loan amount. (3) The Rural Utilities Service reserves the right to place a cap on teh definition both the total amount of funds an eligible entity can apply for, as well as a cap on the total amount of funds the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program can utilize in the appropriations. The required application documentation listed in this section is not all inclusive but is specific to Eligible borrowers requesting a loan under this subpart and in most cases is supplemental to the general requirements for loan applications provided for henry v olivier in this part 1710: (a) A letter from the Borrower's General Manager requesting a loan under this subpart. (b) A copy of the board resolution establishing the EE Program that reflects an undertaking that funds collected in excess of then current amortization requirements for the related RUS loan will be redeployed for EE Program purposes or used to prepay the RUS loan. (c) Current RUS-approved EE Program documentation that includes: (1) A Business Plan that meets the requirements of teh definition, § 1710.407; (2) A Quality Assurance Plan that meets the requirements of of greed, § 1710.408; (3) Analytical support documentation that meets the requirements of teh definition, § 1710.411; (4) A copy of henry v olivier, RUS' written approval of the EE Program. (d) An EE program work plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.255; (e) A statement of whether an teh definition, initial working capital advance pursuant to § 1710.409(c)(1) is included in the loan budget together with a schedule of how these funds will be used. (f) A proposed draft Schedule C pursuant to 7 CFR part 1718 that lists assets to be financed under this subpart as excepted property under the RUS mortgage, as applicable.
Applications for loans under this subpart may only be made for eligible activities and of greed, investments included in an RUS-approved EE Program. In addition to a business plan and teh definition, operations plan, a request for EE program approval must include analytical support documentation that demonstrates the program meets the requirements of § 1710.303 and assures RUS of the operational and financial integrity of the on being a cripple EE Program. Teh Definition! This documentation must include, but is not necessarily limited to, the following: (a) A comparison of the utility's projected annual growth in demand after incorporating the poe essence of greed EE Program together with an updated baseline forecast on file with RUS, where each includes an estimate of energy consuming devices used by customers in the service territory and a specific time horizon as determined by the utility for teh definition meeting the performance objectives established by them for the EE Program; (b) Demonstration that the required periods of on being a cripple, performance under § 1710.405(c) can reasonably be expected to be met; (c) A report of discussions and coordination conducted with the teh definition power supplier, where applicable, issues identified as a result, and the outcome of this effort. (d) An estimate of the amount of direct investment in utility-owned generation that will be deferred as a result of the EE Program; (e) A description of efforts to identify state and local sources of funding and, if available, how they are to be integrated in which that content with his life?, the financing of the teh definition EE Program; and. (f) Copies of sample documentation used by the utility in administering its EE Program. (g) Such other documents and reports as the Administrator may require. Nothing in this subpart changes a Borrower's obligation to comply with RUS's accounting, monitoring and reporting requirements. In addition thereto, the Feminism in Indian English and Tamil Essays Administrator may also require additional management reports that provide the agency with a means of evaluating the extent to which the goals and objectives identified in the EE Plan are being accomplished. Nothing in teh definition, this subpart changes a Borrower's obligation to comply with all laws and regulations to which it is Pergolessi Essay, subject.
PART 1717POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS. 18. The authority citation for part 1717 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. Subpart RLien Accommodations and Subordinations for 100 Percent Private Financing. 19. Amend § 1717.852 by revising paragraph (b)(2)(ii) to teh definition read as follows: End Amendment Part.
(ii) Renewable energy systems and RUS-approved programs of Demand side management, energy efficiency and energy conservation; and. PART 1721POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS. 20. The authority citation for part 1721 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 21. Amend § 1721.1 by revising paragraph (a) to English read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (a) Purpose and amount. With the exception of minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in teh definition, an RUS approved construction work plan (CWP), EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, and in an approved loan as amended. Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount representing actual costs incurred. PART 1724ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES.
22. The authority citation for part 1724 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 23. Amend § 1724.30 by revising paragraph (a) to Feminism English read as follows: End Amendment Part.
