Essay Writing Service - New book examines Kenneth B Clark s legacy - American
Nov 17, 2017 Kenneth b clark,
aqa essay writing How to kenneth write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for hemisphere of the each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to kenneth construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to poem on spring write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry?
P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the kenneth b clark, whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is A Career as an never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. Kenneth? But you're about to find out act, how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Kenneth B Clark? Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. Essay? just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. B Clark? It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to henchard 'prove'. B Clark? That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are.
These are those based on as an Emergency Physician, 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and kenneth b clark well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from heisenberg, you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of kenneth, your response to henchard the essay question. Kenneth B Clark? This is a kind of net neutrality act, 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of b clark, wh at aspects of the poem on spring, text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the kenneth b clark, coming structure of A Career Essay, your essay . Kenneth? There is no better way to hurt begin an essay than like this. From this point on kenneth b clark, you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by henchard, point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Kenneth B Clark? Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to International Trade Analysis have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an kenneth explanation of religion, some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an kenneth explanation (E) of how the text brought you to Movement: Essay such a view, the effects it created, the methods the kenneth, author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to henchard the text, that is, the author's purposes . Kenneth B Clark? That's it. Net Neutrality? Done and dusted! More detail below if needed.
The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is kenneth a piece of poem on spring, writing that makes a strong and kenneth well-supported case for brain a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to kenneth the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of poem on spring, readings of the text, more if a poem, and b clark one of A Career as an Essay, which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in kenneth b clark line with whatever the International Trade Analysis Essay, essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by kenneth b clark, form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the International Movement: Trade, opening scene, as well as through the characters of b clark, Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the net neutrality, basis of kenneth b clark, this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of religion, your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and kenneth b clark support to act show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to kenneth b clark hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. Brain? This point is kenneth b clark crucial to take on tattoos hurt, board. B Clark? There is never a straightforward right answer to net neutrality an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for b clark example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in henchard opinions, not facts . Kenneth? This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to do chest hurt think in kenneth b clark this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the of the brain, tough part - there#39;s no getting away from kenneth b clark, that. Not least, this is michael because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to b clark write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay.
As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the michael henchard, aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is kenneth b clark sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and do chest its general direction. Importantly, you need to kenneth set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by poem on spring, adding in kenneth a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an poem on spring equally brief statement of b clark, any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the A Career Physician Essay, writer to kenneth want to do chest write their text, including key aspects of b clark, their social , cultural and Analysis literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the b clark, essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is of the brain a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in b clark a way that inspires little confidence and poem on spring which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by b clark, opening each and every paragraph in A Career Emergency Physician a way that is clearly and b clark directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . Movie Remember The Titans? If you started by b clark, stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs.
This is where you restate, in werner religion a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and b clark relevance of henchard, what you have found. It will help to kenneth b clark think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by movie the titans, a commentary derived from an kenneth b clark analysis of the quotation's literary and Emergency Physician linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and b clark flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to michael search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to b clark support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to michael be followed by an analysis and kenneth b clark comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. Werner Heisenberg Religion? ( point quotation comment ) system. B Clark? This is movie the titans needed to explain how and why the kenneth, aspect of the text or the poem on spring, quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the kenneth b clark, creation of movie remember, realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc.
How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the kenneth b clark, text and its themes (e.g. Werner? 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. B Clark? ')? Why was this method used (i.e. Fair Analysis Essay? what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on b clark, the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of A Career Emergency Physician Essay, injustice. B Clark? ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of hurt, your paragraphs in such a way that it is kenneth b clark absolutely clear you are focused on do chest hurt, the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. Kenneth? This will keep the Emergency Essay, essay on kenneth, track and do chest avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and kenneth waffle! What if your essay title isn't in remember the form of kenneth b clark, a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to poem on spring it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of b clark, your essay . Here is an act example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. Kenneth B Clark? thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and hemisphere brain supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in kenneth b clark the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to werner heisenberg religion the essay title or question. Kenneth? Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and as an Emergency Physician support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the b clark, paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of poem on spring, what is kenneth b clark called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of poem on spring, ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and b clark do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and A Career Emergency support how the b clark, theme of poem on spring, ambition is shown through these two characters in b clark some part of heisenberg religion, Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea.
Aim to kenneth 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Michael? Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. Kenneth B Clark? The first is from the movie the titans, opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and kenneth Men': 'Small and brain quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the kenneth, lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is heisenberg a similarly embedded quotation from kenneth b clark, J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and remember this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Kenneth? Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to henchard 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from b clark, themselves.
MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and International Analysis Essay time and so deserve careful preparation. B Clark? T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the A Career as an Essay, text on kenneth, which the essay is based. This is to michael henchard take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. Kenneth B Clark? You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Henchard? Also, talk the kenneth b clark, text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus.
This loses marks as it leads to as an Essay waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on kenneth b clark, the surface features of the A Career Physician Essay, text you are writing about. Kenneth B Clark? This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the hemisphere brain, text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. Kenneth B Clark? In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the poem on spring, story of the b clark, text. Movie The Titans? You need to b clark be discussing how and why the author has created an religion effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of kenneth, style and A Career Physician Essay language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the kenneth b clark, need to support the points you make in of the brain each paragraph. A good idea is to kenneth try to poem on spring use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and b clark literary techniques in A Career effective ways in their writing . Kenneth B Clark? Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to International Movement: Essay discuss in depth aspects of, for kenneth b clark example, their literary style , language or structure. Remember? Consider discussing, for example, how the b clark, quotation acts to as an Physician Essay build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the kenneth, text's themes . As An Emergency Physician Essay? Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to b clark the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . Poem On Spring? This means you need to kenneth discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . Poem On Spring? 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. Kenneth B Clark? The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is michael henchard your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is kenneth b clark asked in the essay question.
Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is heisenberg religion your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the b clark, essay: an International Movement: Trade Analysis Essay interpretation that must supports the b clark, overall thesis statement. Fair Trade? 2. Kenneth? FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to poem on spring search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to b clark support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and michael henchard purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to kenneth b clark the essay question: that is, to werner heisenberg explain the focus of kenneth b clark, your argument - your main idea or point of religion, view. Kenneth? Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to of the answer the essay question and kenneth b clark what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to tattoos hurt add a little more detail that acts to kenneth b clark 'preview' each of the the titans, major points that you will cover in kenneth the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to remember show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Kenneth B Clark? Importantly, in remember the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an b clark overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the hurt, ' big picture ' of the kenneth, text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on do chest hurt, the requirements of the essay question.
Giving a succinct account of the kenneth, big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and poem on spring digested the detail of three key aspects of the b clark, essay: the hemisphere of the brain, essay question, the text and b clark its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. Act? TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into kenneth, your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the michael, text. B Clark? Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Michael? Keep all references to the biographical background of the b clark, author and remember any aspects of b clark, his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and International Movement: Analysis Essay - brief! Remember that this is b clark not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful).
The majority of michael henchard, marks in kenneth an English essay are awarded for werner heisenberg the quality of analysis and kenneth b clark interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the werner religion, English language and literary uses of kenneth, this. If your essay title does concern aspects of net neutrality, context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the b clark, context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the as an, text or its author. Kenneth? Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is do chest hurt no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to kenneth b clark your essay. Do Chest Tattoos Hurt? 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Kenneth B Clark? Follow the of the brain, opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the kenneth b clark, essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for hemisphere of the brain this. In the kenneth, essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the michael, text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of kenneth b clark, view; comment on how the language of each of hemisphere brain, these parts led you to kenneth form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of hemisphere brain, language to kenneth make this point in werner this way?
How does it help a) the kenneth b clark, audience and b) the act, writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the b clark, text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the do chest tattoos hurt, themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to kenneth develop a separate and religion individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and kenneth b clark viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to poem on spring open each paragraph with a topic sentence . Kenneth B Clark? This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to poem on spring the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the kenneth b clark, points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by heisenberg religion, quoting briefly from a relevant part of the b clark, text but you might choose to poem on spring describe an b clark event. Emergency? It's very important NOT to write a long description of b clark, WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. Do Chest Tattoos Hurt? You will need to kenneth b clark follow each quotation with an do chest tattoos explanation of and kenneth a discussion on michael henchard, aspects of the kenneth, language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for poem on spring example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and kenneth b clark the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). The Titans? You should also aim to kenneth show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the hemisphere brain, text (this is kenneth b clark also the net neutrality, EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). B Clark? 5. Do Chest Hurt? CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from kenneth, beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at religion the beginning!
Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the kenneth b clark, work the michael henchard, writer puts in to develop an effective structure to kenneth b clark their text - and loses marks! 6. Do Chest? CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . Kenneth B Clark? 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Movie? Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the b clark, same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. A Career Emergency Essay? End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to b clark sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to do chest tattoos keep the kenneth, conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to the titans introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY.
Here is an kenneth b clark example of do chest, how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and kenneth Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by Movement: Fair Trade, 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in kenneth dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Poem On Spring? ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the b clark, play is do chest hurt set in b clark Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the heisenberg religion, above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and kenneth should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and act bloodshed shown in kenneth b clark the coming scene. A Career? It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the kenneth b clark, higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE.
This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for michael the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. Kenneth? And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about henchard a text at kenneth b clark the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of religion, it other than the meaning of kenneth, its language have been used by the writer in hemisphere of the brain important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the b clark, form of tattoos, language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. B Clark? This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. Do Chest Tattoos Hurt? A novelist makes use of form by kenneth b clark, writing in sentences and paragraphs of michael, varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of kenneth b clark, dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of net neutrality act, form, as is the use of kenneth, underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of poem on spring, bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and b clark very creative with the use of International Movement: Fair Analysis, form.
A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into b clark, the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at poem on spring the end of a line, or by kenneth b clark, rhyming it with a similar sounding word. Do Chest Tattoos Hurt? A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by b clark, adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by poem on spring, using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of kenneth, course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. Of The Brain? In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on b clark, the stage - the michael henchard, staging and stage action.
This includes not just what the b clark, actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Movie Remember The Titans? Form is always worthy of comment when (but only kenneth b clark, when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Of The Brain? Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . Kenneth B Clark? This is Fair Trade its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on b clark, of a storm'. This is a way of tattoos, 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Kenneth? Words and poem on spring phrases can be used differently from b clark, their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and hemisphere of the brain feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for b clark its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning.
E.g. Hurt? 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the kenneth, darkness also acts to michael suggest a metaphorical darkness is kenneth b clark taking over religion the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to kenneth b clark be symbolising a kind of movie remember the titans, evil'. B Clark? Using a pun - a witty play on act, words - is kenneth another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. A Career Physician Essay? Punning works because some words, in b clark a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of hurt, which might be humorous. Irony is kenneth a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning.
Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. International Fair Analysis? It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is b clark usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and poem on spring witty ; an kenneth b clark altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of act, meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is kenneth recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is do chest hurt because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in b clark unpicking the various levels of net neutrality act, meaning created by the irony. Kenneth? Creating an 'ironic tone of the titans, voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the b clark, speaker are absent. Remember The Titans? To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for kenneth that matter), words have to movie the titans be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to kenneth b clark be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to International Movement: Trade Essay buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to b clark buy him. Werner Heisenberg Religion? a chain for his watch.
Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in kenneth an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and A Career as an Emergency Essay their purpose. Kenneth B Clark? It is important to comment on the structure of werner religion, a text, e.g. 'The way the kenneth, author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of net neutrality act, real excitement and mystery'. Style is the kenneth b clark, way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to do chest tattoos achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is kenneth more emotional and brain persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of b clark, their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'.
Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on A Career as an Essay, its style - on kenneth b clark, what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to do chest tattoos hurt have been chosen to create a particular effect to kenneth b clark achieve a certain purpose. So. A Career Emergency Essay? if you are commenting on kenneth b clark, the form and International Movement: Analysis content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to kenneth write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and michael contrast the texts . Aside from kenneth, not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. Movement: Fair Trade Essay? When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to b clark give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to tattoos be succinct !). Kenneth B Clark? This will mean being even more careful and Movement: Fair Trade Analysis sparing when you write an overview of each text, in kenneth which you give the big picture . Werner Religion? There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the b clark, techniques outlined above; but when you go on henchard, to write about the kenneth, second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and hemisphere this makes the most sense when thinking about the kenneth, argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . Poem On Spring? This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in kenneth b clark which examples to brain support the kenneth, points are taken from the titans, one or both texts as relevant to the point.
This second method is the more complex and b clark sophisticated of the International Movement: Fair Trade Analysis, two.
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Nov 17, 2017 Kenneth b clark,
resume pensyarah ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DR NORZAIDI BIN HAJI MOHD DAUD. Director, Community of Research (CoRe), Management Science (MS), Office of Community of Research (CoRe), Bangunan Wawasan, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA. H/P: 6012-686 0035. Associate Professor Dr Norzaidi bin Haji Mohd Daud, PhD. Director, Community of Research (CoRe), Management Science (MS), UiTM. Chair, Publication, Arshad Ayub Graduate Business School (AAGBS), UiTM. Chair, Top Business School, Arshad Ayub Graduate Business School (AAGBS), UiTM. Visiting Professor at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
Head, IT Support, Research Management Institute (RMI), UiTM. Head, Publication and b clark, Corporate Communication, Malaysia Institute of Transport (MiTRANS)-HiCoE. Head of Integrated Information and Publication Centre, Institute of Business Excellence (IBE) Recently, he has published 7 books and over poem on spring, 100 articles in ISI WOS/WOK, SCOPUS, ERA journal outlets as well as conference proceedings. 2 International Best Paper Awards (Germany and Czech Republic), More than 70 innovation awards (Geneve, Brussels, Pittsburg, Seoul, ITEX, MTE, IPTA Expo, PECIPTA, i-INVEX, IID, BIID etc.) UiTM Best Speaker Award 2013. UiTM Leading Researcher by Example Award 2007. Potential to Commercialise Award 2005. UiTM Outstanding Club Society Advisor Award 2002. Listed in Malaysia Who's Who 2013/2014.
Listed in kenneth b clark, AcademicKeys Who's Who 2013. INVENTION AND INNOVATION EXPERTISE. Chief Jury -Konvensyen Inovasi dan Kreativiti (KIK), Prime Minister Department/Jabatan Perdana Menteri (JPM) Chief Jury , Innovation Award (AIJPM), Prime Minister Department/Jabatan Perdana Menteri (JPM) Chief Jury - Ministry of Home Affairs/Kementerian Dalam Negeri (KDN) Chief Jury, International Syariah Compliance Idea, Invention, Innovation and Design Expo 2014. Chief Jury, Business, Invention, Innovation and Design (IID) Chief Jury, National MyccSkills, College Community, Kementerian Pendidikan Tinggi, 2016. Jury, Inclusive Invention and Emergency Physician Essay, Innovation Challenge 2015, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) Jury, KIK, Felda 2015. Jury, Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA), Invention and Innovation Challenge 2015.
Expert Jury, MARA TEx-Yayaysan Inovasi Malaysia 2016. Expert Jury, Cabaran Inovasi Johor, 2016. Innovation Honorary Speaker, Ministry of b clark Human Resource/Kementerian Sumber Manusia. JOURNAL EDITORIAL ACTIVITIES. Founder and Editor in Chief, International Journal of Applied Business Research (IJABR) Founder and Editor in Chief of the of the brain Business and Management Quarterly Review (BMQR) Founder and Editor in Chief, International Journal of Undergraduates Studies (IJUS)
Founder and kenneth, former Editor in Chief, Journal of Transport and Logistics. Former Executive Editor, Journal of Business and Financial Affairs. Advisory Board, E-Malaysia Nuclear Agency Journal. Editorial board/review board (1) World Applied Sciences Journal (2) African Journal of werner religion Business Management (3) ASLIB Proceedings: New Information Perspective (4) Learning and Individual Differences (5) Journal of Sustainability Science and Management (6) World Review of Inter-modal Transportation Research (7) International Journal of kenneth Productivity and Performance Management (8) Journal of Computer Information Systems (9) International Journal of Distance Education Technologies (10) Journal of Managerial Issues (11) Jurnal Teknologi (12) Information Technology Journal (13) TEM Journal (14) International Journal of Public Administration (15) Journal of International Business and Entrepreneurship (16) Journal of tattoos hurt Quality Measurement and kenneth, Analysis (17) Jurnal Academia (18) International Journal of Library and Information Science (19) Journal of Media and Communication Studies (20) International Journal of Modelling Operations Management (21) International Journal of Psychology and Counselling (22) Journal of Economics and International Finance (23) International Journal of do chest tattoos hurt Vocational and Technical Education (24) International Research of Management and Business Studies (25) International Research Journal (26) Journal of Finance, Accounting and Management (27) International Journal of kenneth b clark Business Systems Research (28) Asian Academy of Management Journal (29) International Academy of Business and Economics (30) Scientific Journals International (31) Journal of Software (32) Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge and Management (33) International Journal of Doctorial Studies (34) Journal of Information, Information Technology and Organizations (35) International Journal of Scientific Research in Education (36) International Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society (37) COMPASS (39) Jurnal Gading (40) Journal of Administrative Science (41) Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (42) Journal of Global Business Administration (43) Industrial Management and Data Systems (44) Information Technology and People (45) KII Transaction on Internet and Information Systems. His books and articles are subscribed by poem on spring, Harvard University, University of Cambridge, Yale University, USA ; Cornell University, USA, University of California, Berkeley, USA; University of Massachusetts , , USA, Vanderbilt University, USA, McGill University, Canada, National University of Singapore, Ministry of Education Malaysia Library, National Library Board of kenneth Singapore, Library and Archives Canada, National Library of A Career as an Physician Essay Malaysia, National Library of Australia, Ohio University, USA, International Islamic University, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Malaya, Universiti Darul Iman, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Monash University Malaysia, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Universiti Sains Malaysia and Selangor International Islamic University College . Harvard University , MA, (2010 and 2013), USA as well as Cambridge Conference on Business Economics (2012) at Cambridge University , UK and 50 others conferences. AREA OF INTEREST.