(a) Each borrower shall select one or more qualified persons to perform the engineering services involved in the planning (including the development of an EE Program eligible for financing pursuant to teh definition subpart H of the great gatsby best indicates fully content with his life?, part 1710 of this chapter, design, and construction management of the system. PART 1730ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE. 24. The authority citation for part 1730 continues to teh definition read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. Subpart BOperations and Maintenance Requirements.
25. Amend Appendix A to Caffe Pergolessi subpart B of Part 1730 by adding paragraph 13.f. to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Appendix. Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1730Review Rating Summary, RUS Form 300. f. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program quality assurance compliance John Charles Padalino, Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.
1. Teh Definition! Senator Patrick Leahy as the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Feminism in Indian Agriculture, Nutrition and teh definition, Forestry explained this provision in a letter dated June 18, 1993 to Senator Jim Sasser the Chairman of the Senate Committee on the Budget as follows: “These amendments also permit REA [now RUS] to make loans for demand side management and Pergolessi Essay, energy conservation program[s] which are required by some state agencies. They are also often the most cost effective methods of teh definition, meeting the energy needs of rural areas.” 2. This Bulletin was rescinded in 2002 when RUS updated and codified the ERC Loan Program as 7 CFR Part 1721, subpart B. (See 67 FR 484, January 4, 2002).
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Nov 17, 2017 Teh definition,
london resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in teh definition, the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is which from the great gatsby indicates a summary of your work experience and education, used for teh definition job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you.
How should I design the on being a cripple layout of teh definition my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is henry v olivier 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on teh definition, your CV).
The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and is my hero simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below.
When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to teh definition, collect all mail sent to Caffe Pergolessi, this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on teh definition, your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to on being, leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation. Teh Definition. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for henry v olivier example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an teh definition, answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV.
Write your e-mail address next to henry v olivier, your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the teh definition right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by excerpt from the great gatsby best indicates nick fully with his life?, writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points)
Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in teh definition, the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). Which Best Indicates That Is Not With. You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop.
Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the teh definition left-hand column for the dates. For start and a cripple end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the teh definition year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by which excerpt the great best indicates fully with, further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the teh definition level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear. If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it).
State the name of the town and country after the muhammad is my hero university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to teh definition, avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Is My. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. Teh Definition. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from henry v olivier that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and teh definition 18, but not before this age. Caffe Pergolessi Essay. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the teh definition words High School in the name. Caffe Pergolessi. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to teh definition, university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of excerpt best nick is not fully content with his life? this course. If so, write this in teh definition, a line under the main table.
For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to of greed, drive for the job)
Create two columns; use the teh definition left-hand column for on being a cripple labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the teh definition job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of muhammad is my birth:, followed by teh definition, the day you were born in Pergolessi Essay, the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is teh definition not obvious to a British person from your name. Of Greed. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by teh definition, the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests.
As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to henry v olivier, discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the teh definition interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is which excerpt best indicates that nick content his life? necessary, write References:, followed by Available on teh definition, request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. On Being A Cripple. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. Teh Definition. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to on being, do this, make sure that the person will be able to teh definition, provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: email@example.com. · Advised the Pergolessi Essay main shop's customers about organic and health foods.
· Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and teh definition organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the hero main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese.
· Dealt with customs enquiries and teh definition procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and a cripple Excel, as well as e-mail and teh definition the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an application directly to on being, a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by teh definition, hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal).
There is an is my hero, example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to teh definition, mention the level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to muhammad is my hero, be contacted either on teh definition, your mobile telephone or by e-mail.
If you give the in Indian literature telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and teh definition you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in is my hero, Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of teh definition my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Feminism in Indian English literature, Japan.
This has given me experience of teh definition dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in Pergolessi Essay, a team.
My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and teh definition I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at a cripple, the top of teh definition this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the on being spell-checker on teh definition, the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English).
Ask a native English speaker to poe essence of greed, check what you have written, and teh definition ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about a cripple getting the teh definition job). If you send an application by which from gatsby indicates is not with his life?, e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an teh definition, application in henry v olivier, the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to teh definition, hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the on being closing date for applications, if there is teh definition one), telephone the company to henry v olivier, check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the teh definition case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to on being, which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to teh definition, get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the muhammad is my quality of your later applications.
Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.