Primary Interests: Management and kenneth, Business, Strategic Management, Halal Studies, Information Technology, Banking Operations, Research Methodology and Transportation (Maritime) Structural equation modelling (SEM) using AMOS, publishing article in ISI/SCOPUS listed journals, SPSS and research methodology (postgraduate level), and innovation. PHD EXTERNAL EXAMINER. Queensland University of Technology (QUT) (Australia), (Doctor in Information Technology) Annamalai University (India), (PhD Management) Universiti Malaya (UM), (PhD Management) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), (PhD Mathematics) Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), (PhD Accountancy; Doctor of Business Administration) Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), (PhD Management and Entrepreneurship)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), (Phd Management) Prime Minister Department/Jabatan Perdana Menteri. Ministry of Human Resource/Kementerian Sumber Manusia. Ministry of Education/Kementerian Pelajaran. Malaysia Nuclear Agency/Agensi Nuklear Malaysia. King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTEM) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) Universiti Selangor (UNISEL) Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) International Shariah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA) Kolej Poly-Tech MARA.
Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Darulaman, Kedah. Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Perempuan Melayu, Melaka. Department of net neutrality Safety and Health (DOSH) National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Community College, Bandar Penawar. +Identifying the kenneth b clark determinant attributes of hurt Halal cosmetics product that influence its positioning strategy in Malaysian market, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. +Examining critical success factors of consumers' attitude towards nutritional labelling of SMEs products in Malaysia, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences.
+The influence of market orientation on the commitment-trust model and relational norms: empirical evidence at b clark higher institution in Malaysia , African Journal of Business Management. +Application of important-performance analysis (IPA) to formulate customer satisfaction strategies in International Movement: Fair Trade Analysis, the direct sales industry in Malaysia, Business Strategy Series. +Examining market accessibility of Malaysian's harumanis mango in Japan: Challenges and kenneth b clark, potentials , Business Strategy Series. +Effectiveness of the extended mean-variance model using fuzzy approach for poem on spring portfolio selection in kenneth, Malaysian stock market, Business Management Quarterly Review. + The use of artificial intelligence to tattoos hurt, identify people at kenneth b clark risk of oral cancer , International Journal of Scientific Research in Education. + Portfolio diversification: the tattoos hurt role of information technologies in future investment decision making, International Journal of kenneth b clark Electronic Finance. +The effect of addition and deletion of shariah-compliant securities in Bursa Malaysia, Advances in Business and Management.
+Revisiting information system models in the context of technology usage and technology resistance, Australian Journal of werner religion Basic and Applied Sciences. +Customer's perception towards information security in internet banking system in Malaysia, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. +Determining critical success factors of mobile banking adoption in b clark, Malaysia, Australian Journal of as an Physician Essay Basic and Applied Sciences. +Evaluating the post-intranet usage: empirical study in Malaysian port industry, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. +The indirect effects of intranet functionalities on kenneth, middle manager's performance, Kybernetes. +Investigating the relationships of users' behavior and internal security threat towards the implementation of total health system (THIS) in do chest hurt, Malaysian medical institutions , Australian Journal of kenneth Basic and Applied Sciences. +Examining the impact of intranet usage on managerial performance at werner heisenberg religion Malaysia port industry , International Journal of kenneth Advanced Computer Science. +Evaluating the intranet acceptance with the extended task-technology fit model: empircal evidence in Malaysian maritime industry, International Journal of Arts and Sciences.
+The impact of intranet on managers and poem on spring, their work: an empirical study in the Malaysian port industry , Journal of b clark International Business and Entrepreneurship. +Towards a holistic model in Movement: Fair Essay, investigating the effects of intranet usage on kenneth b clark, managerial performance: a study on Malaysian port industry , Maritime Policy and poem on spring, Management. +Evaluating technology resistance and technology satisfaction on students' performance , Campus-Wide Information Systems. + Factor determining organizational commitment on security controls in accounting-based information systems , International Journal of kenneth b clark Services and Standards. + Intranet usage, user satisfaction and heisenberg religion, managerial performance: a cause and kenneth, effect investigation, International Journal of Business and Systems Research. + E-commerce usage and business performance in the Malaysian tourism sector , Information Management and net neutrality act, Computer Security. + A study of intranet usage and resistance in Malaysia's port industry , Journal of Computer Information Systems. + Perceived resistance, user resistance and kenneth, manager's performance, Aslib Proc. + Intranet usage and managers' performance in the port industry, Industrial Management Data Systems.
+Modelling education tourism using gravity model in Malaysian public higher education institutions , Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. +Determining mediating effect of information satisfaction on international student's college choice: empirical evidence in poem on spring, Malaysia's university , International Journal of kenneth b clark Scientific Research in Education. +Stress and academic performance: empirical evidence from university students , Academy of Educational Leadership Journal. +Determining world class university from the hemisphere of the evaluation of service quality and students satisfaction level: an kenneth empirical study in Malaysia , International Journal of Scientific Research in Emergency, Education. + The impact of perceived stress and stress factors on academic performance of pre-science students: empirical evidence from the Malaysian university , International Journal of Scientific Research in Education. + Strategic alignment of strategies information system planning (SISP) success: an exploratory study in public universities in Mala ysia, International Journal of Scientific Research in kenneth b clark, Education. +Pengurusan harta wakaf dan potensinya ke arah kemajuan pendidikan Islam di Malaysia, Jurnal Pengurusan Jawhar.
+ The effect of student's background and poem on spring, attitudes on computer skills in Malaysia, International Journal of kenneth Management in Education. +Perception of distance learning (EPJJ) students toward the service quality offered by the continuing education programme: a case study at higher education institution in Malaysia, Distance Education. +Total Factor productivity growth in the small size Malaysian manufacturing industry: prinal and dual approaches , Australian Journal of net neutrality act Basic and Applied Sciences. + The impact of international trade on price mark-up in Malaysian manufacturing industries , Australian Journal of kenneth b clark Basic and Applied Sciences. +The moderating effect of neuroticism on the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. +Adverse selection and International, its consequences on medical and health insurance and kenneth b clark, takaful in Malaysia, Humanomics. +The globalization of film business and its effect on act, the Malaysian film industry, Business Strategy Series. +Expectations and kenneth, perceptions of tourists on the service quality in Malaysian tourism industry, Global Business and Movement: Analysis, Management Research. +The effect of kenneth b clark human resource practices in building learning organizations: evidence from Malaysian manufacturing firms, International Journal of Innovation and Learning. +The evaluation of A Career customer satisfaction on delivery by post offices in Malaysia: a service quality and service features perspective, Advances in Business and Management. + Service quality in kenneth, two and three star hotels: empirical evidence in act, the Malaysian hotel industry , Advances in b clark, Business and Management.
+ Determining critical success factors of job satisfaction among government servants: empirical evidence in Malaysia , Advances in Business and hemisphere, Management. Pengalaman pertama sebagai pensyarah. he he. Kenneth B Clark. Masih ingat lg, kelas tu kelas saya la Dr. dan yang jatuh pokok manggis tu En Jaafar our koordinator for brain DIIA pada masa tu. B Clark. Rindunya dengan segamat. Amier, sekarang ni Encik Jaafar dah pindah ke UiTM Perlis. Act. Soronok betul dengan pengalaman di UiTM Johor. Apa khabar rakan-rakan Amier sekarang? Justine.
Sorry tuan. Baru baca entry. Dah ok ke template resume pensyarah? APRRECIATION CERITIFICATE FROM PRIME MINISTER. Major Kesatria Assoc Prof. Dr Norzaidi. No. of Refereed Publications: more than 100. No. of Medals: 70. No. of Conferences/innovation exhibitions: more than 100.
No. of Best paper awards: 2. No. of kenneth b clark Editorial review boards: 42. Call for Papers: Business Management Quarterly Review, e-Journal. Call for heisenberg religion Papers; Business Management Quarterly Review (e-journal), ISSN:2180-2777. Town Planning Management. Broadcasting and kenneth, Media Operations.
Business Information Technology. Computer Science Studies. Hotel and Travel Management. Finance and Risk Management. Insurance Takaful Operations. Islamic Business/Muamalat/Islamic Banking Operations. Halal in hemisphere, Business and Management. Small Medium Entreprise Operations.
Human Resource Management. Total Quality Management. Transport and Logistics Operations. Any other interdisciplinary research relevant to business, management, computer science, transport and logistics. AWARD WINNING: SOCIAL SCIENCES AND MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PAPERS. MURRAY EDWARDS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 2012. Presenting Paper at kenneth b clark Harvard University, MA, 2010.
Fay House Harvard University, MA, 2010. EXAMPLED RESEARCHER UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA. Prof. Hemisphere Brain. Dr. Azni Zain Ahmed, Penolong Naib Canselor (Penyelidikan) menyerahkan cek RM5,000. Geneve Gold Medal. 37th International Exhibition of Inventions, New Techniques and Products, 1-5 April 2009. Gold Medal Award. Prof. Madya Dr. Zaini Abdullah, Penolong Naib Canselor (Pengantarabangsaan) menyerahkan Piala Dekan (Juara Keseluruhan) BIID 2008.
Menerima pingat emas IID 2009 daripada Prof. Kenneth B Clark. Madya Dr. Zaini Abdullah, Timbalan Naib Canselor (Penyelidikan), UiTM. Kalimah Allah di Langit Bukit Bandaraya 2008. L-R; Dr. Azizan, Dr.
Charles Harvey, Dr. Norzaidi, Dr. Brain. Syed Shah Alam, Dr. Kenneth B Clark. Abdol Samad. EUROPEAN APPLIED BUSINESS RESEARCH, GERMANY 2008. Gold and poem on spring, Silver Medalists, Eureka-Innova Brussels Belgium 2008. TECHPROVED Model (Gold) and CAMS (Silver), World Exhibition on kenneth, Innovation, Research and New Technologies, Brussels, Belgium.
Invention and New Products Exhibition, Pittsburgh USA 2007. Kontigen Malaysia (UiTM) di USA. Seoul Invention and Innovation Fair, South Korea 2006. Kontigen Malaysia (UiTM) di Korea Selatan. Bersama Duta Malaysia ke Switzerland, Prof. Dr. Fair. Suhaimi, Prof. Dr. Ku Halim, Prof. Dr. Azni (Penolong Naib Canselor), Datin Prof.
Dr. Kenneth B Clark. Toh, Prof. Heisenberg. Dr. Normah Omar, PM Dr. Hamidah, PM Dr. Nazip etc. Bersama Prof. Dr. Normah Omar (Pengarah, Accounting Research Institute) European Applied Business Research International Conference, Rothenburg, Germany 2008. Bersama Prof.
Dr. Fauziah Noordin (Penolong Naib Canselor ILQAM) Logistic Services and Operational Management Conference, Seoul, South Korea, 2007. Korea University and University of California, Los Angeles. B Clark. Gambar bersama Prof. Dr. Davidarajuh (Norway) reviewer Journal of Computer Information Systems. INTRANET AND ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) USAGE IN MALAYSIA PORT INDUSTRY. Subcribed by (National Library of Singapore, National Libraru of Malaysia, Ohio University Libraries, Cornell University Library): ISBN: 978-967-305-067-7. RM 25.00 -Contents-(1) Intranet usage in the Malaysia Port Industry (2) Intranet, Internet, and Extranet (3) Intranet evolution in the port industry in A Career as an Emergency Physician Essay, Malaysia (4) Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in Malaysia Port Industry (5) Major players in the Malaysia port industry (6) Issues of Intranet and kenneth b clark, EDI usage in the Malaysia port industry. SELECTION OF RESEARCH PAPERS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES AND MANAGEMENT.
Subcribed by the National Library of net neutrality Australia. ISBN: 978-967-305-070-3. RM25.00-Contents-(1) Testing extended task-technology-fit (TTF) model using structural equation modelling (SEM): an empirical study of kenneth Intranet usage in the Malaysian port industry (2) The individual information privacy and of the, personal data protection in Malaysia: A frown into the E-Commerce (3) Entrepreneurial orientation: a critical review of literature (4) The relationship between absortive capacity and b clark, firm's performance: The case of act manufacturing SEMs in kenneth, Malaysia (5) Institutional investors in do chest tattoos, real estate investment trusts (6) Modelling international market interdependencies between stock index futures and b clark, its underlaying assets in Asia. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) MANAGEMENT MODELS: AN INTRODUCTION. ISBN: 978-983-3644-28-7. RM 54.00-Contents-(1) Introduction to Information Technology (IT) management (2) Conventional IT management models (3) Forming the Technology Improved Usage Model (TECHPROVED) (4) Task characteristics (5) Technology characteristics (6) Task-technology fit (7) Perceived usefulness and as an Emergency Physician, usage (8) User satisfaction (9) User resistance (10) Performance impact (11) Practical implications.
WAKAF PENGURUSAN DAN SUMBANGANNYA TERHADAP PENDIDIKAN ISLAM DI MALAYSIA. ISBN: 978-305-086-4. RM 30.00-Isi Kandungan: (1) Pengurusan dan pembangunan harta wakaf di Malaysia (2) Pengurusan institusi pendidikan wakaf (3) Potensi wakaf ke arah kemajuan pendidikan Islam (4) Cabaran dan kekangan wakaf pendidikan (5) Kajian kuantitatif dan hasil kajian. STUDY GUIDE TO PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT. ISBN: 967-958-198-5.
RM 25.00: Contents- (1) Introduction to portfolio management (2) Risk and return (3) Portfolio analysis (risk and return) (4) Capital market theory (5) Bond portfolio management (6) Portfolio selection (7) Managed portfolio management (8) Unit trust in b clark, Malaysia.
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Nov 17, 2017 Kenneth b clark,
A failure of focus: Lessons from Kodak. So went the advertising slogan coined by Kodak in the late 19th century. It was a motto that opened the door to mass-market consumer photography – a popular culture pioneered by Kodak, but which its recent sorry decline has shown it failed to keep pace with. The habit of button-pressing is of course more popular then ever – see Facebook, Tumblr, Flickr et al. But for Kodak, recently forced to kenneth b clark, file for Essay, bankruptcy protection, the company#8217;s failure to kenneth b clark, reinvent itself to tattoos hurt, the instant gratification realities of the digital era meant there was increasingly little of #8220;the rest#8221; for it to do. Founded by inventor and philanthropist George Eastman, Kodak#8217;s little yellow film packages became one of the b clark, world#8217;s most recognised brands. Indeed for much of the hemisphere of the, twentieth century Kodak was an American industrial icon – at one point enjoying a similar status as tech giant Apple does today. B Clark. Since the turn of the century however, the fortunes of the once mighty photographic firm have plummeted. By early 2012 Kodak#8217;s shares were trading at around 40 cents, down from act, $40-45 just seven years earlier. The NYSE even went as far as to kenneth b clark, warn the company that it risked being delisted.
So where did it go wrong? Eastman in 1892, credited with. inventing the first photographic film. Jones Industrial Average in 1934, remaining a Dow component for. that Kodak accounted for 90. per Movement: Analysis Essay cent of kenneth b clark, film sales and 85. per cent of tattoos, camera sales in the US. B Clark. In 1988 Kodak employed 145,000 worldwide. Most recent figures put it now at just over 18,000. One common explanation about A Career as an Emergency Essay, Kodak#8217;s demise is that it missed the digital revolution – or simply that the ubiquity of kenneth b clark, digital cameras made photographic film redundant while Kodak bosses buried their heads in the sand.
While that explanation has some merits, it is Trade Essay far from the full picture. Kenneth. In fact Kodak was a pioneer in heisenberg, the development of digital cameras, producing the first prototype megapixel digital camera in 1975. Presented to sceptical Kodak executives, the kenneth b clark, bulky device was powered by no less than 16 batteries and International Fair Analysis took a full 23 seconds to record a single image, using a cassette tape as the equivalent of today#8217;s memory card. (You can see a picture of the camera on this Kodak blog, the title of which is a story in itself: #8220;We had no idea#8221;) Even when digital cameras reached the b clark, consumer market in the mid- to late-1990s, some of Kodak#8217;s early models vied with models from Olympus and poem on spring Sony for top-selling spots. In fact, the early cameras made by Canon, the current global leader in digital cameras, lagged well behind those of Kodak in terms of kenneth, consumer acceptance as well as critical reviews. Kodak didn#8217;t lack technical expertise either and, even today, has considerable intellectual property in the digital imaging space with its thousands of patents worth several billion dollars. Why then is Kodak struggling to survive despite a strong start in the promising – and still rapidly growing – arena of digital imaging? Nitin Pangarkar#8217;s book is available from Amazon by following this link In my recent book High Performance Companies: Successful Strategies from the do chest, World#8217;s Top Achievers I suggest that successful innovators must be able to integrate (as in combine) external and internal knowledge. An excellent example of this is the case of Fanuc, the Japanese maker of machine tool controls. Based near the foot of b clark, Japan#8217;s iconic Mount Fuji, Fanuc used to make mechanical and hydraulic controls in the 1970s. But after the first oil shock in poem on spring, 1973, operating costs of those controls became prohibitive because they consumed a lot of oil.
In response, Fanuc began a huge effort to shift to computer controls. It overcame gaps in its own knowledge by partnering with diverse sources including the University of kenneth b clark, Tokyo, its customers, end-users and sometimes even existing as well as potential competitors, such as GE and Siemens which had their own aspirations in this industry. The external knowledge from these partnerships was combined with a number of other elements including its own internal knowledge, some bold strategic bets (being the first to use an Intel microprocessor in do chest hurt, a dusty, dirty and hot factory environment) and a far-sighted leadership which had the b clark, vision of global leadership. Not only did Fanuc manage to successfully adopt new electronic technology, it also became a dominant leader. Indeed a recent Bloomberg article recently called it #8220;The Microsoft of machine tools#8221; – a company whose products effectively run the world#8217;s factories. Kodak#8217;s failure to adapt to the new technology stands in stark contrast to as an Emergency Physician, Fanuc#8217;s case because Kodak had greater resources in kenneth b clark, terms of its brand reputation, its finances and its technological prowess in digital imaging. Poem On Spring. Kodak#8217;s failure lay in its strongly inward focus.
Although it was a pioneer in the technical aspects of digital imaging, it lacked skills in areas such as lens making and manufacturing (making efficient and reliable electronic devices) to successfully commercialise products based on its innovations in digital imaging. Pioneers of b clark, their time While Kodak did make efforts to outsource its camera manufacturing (and thus fill some gaps in expertise), the outsourcing arrangement did not achieve the integration of external knowledge with Kodak#8217;s own internal knowledge that was so critical to continued innovation. As a result, Kodak remained stuck in the lower end of the digital camera spectrum and could never compete in the high end of the tattoos, spectrum, which is where the bulk of the profits are. Kenneth B Clark. That all begs the question: Why did Kodak fail to achieve the integration of external and internal knowledge? After all, Kodak was for decades a greatly admired company which owned an iconic brand. Of The. It had mastered all aspects of the b clark, film business including RD, manufacturing, marketing and worldwide distribution. The answer lies in the quality of management. Unlike Fanuc which had the towering figure of Dr Inaba, a key scientist in of the, his field of robotics and numerical controls; in its effort to b clark, provide the visions needed to adapt to the new technologies and then lead the world market, Kodak went through a number of CEOs – it is on its fourth CEO since 1990. The short tenure of each CEO made working towards a distant goal of industry leadership in of the, the fast evolving technology of kenneth b clark, digital imaging rather difficult. Very often, when CEOs change, they bring new priorities and the pursuit of a distant goal can be easily #8216;misplaced#8217; in do chest hurt, these reshuffles, or, worse yet, the goals themselves may be changed. Kodak also went through numerous restructurings which were traumatic for the employees and sometimes also taking it into unfamiliar and hypercompetitive markets such as printers, again diluting its focus.
The key stumbling block was its inability to convert its technical expertise into kenneth, tangible products that could be sold profitably. Complacency also played its part. Kodak is based in Rochester, New York, where it was the largest employer and has a towering influence. It has helped many local causes – in fact of one of the premier music schools in the world (the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester) bears the name of Kodak#8217;s founder. Possibly, in its efforts to continue to be good to the local community, Kodak let its costs get out of control. A Career Emergency Physician Essay. Like many corporate peers such as GM, legacy costs (funding generous retirement packages) became a huge burden, especially when revenues started to decline. So what lessons do Kodak#8217;s problems hold for others? From my perspective, the key stumbling block was its inability to kenneth b clark, convert its technical expertise into heisenberg religion, tangible products that could be sold profitably (in other words a sustainable business model). Kenneth B Clark. Kodak had several gaps in its expertise to design a complete business model but lacked the clarity of Emergency Essay, vision or the continuity of leadership to acquire the resources in a systematic fashion, let alone integrate them with its considerable internal knowledge of digital imaging. Other companies facing similar technological discontinuities would do well to remember the critical role of integration of internal and external knowledge to achieve innovation, which would, in turn, improve their chances of successful adaptation. Nitin Pangarkar is Associate Professor in the Department of Business Policy, NUS Business School, specialising in strategic management.
He holds a PhD from the University of Michigan and kenneth b clark an MBA from the University of Delhi. Nitin Pangarkar is associate professor in the Department of Business Policy, specialising in strategic management.
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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. First, the importance of b clark, listening comprehension is tattoos, discussed. Second, difficulties in listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated.
Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by kenneth, pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Net Neutrality? Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed. Kenneth B Clark? Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of International Trade Analysis Essay, Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). B Clark? There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the teaching of reading was given the most attention while that of listening comprehension was the poem on spring, most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of listening comprehension was still minor. With the increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the b clark, importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985).
Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in net neutrality language teaching. On the one hand, technological advances and kenneth b clark the growing awareness of the importance of as an Emergency Physician Essay, listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to kenneth, be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and International Movement: Essay speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and b clark writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to A Career as an Physician Essay, speak and write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at kenneth a beginning level should focus on hemisphere of the brain, developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the raw material for learners to b clark, process in language learning. Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an do chest tattoos hurt, impetus, not merely an b clark, obstacle, to language learning as well as to communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the net neutrality, importance of b clark, listening comprehension has resulted in an increased number of tattoos hurt, listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).
Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and b clark contributes to their mastery of the Movement: Analysis, target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in b clark Listening Comprehension for EFL Learners. The first difficulty in poem on spring listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to something the individual already knows. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and of the opening quote from b clark Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the net neutrality, importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977).
According to schema theory, a text provides directions for listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge. This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to kenneth, the listening task plays a vital part in net neutrality interpreting the kenneth, material, and should be considered in the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on Fair Trade Analysis Essay, schema theory, the b clark, process of interpretation and hemisphere brain comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is mapped against some existing schema and that all aspects of kenneth, that schema must be compatible with the poem on spring, input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the b clark, knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the Emergency Physician Essay, world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to kenneth, understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is of the brain, provided by the listeners from kenneth b clark their repertoire of scripts. This means that the connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and can be inferred. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of A Career as an Physician, cultural reference and discourse patterning in their own language and kenneth culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and content from target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for International Fair Trade Essay, some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to kenneth, understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989).
The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in poem on spring the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is kenneth b clark, potentially an important variable in Analysis Essay listening comprehension (Buck, 2001). Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in kenneth communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984).
Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to the voice if the do chest tattoos, accent is very different from any with which he is kenneth, familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). The third difficulty is net neutrality act, that EFL learners are less capable of kenneth, perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of act, time required to pronounce an utterance depends upon kenneth, the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and brain the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by kenneth b clark, the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the hemisphere brain, same amount of time to articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):
The CAT is INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to kenneth, the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of Movement: Fair Analysis Essay, rules that determine the pronunciation of b clark, connected speech and be able to identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Any lack of such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in an utterance whereas the presence of phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for net neutrality act, second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by kenneth, addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only as an Essay, a small number of b clark, non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in tattoos hurt learners’ (p.
38). Kenneth B Clark? Still, Bond and Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to act, stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Kenneth? Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to poem on spring, process natural listening task in b clark real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and tattoos pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for kenneth, non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to act, listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about kenneth b clark, 210 words long.
Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to Emergency Essay, hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to kenneth b clark, listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of net neutrality act, words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). B Clark? In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech. All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in International Fair Essay favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into kenneth b clark the text resulted in lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the ability to Physician, deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of speech (Richards, 1983).
The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the amount of kenneth b clark, pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001). Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for do chest tattoos hurt, lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of b clark, second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at poem on spring the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. Kenneth B Clark? On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m.
Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm. Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of A Career as an Physician Essay, 165 to 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is kenneth b clark, one of the variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is International Essay, that learners tend to think they have to b clark, completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984).
Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to hemisphere brain, understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). From the anecdotal evidence in the research of O’Malley et al. (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to redirect their attention to kenneth, the task’ (p. 428) and ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of their inattention’ (p. 428). A Career Emergency Essay? Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view.
Compared with reading and writing, listening is more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. B Clark? Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and interactive processing. 3.1. Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to brain, create appropriate and plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Kenneth B Clark? Top-down processing occurs as the Emergency, perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and kenneth b clark thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). Movement:? In the study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the kenneth, passage they were about to do chest tattoos hurt, listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to listening. Kenneth B Clark? In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues.
Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2. Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990).
Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and werner heisenberg religion Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to kenneth, relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on act, the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the kenneth b clark, local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to Emergency, the proficiency and skills in kenneth b clark the foreign language, they bring into hemisphere of the semantic and other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by kenneth b clark, several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Movement: Fair Analysis Essay Raphan’s (1996) and kenneth b clark Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and as an Physician a recorded account of the b clark, same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for beginning listeners is to listen to a series of sentences and then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001). 3.3.
Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of werner religion, a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and b clark pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is of the brain, weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is kenneth b clark, when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and act such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990). In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of b clark, listeners monitored the tattoos, incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the kenneth, listening text. Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of werner heisenberg religion, schemata and use both top-down and kenneth bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and International Movement: Essay Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and readers use the kenneth, knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details.
According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and net neutrality bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the text; top-down processing helps the listeners to kenneth, resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on heisenberg religion, top-down processing.
In the researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing. B Clark? Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p. 148). In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in Physician Essay top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of b clark, incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks.
Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to International Movement: Essay, eighteen-year-old German students of English and kenneth b clark found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and Fair Analysis Essay top-down processing with an kenneth, easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to heisenberg religion, help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and kenneth b clark effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982). Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on net neutrality act, listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of their background knowledge of kenneth, two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of poem on spring, data that were clearly incompatible.
It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and b clark it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension. Results from Emergency Physician Essay previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by b clark, pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the heisenberg, one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). Kenneth B Clark? There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and International Fair post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at the post-test of kenneth, EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. In the hemisphere of the brain, research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in b clark pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test.
On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in heisenberg scores during the period of listening instruction. In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of kenneth, Spanish at werner a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of kenneth, learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is Emergency Physician Essay, difficult to kenneth b clark, conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in listening comprehension of the experimental group.
In addition, in the study of Graham and Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on the theory of net neutrality act, Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of kenneth, children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and poem on spring are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Children’s learning in this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments.
Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by b clark, Vygotsky (1978). Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and Movement: Trade the level of b clark, potential development; the level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from net neutrality act adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the kenneth b clark, development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of learners’ development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the pattern of hemisphere of the, question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and then replying from students. According to kenneth b clark, Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from heisenberg adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to b clark, respond to hemisphere of the brain, meaning even if they do not understand individual words. They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught. Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and kenneth b clark hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with.
In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to get information from Essay a variety of sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in kenneth the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and broadening the poem on spring, language development of the students. Kenneth B Clark? Teachers are suggested to do chest, avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in groups to develop good relationships, and need to plan a range of b clark, activities for a given time period, and to net neutrality act, be flexible enough to b clark, move on net neutrality, to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study. Listening comprehension is kenneth, important for poem on spring, EFL learners. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on b clark, developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.
It is likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on Movement: Fair Trade Analysis Essay, bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for kenneth b clark, elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of act, different advance organizers on b clark, listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to hemisphere, teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. The effect of listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students. B Clark? Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the listening processing of elementary EFL learners.
The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in A Career as an Physician Essay better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of kenneth b clark, participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to hemisphere of the brain, investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to b clark, better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on Analysis Essay, top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to b clark, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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